Oxford English Dictionary [5, 2 ed.] - EBIN.PUB (2023)

THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY SECOND EDITION

THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY First Edited by JAMES A. H. MURRAY, HENRY BRADLEY, W. A. CRAIGIE and C. T. ONIONS COMBINED WITH

A SUPPLEMENT TO THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY Edited by R. W. BURCHFIELD AND RESET WITH CORRECTIONS, REVISIONS AND ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY

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Vv British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Oxford English dictionary. — 2nd ed. I. English language-Dictionaries I. Simpson, J. A. {John Andrew), igsgII. Weiner, Edmund S. C., igyo423

ISBN o-ig-861217-6 {vol. V) ISBN o-ig-86ii86-2 (set) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Oxford English dictionary. — 2nd ed. prepared by J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner Bibliography: p. ISBN o-ig-86i2iy-6 {vol. V) ISBN o-ig-86ii86-2 {set) English language—Dictionaries. I. Simpson, J. A. II. Weiner, E. S. C. HI. Oxford University Press.

I.

PE1625.087 ig8g 423 — dcig 88-5330

Data capture by ICC, Fort Washington, Pa. Text-processing by Oxford University Press Typesetting by Filmtype Services Ltd., Scarborough, N. Yorks. Manufactured in the United States of America by Rand McNally & Company, Taunton, Mass.

KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION The

pronunciations given are those in use in the educated speech of southern England (the so-called ‘Received

Standard’), and the keywords given are to be understood as pronounced in such speech.

I. Consonants b, d, f, k, 1, m, n, p, t, v, z have their usual English values g as in go (gsu) h ... ho\ (hao) r run (rAn), terrier ('t8ri3(r)) (r) ... her (h3:(r)) s see (si:), success (sak'ses) w ... wear (wea(r)) hw... when (hwsn) j ••• yes (jes)

0 as in thin (Bin), hath (ba:0) S . .. then (Sen), bat^e (beiS) J • .. shop (Jop), dish (dij) tj . .. chop (tjop), ditch (ditj) 3 ■ .. vision ('vi3an), de/euner (de30ne) d3 • .. judge (d3Ad3) 0 . .. singing ('sirjio), think (Biyk) 0g • .. finger ('fir)ga(r))

(foreign and non-southern)

^ as in It. serraglio (ser'raXo) ji ... Fr. co^wac (kojiak) X ... Ger. ach (ax), Sc. loch (Inx), Sp. fryoles (fri'xoles) 9 ... Ger. ich (19), Sc. nicht (ni9t) Y ... North Ger. sa^en ('zarysn) c ... Afrikaans baardmannet/ie ('bairtmansci) tl ... Fr. cuisine (kqizin)

Symbols in parentheses are used to denote elements that may be omitted either by individual speakers or in particular phonetic contexts; e.g. bottle ('bDt(3)l), Mercian ('m3;J(i)3n), suit (s(j)u:t), impromptu (im'prT)m(p)tju:),/ut/icr ('fa:S3(r)).

II. Vowels and Diphthongs SHORT

LONG

I as in pit (pit), -ness, (-nis) e pet (pet), Fr. sept (set) ae ... pat (past) A putt (pAt) D ... pot (pot) U ... put (pot) 9 ... another (a‘nASa(r)) (3) ... beaten ('bi:t(a)n) i ... Fr. SI (si) e Fr. hehe (bebe) Fr. mari (mari) a a ... Fr. bdtiment (batima) D ... Fr. homme (am) 0 ... Fr. eau (0) 0 ... Fr. peu (po) oe ... Fr. boeuf (beef) coeur (kcer) u ... Fr. douce (dus) Y ... Ger. Muller ('mvlar)

i: as a: . 0: . u: . 3: . e: . 81 . a: . 0: . 0: .

y

in .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. y: • ..

DIPHTHONGS, etc.

bean barn born boon burn Ger. Ger. Ger. Ger. Ger. Ger.

(bi:n) (ba:n) (ba:n) (bum) (b3:n) Schnee (Jne:) Fahre ('fe:ra) Tag (ta:k) Sohn (zo:n) Goethe (’goita) griin (grym)

ei as in ai ... DI ... 9U . . . au ... 13 ... 83 ... 03 . . . 33 ...

bay (bei) buy (bai) boy (bai) no (nau) now (nau) peer (pia(r)) pair (pea(r)) tour (tua(r)) boar (baa(r))

aia as in fiery (’faian) ao3 ... sour (saua(r))

NASAL

e, X as in Fr. fm (fe, f®) a . Fr. franc (fro) Fr. bon (ba) 5 . Fr. un (ffi) de .

Fr. du (dy)

The incidence of main stress is shown by a superior stress mark (') preceding the stressed syllable, and a secondary st mark (,), e.g. pronunciation (pra,nAnsi'eiJ(a)n). For further explanation of the transcription used, see General Explanations, Volume I.

891883

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, SIGNS, ETC Some abbreviations listed here in italics are also in certain cases printed in roman type, and vice versa. a. (in Etym.) a (as a 1850) a. abbrev. abl. absol. Abstr. acc. Acct. A.D.

ad. (in Etym.) Add. adj. Adv. adv. advb. Advt. Aeronaut. AF., AFr. Afr. Agric. Alb. Amer. Amer. Ind. Anat. Anc. Anglo-Ind. Anglo-Ir. Ann. Anthrop., Anthropol. Antiq. aphet. app. Appl. Applic. appos. Arab. Aram. Arch. arch. Archasol. Archit. Arm. assoc. Astr. Astrol. Astr on. Astronaut. attrib. Austral. Autobiogr. A.V. B.C.

B.C. bef. Bibliogr. Biochem. Biol. Bk. Bot. Bp. Brit. Bulg.

adoption of, adopted from ante, ‘before’, ‘not later than’ adjective abbreviation (of) ablative absolute, -ly (in titles) Abstract, -s accusative (in titles) Account Anno Domini adaptation of Addenda adjective (in titles) Advance, -d, -s adverb adverbial, -ly advertisement (as label) in Aeronautics; (in titles) Aeronautic, -al, -s Anglo-French Africa, -n (as label) in Agriculture; (in titles) Agriculture, -al Albanian American American Indian (as label) in Anatomy; (in titles) Anatomy, -ical (in titles) Ancient Anglo-Indian Anglo-Irish Annals (as label) in Anthropology; (in titles) Anthropology, -ical (as label) in Antiquities; (in titles) Antiquity aphetic, aphetized apparently (in titles) Applied (in titles) Application, -s appositive, -ly Arabic Aramaic in Architecture archaic in Archaeology (as label) in Architecture; (in titles) Architecture, -al Armenian association in Astronomy in Astrology (in titles) Astronomy, -ical (in titles) Astronautic, -s attributive, -ly Australian (in titles) Autobiography, -ical Authorized Version Before Christ (in titles) British Columbia before (as label) in Bibliography; (in titles) Bibliography, -ical (as label) in Biochemistry; (in titles) Biochemistry, -ical (as label) in Biology; (in titles) Biology, -ical Book (as label) in Botany; (in titles) Botany, -ical Bishop (in titles) Britain, British Bulgarian

Bull.

(in titles) Bulletin

Diet.

c (as c 1700) c. (as 19th c.) Cal. Cambr. Canad. Cat. catachr. Catal. Celt. Cent. Cent. Diet. Cf., cf. Ch. Chem.

circa, ‘about’ century (in titles) Calendar (in titles) Cambridge Canadian Catalan catachrestically (in titles) Catalogue Celtic (in titles) Century, Central Century Dictionary confer, ‘compare’ Church (as label) in Chemistry; (in titles) Chemistry, -ical (in titles) Christian (in titles) Chronicle (in titles) Chronology, -ical

dim. Dis. Diss. D.O.S.T.

in Cinematography (in titles) Clinical classical Latin cognate with (in titles) Colonel, Colony (in titles) Collection collective, -ly colloquial, -ly combined, -ing Combinations in Commercial usage in Communications compound, composition (in titles) Companion comparative complement (in titles) Complete (in titles) Concise in Conchology concrete, -ly (in titles) Conference (in titles) Congress conjunction consonant construction, construed with contrast (with) (in titles) Contribution (in titles) Correspondence corresponding (to) R. Cotgrave, Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues compound (in titles) Criticism, Critical in Crystallography (in titles) Cyclopaedia, -ic (in titles) Cytology, -ical

EE. e.g. Electr.

Chr. Chron. Chronol. Cinemat., Cinematogr. Clin. cl. L. cogn. w. Col. Coll. collect. colloq. comb. Comb. Comm. Communic. comp. Compan. compar. compl. Compl. Cone. Conch. concr. Conf. Congr. conj. cons. const. contr. Contrib. Corr. corresp. Cotgr.

cpd. Crit. Cryst. Cycl. Cytol.

Du. E. Eccl.

Ecol. Econ. ed. E.D.D. Edin. Educ.

Electron. Elem. ellipt. Embryol. e.midl. Encycl. Eng. Engin. Ent. Entomol. erron. esp. Ess. et al. etc. Ethnol. etym. euphem. Exam. exc. Exerc. Exper. Explor. f. f. (in Etym.) f. (in subordinate entries) F. fern, (rarely f.) figFinn.

fl. Da. D.A. D.A.E. dat. D.C. Deb. def. dem. deriv. derog. Descr. Devel. Diagn. dial.

Danish Dictionary of Americanisms Dictionary of American English dative District of Columbia (in titles) Debate, -s definite, -ition demonstrative derivative, -ation derogatory (in titles) Description, -tive (in titles) Development, -al (in titles) Diagnosis, Diagnostic dialect, -al

Found. Fr. freq. Fris. Fund. Funk or Funk’s Stand. Diet. G. Gael. Gaz. gen. gen. Geogr.

Dictionary; spec., the Oxford English Dictionary diminutive (in titles) Disease (in titles) Dissertation Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue Dutch East (as label) in Ecclesiastical usage; (in titles) Ecclesiastical in Ecology (as label) in Economics; (in titles) Economy, -ics edition English Dialect Dictionary (in titles) Edinburgh (as label) in Education; (in titles) Education, -al Early English exempli gratia, ‘for example’ (as label) in Electricity; (in titles) Electricity, -ical (in titles) Electronic, -s (in titles) Element, -ary elliptical, -ly in Embryology east midland (dialect) (in titles) Encyclopaedia, -ic England, English in Engineering in Entomology (in titles) Entomology, -logical erroneous, -ly especially (in titles) Essay, -s et alii, ‘and others’ et cetera in Ethnology etymology euphemistically (in titles) Examination except (in titles) Exercise, -s (in titles) Experiment, -al (in titles) Exploration, -s feminine formed on form of French feminine figurative, -ly Finnish floruit, ‘flourished’ (in titles) Foundation, -s French frequent, -ly Frisian (in titles) Fundamental, -s Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary German Gaelic (in titles) Gazette genitive general, -ly (as label) in Geography; (in titles) Geography, -ical

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, SIGNS, ETC. Geol. Geom. Geomorphol. Ger. Gloss. Gmc. Godef.

Goth. Govt. Gr. Gram. Gt. Heb. Her. Herb. Hind. Hist. hist. Histol. Hort. Househ. Housek. Ibid. Icel. Ichthyol. id. i.e. IE. lllustr. imit. Immunol. imp. impers. impf. ind. indef. Industr. inf. infl. Inorg. Ins. Inst. int. intr. Introd. Ir. irreg. It.

(as label) in Geology; (in titles) Geology, -ical in Geometry in Geomorphology German Glossary Germanic F. Godefroy, Dictionnaire de Vancienne langue franfaise Gothic (in titles) Government Greek (as label) in Grammar; (in titles) Grammar, -tical Great Hebrew in Heraldry among herbalists Hindustani (as label) in History; (in titles) History, -ical historical (in titles) Histology, -ical in Horticulture (in titles) Household (in titles) Housekeeping Ibidem, ‘in the same book or passage’ Icelandic in Ichthyology idem, ‘the same’ id est, ‘that is’ Indo-European (in titles) Illustration, -ted imitative in Immunology imperative impersonal imperfect indicative indefinite (in titles) Industry, -ial infinitive influenced (in titles) Inorganic (in titles) Insurance (in titles) Institute, -tion interjection intransitive (in titles) Introduction Irish irregular, -ly Italian

(Jam.) Jap. joc. Jrnl. Jun.

(quoted from) Johnson’s Dictionary Jamieson, Scottish Diet. Japanese jocular, -ly (in titles) Journal (in titles) Junior

Knowl.

(in titles) Knowledge

1. L. lang. Lect. Less. Let., Lett. LG. lit. Lit. Lith. LXX

line Latin language (in titles) Lecture, -s (in titles) Lesson, -s letter, letters Low German literal, -ly Literary Lithuanian Septuagint

m. Mag. Magn. Mai. Man. Managem. Manch. Manuf. Mar.

masculine (in titles) Magazine (in titles) Magnetic, -ism Malay, Malayan (in titles) Manual (in titles) Management (in titles) Manchester in Manufacture, -ing (in titles) Marine

J-, (J.)

masc. {rarely m.) Math. MDu. ME. Mech. Med. med.L. Mem. Metaph. Meteorol. MHG. midi. Mil. Min. Mineral. MLG. Misc. mod. mod.L (Morris), Mus.

My St. Mythol. N. n. N. Amer. N. Gf Q. Narr. Nat. Nat. Hist. Naut. N.E. N.E.D.

Neurol. neut. {rarely n.) NF., NFr. No. nom. north. Norw. n.q. N.T. Nucl. Numism. N.W. N.Z. obj. obi. Obs., obs. Obstetr. occas. OE.

masculine (as label) in Mathematics; (in titles) Mathematics, -al Middle Dutch Middle English (as label) in Mechanics; (in titles) Mechanics, -al (as label) in Medicine; (in titles) Medicine, -ical medieval Latin (in titles) Memoir, -s in Metaphysics (as label) in Meteorology; (in titles) Meteorology, -ical Middle High German midland (dialect) in military usage (as label) in Mineralogy; (in titles) Ministry (in titles) Mineralogy, -ical Middle Low German (in titles) Miscellany, -eous modern modern Latin (quoted from) E. E. Morris’s Austral English (as label) in Music; (in titles) Music, -al; Museum (in titles) Mystery in Mythology North neuter North America, -n Notes and Queries (in titles) Narrative (in titles) Natural in Natural History in nautical language North East New English Dictionary, original title of the Oxford English Dictionary (first edition) in Neurology neuter Northern French Number nominative northern (dialect) Norwegian no quotations New Testament Nuclear in Numismatics North West New Zealand

OS. OSl. O.T. Outl. Oxf.

object oblique obsolete (in titles) Obstetrics occasionally Old English (= Anglo-Saxon) Old French Old Frisian Old High German Old Irish Old Norse Old Northern French in Ophthalmology opposed (to), the opposite (of) in Optics (in titles) Organic origin, -al, -ally (as label) in Ornithology; (in titles) Ornithology, -ical Old Saxon Old (Church) Slavonic Old Testament (in titles) Outline (in titles) Oxford

PPalseogr.

page in Palaeography

OF., OFr. OFris. OHG. OIr. ON. ONF. Ophthalm. opp. Opt. Org. orig. Ornith.

Palseont.

Publ.

(as label) in Palaeontology; (in titles) Palaeontology, -ical passive participle, past participle (quoted from) E. Partridge’s Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English passive, -ly past tense (as label) in Pathology; (in titles) Pathology, -ical perhaps Persian person, -al in Petrography (as label) in Petrology; (in titles) Petrology, -ical (quoted from) C. Pettman’s Africanderisms perfect Portuguese in Pharmacology (as label) in Philology; (in titles) Philology, -ical (as label) in Philosophy; (in titles) Philosophy, -ic phonetic, -ally (as label) in Photography; (in titles) Photography, -ical phrase physical; (rarely) in Physiology (as label) in Physiology; (in titles) Physiology, -ical (in titles) Picture, Pictorial plural poetic, -al Polish (as label) in Politics; (in titles) Politics, -al in Political Economy (in titles) Politics, -al popular, -ly (in titles) Porcelain possessive (in titles) Pottery participial adjective participle Provencal present (in titles) Practice, -al preceding (word or article) predicative prefix preface preposition present (in titles) Principle, -s privative probably (in titles) Problem (in titles) Proceedings pronoun pronunciation properly in Prosody Provencal present participle in Psychology (as label) in Psychology; (in titles) Psychology, -ical (in titles) Publications

Qquot(s). q.v.

(in titles) Quarterly quotation(s) quod vide, ‘which see’

R. Radiol. R.C.Ch. Rec. redupl. Ref. refash. refl. Reg.

(in titles) Royal in Radiology Roman Catholic Church (in titles) Record reduplicating (in titles) Reference refashioned, -ing reflexive (in titles) Register

pa. pple. (Partridge),

pass. pa.t. Path. perh. Pers. pers. Petrogr. Petrol. (Pettman), pf. Pg. Pharm. Philol. Philos. phonet. Photogr. phr. Phys. Physiol. Piet. pi., plur. poet. Pol. Pol Pol. Econ. Polit. pop. Pore. poss. Pott. ppl. a., pple. adj. pple. Pr. pr. Pract. prec. pred. pref. pref., Pref. prep. pres. Princ. priv. prob. ProbL Proc. pron. pronunc. prop. Pros. Prov. pr. pple. Psych. Psychol.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, SIGNS, ETC. reg. rel. Reminisc. Rep. repr. Res. Rev. rev. Rhet. Rom. Rum. Russ. S. S.Afr. sb. sc. Sc., Scot. Scand. Sch. Sc. Nat. Diet. Scot! Sel. Ser. sing. Sk. Skr. Slav. S.N.D. Soc. Social. Sp. Sp. sp. spec. Spec. St. Stand. Stanf,

regular related to (in titles) Reminiscence, -s (in titles) Report, -s representative, representing (in titles) Research (in titles) Review revised in Rhetoric Roman, -ce, -ic Rumanian Russian ' South South Africa, -n substantive scilicet, ‘understand’ or ‘supply’ Scottish (in titles) Scandinavia, -n (in titles) School Scottish National Dictionary (in titles) Scotland (in titles) Selection, -s Series singular (in titles) Sketch Sanskrit Slavonic Scottish National Dictionary (in titles) Society (as label) in Sociology; (in titles) Sociology, -ical Spanish (in titles) Speech, -es spelling specifically (in titles) Specimen Saint (in titles) Standard (quoted from) Stanford Dictionary of Anglicised Words & Phrases

str. Struct. Stud. subj. subord. cl. subseq. subst. suff. super!. Suppl. Surg. s.v. Sw. s.w. Syd. Soc. Lex.

syll. Syr. Syst. Taxon. techn. Technol. Telegr. Teleph. (Th.), Theatr. Theol. Theoret. Tokh. tr., transl. Trans. trans. transf. Trav. Treas. Treat. Treatm. Trig.

strong (in titles) Structure, -al dn titles) Studies subject subordinate clause subsequent, -ly substantively suffix superlative Supplement (as label) in Surgery; (in titles) Surgery, Surgical sub voce, ‘under the word’ Swedish south-western (dialect) Sydenham Society, Lexicon of Medicine & Allied Sciences syllable Syrian (in titles) System, -atic (in titles) Taxonomy, -ical technical, -ly (in titles) Technology, -ical in Telegraphy in Telephony (quoted from) Thornton’s American Glossary in the Theatre, theatrical (as label) in Theology; (in titles) Theology, -ical (in titles) Theoretical Tokharian translated, translation (in titles) Transactions transitive transferred sense (in titles) Travel(s) (in titles) Treasury (in titles) Treatise (in titles) Treatment in Trigonometry

Trap. Turk. Typog., Typogr.

(in titles) Tropical Turkish in Typography

ult. Univ. unkn. U.S. U.S.S.R.

ultimately (in titles) University unknown United States Union of Soviet Socialist Republics usually

usu. V., vb.

var(r)., vars. vbl. sb. Vertebr. Vet.

Vet. Sci. viz. Voy. v.str. vulg. v.w. W. wd. Webster Westm. WGmc. Wks. w.midl. WS. (Y.), Yrs. Zoogeogr. Zool.

verb variant(s) of verbal substantive (in titles) Vertebrate, -s (as label) in Veterinary Science; (in titles) Veterinary in Veterinary Science videlicet, ‘namely’ (in titles) Voyage, -s strong verb vulgar weak verb Welsh; West word Webster’s (New International) Dictionary (in titles) Westminster West Germanic (in titles) Works west midland (dialect) West Saxon (quoted from) Yule & Burnell’s Hobson-Jobson (in titles) Years in Zoogeography (as label) in Zoology; (in titles) Zoology, -ical

Signs and Other Conventions In the listing of Forms

Before a word or sense

I 3 3 5-7 20

t = obsolete 11 = not naturalized, alien ^ = catachrestic and erroneous uses

= = = = =

before I 100 I2th c. (i 100 to 1200) 13th c. (1200 to 1300), etc. isth to 17th century 20th century

In the etymologies * indicates a word or form not actually found, but of which the existence is inferred :— = normal development of

The printing of a word in small capitals indicates that further information will be found under the word so referred to. .. indicates an omitted part of a quotation. -

(in a quotation) indicates a hyphen doubtfully present in the original; (in other text) indicates a hyphen inserted only for the sake of a line-break.

PROPRIETARY NAMES This Dictionary includes some words which are or are asserted to be proprietary names or trade marks. Their

inclusion does not imply that they have acquired for legal purposes a non-proprietary or general significance nor any other judgement concerning their legal status. In cases where the editorial staff have established in the records of the Patent Offices of the United Kingdom and of the United States that a word is registered as a proprietary name or trade mark this is indicated, but no judgement concerning the legal status of such words is made or implied thereby.

DVANDVA dvandva (’dvandva).

Philol. Also dwandwa. [Skr. dvandva, the repeated nom. of dva pair, couple.] In full dvandva compound. A compound word in which the elements are related to each other as if joined by a copula.

dwaum. [orig. dwalm, a deriv. of the verbal ablaut series mentioned under dwell: cf. OE. dwolma confusion, chaos, abyss, OHG. twalm, MDu. dwelm stunning, stupefaction, giddiness, OS. dwalm delusion.] A swoon, a fainting fit.

1846 Monier Williams Elem. Gram. Sanscr. ix. 158 Native grammarians class compound nouns under .. dwandwa, or those formed by the aggregation into one compound of two or more nouns.. which, if uncompounded, they would all be in the same case, connected by a copulative conjunction [etc.]. 1932 W. L. Graff Lang. Sf Languages iii. 119 A dvandva compound is one in which the relationship between the two constituents may be rendered by the conjunction and\ for example, prince-consort. 1946 Trans. Philol. Soc. 1945 86 The compound silohcha- then came to be misunderstood as a dvandva. 1962 A. Campbell in Davis & Wrenn Eng. ^ Medieval Stud. 18 The lays seem to have preserved the dvandva compound, a type otherwise unknown in Germanic.

1500-20 Dunbar Poems Ixxiv. 17 Sic deidlie dwawmes so mischeifaislie.. hes my hairt ouirpast. 1566 Let. 23 Oct. in Keith Hist. Ch. fef St. Scotl. ii. App. (1734) 133 Hir Majestic.. hes had sum Dwaumes of Swouning, quhilk puttis Men in sum Feir. a 1774 Fergusson Cauler Water Poems (1845) 25 Though .. ony inward dwaam should seize us. 1816 Scott Old Mort. xxxix, ‘Sae he fell out o’ ae dwam into another.’ 1837 R. Nicoll Poems (1842) 151 Last Sabbath, as I sang the Psalm, I fell into an unco dwaum. 1892 Northumbld. Gloss., Dwalm, a slight illness, a faint fit. (Also in Glossaries of E. Yorkshire.)

dvornik ('dvomik).

1500-20 Dunbar Poems xxvii. 50 His hairt a littill dwamyng tuke. 1513 Douglas /Eneis in. v. 55 3it thus, at last said eftir hir dwalmyng. 1576 Trial Eliz. Dunlop in P.H. Brown Scot. bef. 1700 (1893) 212 That causit hir to dwam. 1892 Northumbld. Gloss, s.v.. Ah dwalmed off to sleep. 1895 Ian Maclaren Bonnie Brier Bush 31 He begood to dwam in the end of the year.

[Russ, courtyard.] A house-porter.

DWARF

I

dvornik,

f.

dvor

1903 Westm. Gaz. 17 Jan. 10/1 The duties of the dvorniks, a sort of assistant police. 1919 H. S. Walpole Secret City i. xxii. 160, I said good-night to every one. I could hear their laughter as I waited at the bottom of the stairs for the Dvornik to let me out. 1923 Blackw. Mag. Feb. 203/2 The ‘dvornik’ had been with the family for years.

dwa-grass: see twa-grass. fdwale, sb.^ and a. Ohs. Forms: a. i dweola, dwola, dwala, 3 dwole, dwale, 3-4 duale. [In sense i, a variant of dwele sb.y = OE. ’*dwela, dzueoloy dwolCy dwala., error, heresy, madness; in sense 2 app. aphetic for OE. ^edweola, -dwola, etc. error, heresy, madness, also heretic, deceiver; f. ablaut-series dwel-, dwal-, dwol-: see DWELL V. Cf. OE. dwol- in comb, ‘erring, heretical’, and Goth, dwals ‘foolish’.] 1. Error, delusion; deceit, fraud. [^900 tr. Bseda's Hist. ii. xii. [xv.j (1890) 142 Seo maegd t^reo sear in gedwolan waes lifiende.] ^950 Lindisf. Gosp. Matt, xxvii. 64 And bi6 8in hlaetmesto duola wyrse from «rra. C975 Rushw. Gosp. Matt. vi. 24 Ne magun ge gode Seowige Sc dwale. is wreched werld fra sinful duale. Ibid. 14197 Qua walkes on nightertale O dreching oft he findes duale.

2. Heretic, deceiver, transgressor. [c 1000 i^LFRic Horn. (Th.) I. 290 forwearS eac )?es jedwola mid his jedwylde. ciooo Blickl. Horn. 7 ealdan jedwolan (= Satan).] c 1200 Ormin 7454 Off all l?iss laj^e laeredd folic.. Wass ma33stredwale, an defless |>eww, J>at Arriuss wass nemmnedd. a 1250 Prov. .Alfred 414 in O.E. Misc. 126 Ne myd manyes cunnes tales; ne chid Jju wij? nenne dwales. C1250 Gen. ^ Ex. 1220 Til god him bad is wiues tale Listen, and don a-wei 8at dwale. Ibid. 3404 letro listnede moyses tale, Of him and pharaon 8e dwale.

3. attrib. or adj. Heretical, perverse. c 1250 Gen. & Ex. 20 Lucifer, Sat deuel dwale.

4. Comb., as dwal-kenned a., heretical. c 1200 Ormin 7441 b^tt Jjurrh dwallkennde lare Tahhtenn & turrndenn lawedd folic To lefenn wrang o Criste.

dwale (dwell), sb.^ Also 6-7 dwall, 7 dwaile. [prob. from Scandinavian: cf. ON. dvdl, dvalar, delay, dvali (Haldors.) delay, sleep, Sw. dvala trance. Da. dvale dead sleep, trance, torpor, dvaledrik soporiferous draught, dvalebser narcotic berry; from same root as dwale ^6.*] fl. A stupefying or soporific drink. Obs. (Prob. in many instances, the juice or infusion of Belladonna: see 2.) a 1300 Cursor M. 26323 (Cott.) Lech pnt suld.. giue him for to drinc duale. C1340 Ibid. 17708 (Trin.) Jjei tel as pei had dronken dwale. C1386 Chaucer Reeve's T. 241 Hem neded no dwale. This Millere hath so wisely bibbed Ale. 1393 Langl. P. pi. C. XXIII. 379 The frere with his fisik bis folke hab enchaunted, And dob men drynke dwale. c 1480 Crt. of Love 998 Aryse anon, quod she, whate? have ye dronken dwale? 1585 Lupton Thous. Notable Th. (1675) 73 Dwale .. makes one to sleep while he is cut, or burned by cauterizing, 1606 Breton Ourania M ij. As one receiving Opium or Dwall, Deprived of vital sence doth deadly fall.

2. The Deadly Nightshade, Atropa Bella¬ donna. In early use sometimes applied to a species of Winter Cherry (Physalis somnifera), and perhaps to other plants of similar properties. 14.. Receipts in Rel. Ant. I. 324 For to take alle maner of byrdys., take juse of dwale and menche the come theryn; and ley yt ther the byrdes hawnten, and wher they have eten therof, they shalle slepe. C1440 Promp. Parv. 134/1 Dwale, herbe, morella sompnifera, vet mortifera. 1538 Turner Libellus, Dwale, Solanum soporiferum. 1552 HuLOET, Dwale, herbe hauynge a redde berrye within a bladder lyke a cherye, alkakengi. 1597 Gerarde Herbal II. li. §1. 269 Dwale or sleeping nightshade hath round blackish stalks sixe foote high. 1608 R. Johnson Seven Champ, ii. M iv, As heavy a sleepe as if they had drunke the juyce of dwaile or the seede of poppie, 1861 Miss Pratt Flower. PI. IV. 71 Dwale, or Deadly Nightshade.

fS. In Her. sometimes used for sable. Obs. 1562 Leigh Armorie (1597) loob, For Azure, perwinke: for Sable, dwale. 1727-51 Chambers Cycl., Dwale, or dwal in heraldry., used by such as blazon with flowers and herbs, instead of colours and metals, for sable, or black.

dwalm, dwam (dwa:m), sb. Sc. and north, dial. Forms: 6-9 dwawm, 8 dwaam, 9 dwam, dwalm.

dwalm, dwam, v.

Sc. and north, dial. [f. DWALM s6.] intr. To faint, swoon; to become unconscious; also, to sicken or fail in health.

dwang (dwaei)).

Sc. [cf. Du. dwang force, compulsion, constraint, f. dwingen to force.] 1842-76 Gwilt Encycl. Archit. Gloss, Dwang, a term used in Scotland to denote the short pieces of timber employed in strutting a floor.

dwarf (dwarf), sb. and a.

PI. -fs; Forms: a. i duerj, dweorg, dweorh, 2 dwaeruh, 4 dweru3, 4-5 dwer3(e, 5 dwergh, dwargh(e, duergh, dwerk, 56 Sc. duerch(e, dorche, droich. jS. 4 dweruf, 4-5 dwerf(e, dwerff(e, (dwrfe), 5-7 dwarfe, 6-7 dwarff(e, 7 dwearf, 5- dwarf, y. 4 duerwe, durwe, dwarw, 5 dwerwh(e, dwerwe, dwerowe, duorow. 8. 5 dwery, duery, dueri. [Comm. Teut.: OE. dweors, dweorh (:—dwerg), = OFris. dwirg, OLG. (MDu. dwerch, Du. dwerg, MLG. dwerch, dwarch, LG. dwark, dwarf (Brem. Wbch.), dorf), OHG. twerg (MHG. twerc, Ger. zwerg), ON. dvergr, (Sw’., Da. dverg):—OTeut. *dwergo-z:—Aryan type *dhwerg^hos, rep¬ resented phonetically in Gr. by aepfos (:—*Tf€p(^os) ‘midge’. In English the word shows interesting phonetic processes: (i) the original guttural and vowel came down in Sc. duerch, duergh (whence dorch, and by metathesis droich). (2) In Eng. dweors became regularly dwarf (eor—: ar as in bark; ^—: / as in enough, draft). But (3) the pi. dweor^as became dwerwhes, dwerwes, dwerows, dwarrows; and (4) the inflected form dweor^e- gave dwerfhe, dweryhe, dwerye, dwery. From these, by ‘levelling’, arose corresponding forms of the nom. sing. Parallel forms appear in bargh, barf, barrow, burrow, berry, from OE. beor^ (:—berg) hill, and burgh, borough, burrow, bury, Brough, (burf, bruf), from OE.iurj town.] A. sb. 1. a. A human being much below the ordinary stature or size; a pygmy. a. ayoo Epinal Gloss. 686 Nanus vel pumilio, duerj [so Erfurt and Cott.^. a8oo Erfurt Gloss. 1176 Humiliamanus, duerh. c 1050 Supp. jElfric's Voc. in Wr.-Wulcker 190/17 Pygmaeus.. dweor^. ii.. Semi-Sax. Voc. ibid. 539/20 Nanus, dwseruh. 13.. Sir Beues 2526 (MS. A.) Eueri man me clepede dweru3. c 1400 Maundev. (Roxb.) xxxii. 147 J?ai er lytiil, lyke dwerghs. a 1400-50 Alexander 1752 Slike a dwinyng, a dwaje & a dwerje as pi-selfe, A grub, a grege out of grace, c 1450 Holland Howlat 650 That wretchit dorche. 1460 Lybeaus Disc. 481 (Matz.) The dwerk Teondeleyn Tok the stede be the rayne. 1483 Cath. Angl. 111/2 A Dwarghe, tantillus. 1508 Kennedie Flyting w. Dunbar 395 Duerch [v.r. derch], I sail ding the. )3. C1325 Gloss W. de Biblesw. in Wright Voc. 167 Neym, a dwarw (dweruf). 1387 Trevisa Higden (Rolls) I. 231 A dwerf of pe kynrede of Mesenis. Ibid. IV. 301. C1400 Maundev. (1839) viii. 98 3acheus the Dwerf, that clomb up in to the Sycomour Tre. 14.. Now. in Wr.-Wulcker 689/14 Hie tantillus, a dwarf, a 1450 Le Morte Arth. 2058 A dwerffe shulde wende by hyr syde. 1590 Spenser F.Q. 1. i. 6 Behind her farre away a Dwarfe did lag. 1668 Wood Life 24 July, Edward Price, dwarff, belonging to Mert. Coll., buried. 1711 Addison Sped. No. 99 f5 The Damsel..to avoid Scandal, must have a Dwarf for her Page. 1843-46 Grove Corr. Phys. Forces 3 If a dwarf on the shoulders of a giant can see further than the giant, he is no less a dwarf in comparison with the giant. fig- 1707 Norris Humility v. 197 A dwarf in goodness. y. 13.. K. Alis. 6266 Durwes al so he bysette Thikke and senort and gud sette. CI320 Sir Tristr. 2062 pe duerwe ysei3e her ginne J>er he sat in pe tre. C1440 Promp. Parv. 134/2 Dwerowe {K. dwerwh, H., P. dwerwe, W. dwerfe), nanus. CI475 Piet. Voc. in Wr.-Wulcker 806/9 Hie omunculus, a duorow. 8. 1412-20 Lydg. Chron. Troy iv. xxxiii. (ed. 1555), No dwery is but lyke a gyaunt longe. 1430-40-Bochas iii. i. (MS. Rawl. C 448 If. 63a/i) But it may falle a dwery [ed. *554. 7ob/2 Drewry] in his riht Toutraie a geaunt for al his gret myht. Ibid. vi. i. viii. (MS. Bodl. 263 If. 298) Now as a crepil lowe coorbed doun. Now a duery [MS. Rawl. C 448 If. 123 a, dueri] and now a Champioun.

b. One of a supposed race of diminutive beings, who figure in Teutonic and esp. Scandinavian mythology and folk-lore; often

identified with the elves, and supposed to be endowed with special skill in working metals, etc. 1770 Bp. Percy tr. Mallet's North. Antiq. v. (1847) 98 They made of his skull the vault of heaven, which is supported by four dwarfs, named North, South, East, and West. 1818 W. Taylor in Monthly Mag. XLVI. 26 The history of Laurin, king of the dwarves. 1834 Lytton Pilgrims of Rhine xxvi, The aged King of the Dwarfs that preside over the dull realms of lead. 1846 J. E. Taylor Fairy Ring Notes 363 The notion that the wicked elves or dwarfs had the power to steal children before their baptism is found also.. in Iceland.

2. a. An animal or plant much below the ordinary height or size of its kind or species. 1664 Evelyn Kal. Hort. (1729) 222 The Crab-stock for Standards: For Dwarfs Stocks of the Paradise or SweetApple-Kemel. 1719 London & Wise Compl. Gard. 113 The Beauty of Dwarfs consists in a low Stem, an open Head. 1785 Martyn Rousseau's Bot. xiv. 158 You will be glad to entertain this pretty dwarf [the Persian Iris]. 1880 Miss Bird Japan I. 170 The wistaria.. As a dwarf, it covers the hills and roadsides, and as an aggressive liana it climbs the tallest trees.

b. Astr. One of the class of smaller stars of greater density as distinguished from the larger diffuse stars or ‘giants’; without qualification or as dwarf star the term usu. denotes a star of the class comprising the majority of main-sequence stars (including the sun), as distinguished from a white dwarf {white a.). 1912 [see giant B. ic]. 1913 Observatory Aug. 326 One can predict the real brightness of a dwarf star from a knowledge of its spectrum. 1921 Discovery Sept. 236/1 After this stage is reached and the star attains a certain density, it falls off rapidly in temperature, and becomes a cooling dwarf. 1956 H. S. Jones in A. Pryce-Jones New Outl. Mod. Know! II. 114 Other stars are so small that their diameters are less than one-hundredth of the Sun’s. Such stars are called dwarfs. 1968 P. Moore Sky At Night II. xxix. 214 It used to be thought that a typical star.. would end its career as a feeble Red Dwarf.

3. attrib. and Comb., as dvaarf-armour, -king; dwarf-voorked (wrought by the dwarfs) adj. eij freris prech of heuen and helle.. al pat him penchit bot dwelle. o 1350 Life Jesu 149 (Matz.) It nis bote dwele.

fdwele, u. Obs. Forms: i dwelian, dwelisan, 2-4 dwele. [OE. dwelian {dweolian, dwolian), app.:—*dwel6jan, f. e-grade of ablaut series dwel-, dwal-, dwol-: see dwell.] 1. intr. To wander, go astray; to err, be deluded. C9z.xt ani3 shollde dwellenn Ne drajhenn nohht fra da33 to da33. Ibid. 13218 [He] Ne dwalde nohht to ki)?enn himm. J>att god tatt himm was awwnedd. c 1300 [see dwelling i]. a 1325 Prose Psalter xliii[i]. 25 Arise v^ Lord; whi dwellestou? c 1386 Chaucer Nun's Pr. T. 330 Thilke tale is al to longe for to telle, And eek it is ny day, I may nat dwelle. 1470-85 Malory Arthur XI. vii, I drede we dwelle ouer longe from the sege.

small dwarf; a pygmy. Also attrib.

t3. intr. To tarry, delay; to desist from action.

a

dwarf-man. [f. dwarfs/?, and a. + man sb.^] A very small man; a dwarf. 1877 Encycl. Brit. VII. 568/2 The dwarf man.. was less attractive than the dwarf boy. 1922 Joyce Ulysses 380 It was upheld by four dwarfmen of that country. 1955 Tolkien Return of King 202 A sort of small dwarf-man.

'dwarfness.

[f. dwarf sb. + -ness.] quality of being a dwarf; diminutiveness.

The

1658 J. Robinson Eudoxa Pref. 3 Neither the meannesse of the Superficies, nor dwarfnesse of the Bulk, a 1661 Fuller Worthies i. (1662) 116 His Expression, little Cleark .. referred not to his stature, but dwarfness in learning. 1880 P. Gillmore On Duty 147 Peach, apple, and walnuttrees, the dwarfness of which did not take away from the general dreariness.

4. To abide or continue for a time, in a place, state, or condition. Obs. or arch. C1200 Ormin 5576 Himm reowej?]? |?att he dwelle|?j> her Swa swijje lange onn eor]>e. ai^oo Cursor M. 17288 + 393 Sir, dwelle withe vus, for it is nerhand night, c 1380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 318 Crist duelled in preyere al pe ny3t. 01483 Liber Niger in Househ. Ord. 66 If any sergeaunt.. dwelle in arerages, he to be sent into the ward of Marchalcye. 1550 Crowley Epigr. 26 They be determined styll in their synne to dwell. 1596 Shaks. Merch. V. i. iii. 157 He rather dwell in my necessitie. 1670 Brooks Wks. (1867) VI. 390 A man .. would dwell in this contemplation of heaven, and be loath to come out of it. 1797 Godwin Enquirer i. vi. 40 Their lines dwell upon our memory. 1896 J. Davidson Fleet Street

Eclogues 25 Fainter Voices Echo about the air and dwell and die.

to let dwell: to let (things) remain as they are, let alone, let be. Obs. ri435 Torr. Portugal 2105 Let we now this children dwelle, And speke we more of Desonelle.

c. Of a horse: {a) To be slow in raising the feet from the ground in stepping, (b) To pause before taking a fence. 1737 Bracken Farriery Impr. (i757) 48 They.. are apt .. to interfere or cut, and to dwell upon the Ground (as the Jockeys term it). Ibid. 76 The Horse that takes long Steps, and dwells upon the Ground. 1885 Sat. Rev. 14 Feb. 206/1 Horses that ‘dwell’ at their fences are in our opinion, most objectionable hunters. d. Mech. To pause. See dwell sb. 2. 1836 [see DWELLING 4]. 1888 C. P. Brooks Cotton Manuf. 61 The slay dwells longer at the healds than at the cloth.

5. to dwell on, upon (ffn): to spend time upon or linger over (a thing) in action or thought; to remain with the attention fixed on; now, esp. to treat at length or with insistence, in speech or writing; also, to sustain (a note) in music. (The most frequent current use in speech.) [c 1400 Lanfranc's Cirurg. 69 He dwellide on pt cure, and I wente my wey. c 1470 Henry Wallace ii. 246 Thai chargyt the geyler nocht on him to duell, Bot bryng him wp out of that vgly sell To jugisment.] 1513 Douglas Mneis i. Prol. 246 Quhat suld I langar on his errouris dwell? 1581 Mulcaster Positions xliv. (1887) 285 Not to dwel longer on this point. 1594 Shaks. Rich. Ill, v. iii. 100 Enterchange of sweet Discourse, Which so long sundred Friends should dwell vpon. 1652 J. Wright tr. Camus' Nature's Paradox 222 Not to dwell any longer in these lawless proceedings. 1709 Steele Tatler No. 28 f 13 That Letter dwells upon the Unreasonableness of the Allies. 1816 Keatinge Trav. (1817) II. 33 The mind..can make the eye dwell on the more pleasing parts. 1834 Medwin Angler in Wales I. 274 Now she dwells on a single note. 1848 Mill Pol. Econ. 1. v. §3 (1876) 42 This proposition requires to be somewhat dwelt upon. 1875 JowETT Plato (ed. 2) IV. 495 [Plato] is constantly dwelling on the importance of regular classification.

16. To continue in existence, to last, persist; to remain after others are taken or removed. Obs. 13.. Guy Warw. (Caius) 294 Yf I my sorowe hir doo not telle, Allas, wrecche, how shall y duelle? 1393 Test. Ebor. (Surtees) I. 186, I will that this place dwell still to my wyfe and to my childer. C1400 Lanfranc's Cirurg. 49 For so pe schap of pe lyme [= limb] mai dwelle faire and strengere. 1401 Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 83,1 have chosen 30U alle, that 3e gon and beren fruyte, and 30ur fruyte may dwellyn.

7. To remain (in a house, country, etc.) as in a permanent residence; to have one’s abode; to reside, ‘live’. (Now mostly superseded by live in spoken use; but still common in literature.) c 1250 Gen. ^ Ex. 1106 Quile 6at loth dwelledde 6or. 1303 R. Brunne Handl. Synne Prol. 65 Y dwelled yn pe pryorye Fyftene jere yn cumpanye. 1470-^5 Malory Arthur 1. xvii. His mayster Bleyse that dwelde in Northumberland. 1574 Nottingham Rec. IV. 156 The tenemente.. wherein George Taylor lately dwelled. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. iii. xxxviii. 240 The King that dwelleth in Heaven. 1798 Wordsw. We are Seven, Two of us at Conway dwell. And two are gone to sea. 1874 Green Short Hist. i. §1. 3 As they fought side by side on the field, so they dwelled side by side on the soil. transf. and fig. 1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 294 Bot na drede in J?air hertes may dwelle. C1450 tr. De Imitatione ii. i. 40 Reste in pe passion of crist, & dwelle gladly in hys holy woundes. 1667 Milton P.L. i. 250 Farewel happy Fields Where Joy for ever dwells. 1751 Jortin Serm. (1771) IV. i. 114 A faith which dwells in the heart. 1847 A. M. Gilliam Trav. Mexico 177, I admire the love of country that dwells in the bosoms of Englishmen.

18. trans. To occupy as a place of residence; to inhabit. Obs. 1520 Sir R. Elyot Will in Elyot's Gov. (1883) I. App. A. 315 The tenement that she dwellith in Sarum. 1671 Milton P.R. I. 330 We.. Who dwell this wild, constrained by want. 1799 W. Taylor in Monthly Mag. VII. 139 And now I dwell the cloister, sweep the ailes.

t9. To cause to abide in. Obs. 1667 Milton P.L. xii. 487 The promise of the Father, who shall dwell His Spirit within them.

Hence dwelling ppl. a., remaining, lasting, abiding; f dwelt pp/. a., inhabited. C1380 Wyclif Serm. Sel. Wks. I. 293 Apostlis chosen preestis.. and maden hem dwellinge curatis. 1610 Broughton xxxiv. 13 Who settled all the dwelt-land. 1650 Trapp Comm. Lev. xix. 17 The neglect of this dutie breeds dwelling suspicions. 1872 A. Shadwell in J. E. Morgan University Oorr (1873) 316 The blade long enough in the water to secure a dwelling stroke.

dwell, sb. Also 4 duell, dwel. [f.

dwell v. (Cf. ON. dvol stay, delay.)] The action or an act of dwelling. fl. Delay, stay, stoppage. withoute(n dwell: without delay, straightway. Obs. 41300 Cursor M. zS,! Ne mak 3ee in pe plain na duell. Ibid. 12992 Fie sathanas, wit-vten duell. c 1380 Sir Ferumb. 648 )>e iantail knyjt.. spak with-oute duelle. Ibid. 2646 }?at myn host may come withoute dwel.

2. Mech. A slight pause in the motion of a part of a machine to give time for the completion of the operation effected by the particular part. b. The brief continuation of pressure in taking an impression with a hand-press. 1841 Specif. Darker's Patent No. 9065. 7 A dwell of sufficient length to insert the wire [in a carpet loom]. 1885 Specif. J. Jardine’s Patent No. 4960. 4, I am enabled to give a similar rest or dwell to the carriages at each extremity of their motion. 1890 Iron XXXV. 269/1 This positive

DWELLER standstill lasts.. during the whole portion of the stroke [of the press], which is technically called the dwell.

dweller ('dwel3(r)). [f. dwell v. + -er*.] 1. One who dwells or resides (in a place); an inhabitant, resident. 1382 Wyclif Isa. xviii. 3 Alle 3ee dwelleris of the world. C1460 Fortescue Abs. & Lim. Mon. vi. (1885) 123 Dwellers vppon owre costes. 1512 Act 4 Hen. VIII, c. 2 § i The owner or dweller of the howse.. then beyng theryn. 1674 N. Fairfax Bulk Sf Selv. 186 Enough to hold all the dwellers of it and their children. 1791 Cowper Iliad I. 332 The rude dwellers on the mountain-heights. 1834 Lytton Pompeii i.

V, The dwellers in a sunny clime.

2. With on: see dwell v. 5. C1600 Shaks.

Sonn. cxxv, Dwellers on form and favour.

3. A horse that ‘dwells’ at a fence. Sat. Rev. 14 Feb. 206/1 Dwellers require very careful handling, for.. if hurried at their fences they will run into them instead of jumping. Hence 'dwelleress, a female dweller. Obs. 1382 Wyclif xxi. 13 To thee, dwelleresse [c 1440 MS. Bodl. 277 dwelstere] of the sadde valey, and wilde feld. 1885

f

dwelling (’dwelig), vbl. sb. [f. dwell v. -ING*.] The action of the verb dwell. fl. Delaying, delay; tarrying. Obs.

+

Havelok 1352 Loke that thou dwellen nouth: Dwelling haueth ofte scathe wrouth. C1330 R. Brunne Chron. Wace (Rolls) 4965 Bot com, & make no dwellynge. C1374 Chaucer Boeth. \. metr. i. i (Camb. MS.) Myn vnpietous lyf draweth a long vnagreable dwellynges [ingratas moras] in me. c 1475 Rauf Coiljear 239 For my dwelling to nicht, I dreid me for blame. C1330

b.

With on, upon: see dwell v, 5.

1832 B’ness Bunsen

in Hare Life I. ix. 380 It will not bear

dwelling upon.

2. Continued, esp. habitual, residence; abode. Also fig. 1382 Wyclif Dan. v. was. C1400 Rom. Rose

21 With feeld assis his dwellynge 6208 Ne no wight m^, by my clothing, Wite with what folk is my dwellyng. 1506 A. Day Eng. Secretary ii. (1625) 51 My dwelling with Master L. continued.. even to this present day. 1648 Gage West Ind. xviii. 124 The healthiest and pleasantest place of dwelling that ever I came into.

fb,

DY

3

‘Residence’, accommodation. Obs.

C1460 Fortescue Abs. & Lim. Mon. xvii. (1885) 151 He hath be pe yere iij. li. x*^, be sydes his dwellynge in pe logge. 153s CovERDALE 2 Kings ii. 19 There is good dwellynge in this cite.. but the water is euell.

3. concr. A place of residence; a dwellingplace, habitation, house. 1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 1368 Na syker duellyng fynde we here. 1382 Wyclif xiv. 2 In the hous of my fadir ben manye dwellingis. 14.. Voc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 59^41 Mansio, a dwellynge. 153$ Coverdale j Esdras ix. 37 The children of Israel were in their dwellynges. 1613 Purchas Pilgrimage (1614) 749 They have no dwelling but their boats. 1&7 Milton P.L. vii. 183 Good will To future men, and in thir dwellings peace. 1726 Adv. Capt. R. Boyle 43, I went back to my Dwelling. 1863 Geo. Eliot Romola 1. xx, A street of high silent-looking dwellings. fis- >655 Stanley Hist. Philos, i. (1701) 40/1 Enclosed in the narrow dwelling of the Mind. 1713 Berkeley Guardian No. 3 PI That bosom which ought to be the dwelling of sanctity and devotion.

4. attrib. and Comb., as dwelling cave, chamber, cottage, space, ^ stead, tent, etc.; dwelling action (see dwell v. 4d). Also DWELLING-HOUSE, -PLACE. a 1300 Cursor M. 14709 (Gott.) His duelling stede sal last in hell, a 1340 Hampole Psalter xxxviii. 17 Na duellynge stede haf i here. 1607 Topsell (1658) 793 The Seatortoises of India are so big, that with one of them they cover a dwelling Cottage. 1718 Berkeley Tour in Italy Wks. 1871 IV. 593 The dwelling-seat of the Prince of Caserta. 1780 Coxe Russ. Disc. 132 One of the dwelling-caves of the savages. 1836 Specif. Stansfeld's Patent No. 7130. 2 Producing a gradual pressure and dwelling action of the lay or slay. 1891 Month LXXHI. 25 Freight-cars.. turned into dwelling-caves for the ballast-men. Hence 'dwellingless a., without a dwelling;

possessing or containing no dwelling. 1882 Blackw. Mag. Feb. 244 A melancholy expansetreeless, dwellingless, manless. 1894 Month May 68 Whether they be styled dwellers in waggons, or be dwellingless.

'dwelling-house. A house occupied as a place of residence, as distinguished from a house of business, warehouse, office, etc. 1450-1530 Myrr. our Ladye iii She mote make god mercyfull to vs, that was macfe hys dwellynge howse. 1592 Nottingham Rec. IV. 238 Makinge his bames into dwellyn houses. 1616 ScRFL. & Markh. Country Farme 6 You must chuse the higest peece of ground to build your dwelling house vpon. 1777 Robertson Hist. Amer. (1783) II. 190 Even in a village of the rudest Indians there are.. dwellinghouses. 1893 Selous Trav. S. E. Africa 251 A comfortable dwelling-house and several outhouses.

'dwelling-place. A place of abode. /. a.; dwining vbl. sb. andpp/. a.', also dwine sb., decline, wane. ?01366 Chaucer Rom. Rose 360 Drye and dwyned al for elde. 1536 Bellenden Cron. Scot. (1821) II. 60 Ambrose.. fell in ane dwinand seiknes. 1583 Stanyhurst JEneis ii. (Arb.) 61 His old dwynd carcas. 1718 Wodrow Corr. (1843) II. 403 Our dwining, sinking condition. 1820 Blackw. Mag. June 280, r the dwine o’ the moon. 1830 Scott Demonol. ix. 289 For long dwining and ill heal.

t'dwining,56. Obs. rare. [f. dwined. + -ing®.] One who pines away, a sickly creature. 01400-50 Alexander 1752 Slike a dwinyng, a dwa3e, and a dwer3e as pi-selfe.

dwle, dwly,

obs. forms of dole y6.®, duly.

dwme, dwole,

obs. forms of doom, dwale.

dwr, dwresse,

obs. forms of door, duress.

dwrfe,

obs. form of dwarf.

dwt., abbreviation for pennyweight: see D. dwte, dwwe,

obs. forms of duty, due.

dy (dai). [a. Sw. dy mire, ooze (H. von Post 1862, in K. Sven. Vetenskaps-Akad. Handl. i), f. ON. dy, perh. f. Gmc. *dunhia, rel. to *dungia, the antecedent of OE. dung dung (see Falk and Torp); but the etym. of the ON. word is disputed.] A type of sediment rich in organic matter deposited in unproductive lakes. 1936 S. A. Waksman Humus iv. 66 Formation of ‘dy’, or colloidal humus material, in environments supplying amounts of air that are limited as a result of water cover. 1939 W. H. Twenhofel Princ. Sedimentation ii. 88 Black muds.. have been differentiated into gyttja.. and dy if the

organic matter was brought to the lakes in colloidal form. 1957 G. E. Hutchinson Treat. Limnol. I. xvii. 882 The distinction between autochthonous igyttja) and allochthonous {dy) organic sediments was early made by the Swedish students of sedimentation.

dy,

DYE

4

DY

obs. form of DIE.

dy, dyah:

see daye.

dya, dya-,

var. dia Obs. drug; obs. f. dia-.

dyad ('daiasd).

Also 7 diad. [ad. L. dyas, dyad-, a. Gr. Svdg, SvdS-, the number two.] 1. The number two; a group of two; a couple. Cf. DUAD I. 1675 R. Burthogge Causa Dei 244 Now a Monad and a Diad, or One and Two, makes Three. 1678 Cudworth Intel!. Syst. 372 The Writer., doth affirm Pythagoras to have asserted Two Substantial Principles Self-existent, a Monad and a Dyad. 1809 W. Irving Knickerb. (1849) 37 Pythagoras likewise inculcated the famous numerical system of the monad, dyad, and triad. 1885 F. Hall in Ballantyne's Sankhya Aphorisms 224 The gross product of Nature, viz., the great elements and the dyad of bodies.

2. In specific uses: a. Chem. An atom, radical, or element that has the combining power of two units, i.e. of two atoms of hydrogen. 1865 Reader i Apr. 372/2 Each of these atoms combines usually with three monads, or with one dyad and one monad. 1873 Fownes' Chem. (ed. 11)250 Sulphur, selenium, and tellurium, are usually regarded as dyads.

b. Biol. A secondary unit of organization consisting of an aggregate of monads. Hence dyaddeme. 1883 [see deme].

c. Pros. A group of two lines having different rhythms. 188s B. L. Gildersleeve Pindar p. liii, Dyads and triads there are in Pindar, but they do not disturb the rhythmical working of the odes.

d. Math. An operator ab so defined that F. (ab) — (F.a)b for all F, where a and b are vectors and F is any linear vector function. 1884 J. W. Gibbs Coll. Wks. (1928) II. ii. hi. 53 An expression of the form aA or will be called a dyad. 1933 H. B. Phillips Vector Anal. x. 217 A linear equation satisfied by dyads will remain valid if each dyad is replaced by the dot or cross product of its two vectors. 1969 Ll. G. Chambers Course Vector Anal. vi. 181 Consider now the dyad, or indefinite product of two vectors a and b, ab... This has the properties that (ab). F = a(b. F) and F. (ab) = (F. a)b.

3. attrib. or as adj. = dyadic. 1869 Roscoe Elem. Chem. 266 Copper is a dyad element. 1881 Athenaeum 26 Mar. 433/1 He has also prepared the hydrate and oxalate of the dyad radical (C2H2Hg302).

dyad, dyaf, dyajj,

ME. (Kentish) forms of DEAD, DEAF, DEATH sb.

dyadeeme,

obs. form of diadem.

dyadic (dai'aedik), a. (sb.) [ad. Gr. SvaSiK-ds of the number two.] Of or pertaining to a dyad or group of two. dyadic arithmetic: binary arithmetic, in which the radix is 2. dyadic disyntheme: see duadic. 1727-51 Chambers Cycl. s.v. Arithmetic, Binary or Dyadic Arithmetic is that, wherein only two figures, unity, or I, and o, are used. 1800 Monthly Mag. X. 43 The dyadic arithmetic proposes to express all numbers by two characters, i and o... Thus, i is represented by i, 2 by 10, 4 by 100, and 8 by 1000. 1882 Schaff Encycl. Relig. Knoiol. III. 239s Up to 360, the whole development [of the doctrine of the Trinity] was markedly dyadic.

b. Chem. Of the atomic constitution of a dyad. 1873 Fownes^ Chem. 395 Cadmium, like zinc, is dyadic.

B. sb. 1. = dyadic arithmetic. J- M. Mackie Leibnitz 187 Leibnitz invented the Dyadik or reckoning with zero and unity.]

2. Math. Any quantity formed by the addition or subtraction (or both) of dyads. 1884 J. W. Gibbs Coll. Wks. (1928) II. n. iii. 53 An expression consisting of any number of dyads united by the signs + or — will be called a dyadic binomial, trinomial etc., .. or, more briefly, a dyadic. The latter term will be used so as to include the case of a single dyad. 1924 C. E. Weatherburn Adv. Vector Anal. v. 81 Then r' = r ai + r bj + r-ck. We write this more briefly r' = r'(ai + bj + ck), where the expression in brackets is an operator called a dyadic. 1969 Ll. G. Chambers Course Vector Anal. vi. 189 Dyadics may be formed in which the vector operator V is a component part.

Dyak

('daisek). Also Daya(c)k, Dayakker. [f. Mai. dayak up-country.] A member of one of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting parts of Borneo and Sarawak,'often divided into Land Dyaks and Sea Dyaks; the language of these peoples. Also attrib. or adj. 1836 Penny Cycl. V. 189/2 The mines are only wrought by the Dayacks. 1840 J. Brooke Jrnl. 2 Oct. in E. Hahn J. Brooke of Sarawak (1953) iv. 51 The arrival of various Dyak tribes. 1876 Encycl. Brit. IV. 58/1 The Dyaks, Dayaks, or Dayakkers are.. broken into numerous tribes. 1880 Ibid. V. 81S/1 Among the other languages which have been reduced to writing and grammatically analysed are the Balinese.. the Dayak, and the Macassarese. 1882 Jlrnl. Straits Branch R. Asiatic Soc. (t883) Dec. 213 (title) Sea Dyak religion. Ibid., They may be regarded as the racial gods of the Sea-Dyaks. 1893 Russan & Boyle Orchid Seekers xii. 134 Squatting on their ‘tail-mats’ to the Collector’s right hand.. were the Dyaks; on the left lay the Malays. Ibid. xiii. r5i On every side rose cries of terror in Malay and Dyak. 1924 D. H.

Lawrence in Adelphi I. 883 How apparently untamed the savage may be, Dyak or Hottentot, you may be sure he is grinding upon his own.. ideas. 1937 Discovery Jan. 7/r "The Dyak tribes. Ibid., The inhabitants inland are divided into two distinct races, known as the Sea and Land Dyaks. 1957 W. R. Geddes Nine Dyak Nights v. 44 Orang Kay a, meaning ‘Rich Man’.. is not a traditional Dyak title—the words are not even Dyak, but Malay. 1966 L. W. Jones Pop. Borneo iii. 35 A half of the Dyak population.. had disappeared in ten years as a result of forced labour, slavery, sickness and the sword. 1968 Listener 4 Apr. 427/2 West Bomeo[’s].. population of one and a half million Dayaks and Chinese.

dyakis-dodecahedron

('dai3kis,d3udik3 'hiidran). Cryst. [f. Gr. SvAkis twice, f. Svo two + DODECAHEDRON.] A crystalline form contained by twenty-four trapezoidal planes having two sides equal; = diplohedron, diploid. 1881 H. Bauerman Textbk. Syst. Min. 54 The same relation holds good with its hemihedral form, the dyakisdodecahedron which under similar conditions passes into a pentagonal dodecahedron. 1883 M. F. Heddle in Encycl. Brit. XVI. 355 The dyakisdodecahedron.. has twelve short, twelve long, and twenty-four intermediate edges.

dyakne, obs. form of

deacon.

dyal-, dyam-, dyap-: see

dial-, etc.

dyarchal, etc.: see diarchal a., etc. dyarchy.

Erroneous spelling of diarchy.

Dyas ('daises). Geol. [a. Gr. Svag: see dyad. After Trias.} A name for the Permian system. 1876 Page Adv. Text-bk. Geol. xv. 273 The lower red sandstones and magnesian limestones—the Dyas or double group of German geologists. 1887 Athenaeum zg Jan. 163/2 In the place of Murchison’s term ‘Permian’.. he follows continental geologists in using Marcou’s rather awkward word ‘Dyas’.

Hence Dyassic (dai'sesik), a., Permian. 1878 Lawrence tr. Cotta's Rocks Class. 105 Rocks belonging unmistakably to the Rothliegende or Dyassic age. dyaster, dyastole: see dia-. dyat(t, obs. form of diet.

dyaue, ME. (Kentish) form of deaf. dybbuk ('dibuk). Also dibbuk. PI. dybbukim, dybbuks. [Heb. dibbuk, f. ddbak to cling, cleave.] In Jewish folk-lore, the malevolent spirit of a dead person that enters and controls the body of a living person until exorcized. 1903 Jewish Encycl. IV, Dibbukim, transmigrated souls. ‘Dibbuk’.. is a colloquial equivalent, common among the superstitious Jews in eastern European countries, for a migrant soul. 1926 Alsberg & Katzin tr. ‘S. Ansky’ (title) The dybbuk. 1929 T. Wolfe Look Homeward, Angel (1930) XXX. 431 An old Jew who muttered jargon into a rabbi’s beard as if saying a spell against Dybbuks. 1959 Times 30 Dec. 9/1 The Tenth Man is about a Jewish girl who thinks she is possessed by a dybbuk, or demon. dycare, obs. form of diker. dyce, dice (dais), adw. Naut. [History obscure.] Assumed to mean ‘thus’. £:i86o H. Stuart Seaman*s Catech. 40 What is the meaning of ‘very well thus’; ‘dice and no higher’? Her head is in a very good direction, but no closer to the wind. 1867 Smyth SaUor*s Word~bk. s.v., ‘Very Well Dyce.* (See Thus.) Ibid., Thus, Very Well Thus, or Dyce, the order to the helmsman to keep the ship in her present direction, when sailing close-hauled.

dyce, dycer, obs. forms of dice, dicer. dycb(e, dycbt, dycke, obs. ff. ditch, dight, dike sb.'^ dyctee, -ye, obs. forms of ditty sb. dydapper, -dopper, obs. ff. didapper. dyde, obs. form of dead, deed, did, died. dydle, var. didle sb.

dye (dai), sb. Forms: i deas, deah, 3-4 dehe, 6-9 die, 7- dye. [OE. had deag, deah fern., gen. dea^e (:—OTeut. *daugd- ), for which a ME. dehe ( = deaje, deje) is known in 13th c. This would give later deye, dey, also (as with die v. and eye) dye, die. The word is not known thenceforth till the i6th c., when we find die: see the vb. (The OTeut. *dauga- indicates an ablaut series deug-, daug-, dug-, Aryan *dheuk-, etc., to which Kluge (Engl. Stud. XL 511) refers also L./ucus, and fucare to dye.)]

1. a. Colour or hue produced by, or as by, dyeing; tinge, hue. ciooo ffilLFRic Voc. in Wr.-Wiiicker 152/18 Tinctura, deah. c 1000 TElfric Horn. II. 254 Se wolcn-reada wsefels.. mid 8sere dea^e hiwe. a 1300 Prayer to Our Lady 20 in O.E. Misc. 193 And mi tohte rude itumd al in-to o8re dehe [rimes bisehe, ehe, leihe]. 1589 Greene Menaphon (Arb.) 41 Girt with a crimson roobe of brightest die. 1663 Butler Hud. i. i. 243 His tawny Beard In.. cut and dye so like a Tile. 1698 Fryer Acc. E. India P. 24 Till.. we ploughed deeper Water, North East, or a Caerulean dye. 1706 Addison Rosamond ii. iii. Deck’d with flow’rs of various dies. 1740 Somerville Hobbinol iii. 358 Fragrant Spice, or Silks of costly Die. 1812 J. Wilson Isle of Palms iii. 88 Wings and crests of rainbow dyes.

h.fig. Chiefly in such phrases as a crime, fact, etc. of blackest or deepest dye, and the like. 1601 Cornwall YES Ess. xvii, I never yet saw griefe of so deepe a Dye. 1605 Tryall Chev. iii. iii. in Bullen O. PI. HI. 314 True vertues dye is such That malice cannot stayne nor envy tuch. 1665 Sir T. Herbert Trav. (1677) 244 A Treason of an ugly dye. 1752 A. Murphy Gray’s-Inn Jrnl. No. 5. § 1 A Fact.. of as Glaring a Die as I have ever known. 1819 Mackintosh Sp. Ho. Com. 2 Mar. Wks. 1846 HI. 370 Crimes..of the blackest die. 1885 Manch. Exam. 16 June 4/7 He is a criminal of the deepest dye.

2. a. A material or matter used for dyeing; esp. colouring matter in solution. riooo ffilLFRic Voc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 152/19 Coccus, read deah. ciooo Ags. Gloss, ibid. 244/30 Fucus, deaj uel telj. 1660 F. Brooke tr. Le Blanc’s Trav. 26 Wood called Sorba, much like Brasill, but makes a very deep dye. 1805 SouTHEY Madoc in W. xiv. Cheese of curd-like whiteness, with no foreign die Adulterate. 1816 J. Smith Panorama Sc. & Art 11. 527 Dyes.. which require no mordant, are called permanent or great dyes. 1856 Stanley Sinai Pal. yi. (1858) 269 The purple shellfish.. supplied the Phoenician merchants with their celebrated dye.

b. As a constituent or property of the cloth. 1835 Ure Philos. Manuf. 200 When the dye is very fast, the cloth may be passed repeatedly through the machines.. without being affected.

3. attrib. and Comb., as dye-drug, -pot, -trial, -vat (-faty, dye-bath, dye-beck, the wide shallow vessel containing the dyeing liquid; also the colouring matter therein contained; dyecoupled, -coupling Photogr. (see quot. 1958); dye laser, a tunable laser based on the intense fluorescence of certain organic dyes; dye-stone, an iron limestone, used as a dye in U.S.; dye¬ stuff, dye-ware, a substance which yields a dye; dye-works, works in which dyeing is carried on. Also dye-house, -wood. 187s lire's Diet. Arts HI. i68 But in its state of freshness its volume becomes troublesome in the *dye-bath. Ibid. 1. 6i I The mordant.. is apt to give up a portion from the cloth in the *dyebeck. 1879 Cassell's Techn. Educ. iii. 198/2 A solution of it is made in the dyebeck—a long vessel containing the dye in solution. 1943 C. Duncan Man. Miniat. Camera (ed. 2) x. 100 (heading) Toning with a ‘dyecoupled developer. 1958 M. L. Hall et al. Newnes' Compl. Amat. Photogr. xxxv. 328 Dye-coupled Developing. Where a wide range of colours is required probably the best method is provided by dye-coupling developers. The general principle is that the by-products of the developer giving the silver image will couple up with another compound, to produce a coloured substance. 1842 Bischoff Woollen Manuf. II. 267 The duties upon oil, *dye-drugs, and every other impost. 1640 Parkinson Theat. Bot. (1644) 602 A blew and purple scumme that riseth on the ‘Dyfat which is taken off and dried. 1675 Brooks Gold. Key Wks. 1867 V. 55 Wool which never received the least tincture in the dye-fat. 1967 Chem. & Engin. News 19 June 38/1 Organic •dye lasers, barely a year old, may be much more versatile than people have supposed. 1977 Jrn/. R. Soc. Arts CXXV. 763/2 The dye-laser.. has made the laser, essentially a fixed frequency device, tunable. 1891 ‘Ganconagh’ f. Sherman Dhoya ii. iii. 57 Some mischievous goblin always runs off with the *dye-pot. 1930 E. Pound XXX Cantos xvii. 78 Dye-pots in the torch-light. 1837 Penny Cycl. IX. 225/1 •Dye-stuffs can penetrate the minute pores of vegetable and animal fibres only when presented to them in a state of solution. 1842 Bischoff Woollen Manuf. 11. 41 Low prices of oil and *dye-wares. 1837 Penny Cycl. IX. 226/2 Each of the great ‘dye-works in Alsace. dye (dai), v. Pa. t. and pple. dyed; pr. pple. dyeing. Forms: i deasian, desian, 4-5 deyen, deien, dyen, (5 dyjen, dyne, 6 dei), 4-9 die, 4- dye. [OE. deagian (:—OTeut. *daugdjdn), f. deagUYE sb. (The convenient distinction in spelling between die and dye is quite recent. Johnson’s Diet, spells both die-, Addison has both as dye.)} 1. a. trans. To diffuse a colour or tint through; to tinge with a colour or hue; to colour, stain. a 1000 Aldhelm Gl. (Napier, O.E. GL) 1. 1208 Fucare, deagian. Ibid. 5196 Inficere, deaghian. Ibid. 5330 Coloratis, deagedum. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. xix. viii. (1495) 866 Red clothe dieth the vtter parti of water yf it is layed there vnder. Ibid., Many thynges dyeth and colouryth thynges wythout and not wythin; as it fareth in peynture. C1500 Melusine xxxi. 229 The dyches watre was as toumed & dyed with theyre blood. 1667 Milton P.L. x. 1009 So much of Death her thoughts Had entertaind, as di’d her Cheeks with pale. 1720 Gay Poems (1745) IL 258 My hands with blood of innocence are dy’d. 1826 Cooper Mohicans (1829) 1. iii. 45 It fell, dying the waters with its blood. 1892 Gardiner Student's Hist. Eng. 9 They dyed their faces in order to terrify their enemies.

b. spec. To impregnate (any tissue or the like) with a colour, to fix a colour in the substance of, or to change the hue of by a colouring matter. C1386 Chaucer Nun’s Pr. Epil. 12 Him nedeth nat his colour for to dyen With brasil. c 1400 Lanfranc’s Cirurg. 180 J>ow schalt die hise heeris if pei ben white, wip tincture pat ben forseid. 1465 Mann. & Househ. Exp. 178 Saffe he axithe alowanse ffor dyeynge xvj. jerdys cloth .xj.d. aiyj'j Gascoigne Flowers, etc. Wks. (1587) 309 Nor useth art, in deing of hir heare. 1654 tr. Martini’s Conq. China 34 Black and purple horse-hair, which they die and dress most curiously. 1816 J. Smith Panorama Sc. & Art II. 527 The most usual stuffs or materials which are required to be dyed, are wool, silk, cotton, and linen. fig- rS7^ Fleming Panopl. Epist. 418 As it were dye your wit in their unchaungeable colours, a 1700 Dryden (J.), All white, a virgin saint she sought the skies; For marriage, though it sullies not, it dies.

c. Phrase: to dye in {the) wool, in grain, to subject to the action of a colouring matter while

DYE or primitive state; the thorough and lasting ‘made up’, lit. and fig. wool sb. i g.)

c 1386 [see sense 2 a] 1579-80 North Plutarch (1676) 65 If he had not through institution and education (as it were) died in wool the manners of children. 1679 Land. Gaz. No. 1449/4 A peice of half Ell green double Camblet dyed in the Wool. 1798 Edgeworth Pract. Educ. II. 351 Dyed in grain, means dyed into the substance of the material so that the dye can’t be washed out.

2. Various constructions: a. with the colour as object. CX3S6 Chaucer Sqr.’s T. 503 So depe in greyn he dyed [Lansd. deiede] his coloures. C1386-Frankl. Prol. 53 Colours ne knowe I none.. But.. swiche as men dye [so all 6 texts; Wright deyen] or peynte. 1530 Palsgr. 515/2 This dyer dyeth none other coloures but onely scarlets. ci6oo Shaks. Sonn. xcix, The purple pride.. In my love’s veins thou hast too grossly dyed. 1875 Ure’s Diet. Arts II. 173 Green.. is produced by dyeing a blue over a yellow or a yellow over a blue.

b. with complement'. To dye (a thing) red, blue, etc., or of {into, to) some colour. 1412-20 Lydg. Chron. Troy i. v, Whose blewe is lightly dyed into grene. i486 Bk. St. Albans A ij b, It hade need to be died other green or blwe. 1590 Spenser F.Q. ii. i. 39 A stream of gore.. into a deepe sanguine dide the grassy grownd. 1717 Lady M. W. Montagu Let. to C'tess Mar i Apr., They die their nails a rose colour. 1753 Chambers Cycl. Supp. s.v. Dyeing, He uses it daily to dye any thing woollen to a scarlet colour. 187s Ure's Diet. Arts II. 164 Moses speaks of a raiment dyed blue. 1883 Manch. Guardian 30 Oct. 8/4 The rain.. in this red sandstone country soon dyes the stream of a dark red. 1891 C. Graves Field of Tares 62, I saw a lovely flush rise in her cheeks and dye her sweet white throat into crimson.

c. absoL or with compl. only. 1436 Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 180 The madre and woode that dyers take on hande To dyne wyth. 1467 in Eng. Gilds (1870) 383 Wher they be persones ynogh.. to dye, carde, or spynne. 1596 Shaks. i Hen. IV, ii. iv. 16 They call drinking deepe, dying Scarlet. 1862 Lindley Seh. Bot. 56 Genista tinctoria.. Dyes yellow.

3. intr. for pass. To take a colour or hue (well or badly) in the process of dyeing. Mod. This material dyes very well.

Hence dyed ppL a. C1645 Howell Lett. vi. 9 Alderman Cockeins project of transporting no White Cloths but Died. 1863-72 Watts Diet. Chem. II. 354 A piece of dyed cotton. 1876 A. Arnold in Contemp. Rev. June 30 A henna-dyed follower of Islam.

dye, obs. form of die

DYING

5

the material is in the raw effect of which is more than when done after it is (See also grain sb.^ lob;

v.

and sb.

d’ye. Colloq. contraction of do ye, do you. 1697 [see HOW-DO-YOU-DO ij. 1773 [see do v. 26]. thereof to be lotted to me for an earnest penye to begynne the booke. 1629 W. Cowper Heaven Open. 119 It is customable to men to giue an earnest penny in buying and selling. 1760 Mair Tyro's Diet. (1820) 10 Arrha, an earnest-penny.

fis- (In i6th and 17th c. freq. in religious use.) 1533 Tindale Supper of Lord 19 That assured saving health and earnest-penny of everlasting life. 1571 R. Edwards Damon & P. in Hazl. Dodsley IV. 59 Then for an earnest-penny take this blow. 1579 Tomson Calvin's Serm. Tim. 927/2 Y® spirite of God..is the earnest peny of our adoption. 1662 J. Chandler Van Helmont's Oriat. 281, I offered them an earnest-penny, to take me along with them as a companion and witnesse. 1676 Wycherley PI. Dealer IV. ii, Presents from me .. the earnest-pence for our lovebargain.

t'earnesty. Obs. rare. Also 6 yrnesty. EARNEST a. + -TY.] Earnestness.

[f.

t'earnest, adv. Obs. [OE. had eornoste adv., perh. instrum, case of eornost, earnest sb.^, or f. the adj.; the later word is merely an advbl. use of the adj.] = earnestly.

1572 Abp. Parker Corr. (1853) 419 With some eamesty to prefer his honour and true religion. 1591 Horsey Trav. (1857) 361 This was done with such yrnesty that for the tyme it was a great obstacle in our proceedings.

1629 J. Cole Of Death 44 The lesse the bodily members are occupied, the more earnester hee withdrawes himselfe to his cogitations. 1709 Strype Ann. Ref. I. xlvii. 516 Had not profited with that Queen, so earnest was she bent against the Duke of Chastelherault. 1791 Cowper Iliad iv. 453 Earnest they sued for an auxiliar band.

t'earnful, a.

t'earnest, v.^ Obs, rare. [f. earnest sb.^ or a.] trans. a. To use in earnest, b. To render earnest. 1602 Pastor Fido Ej (N.) Let’s prove among ourselves our armes in jest, That when we come to earnest them with men, We may them better use. 1603 Florio Montaigne iii. viii, (1632) 519 The study and plodding on bookes, is a languishing and weake kinde of motion, and which heateth or earnesteth nothing.

earning ('ainig), vbl. sb.^

[f. earn v.^ + -ing^; in OE. earnung, ^eearnung.] 1. The action of giving labour as an equivalent for wages, of acquiring money by labour. Also attrib.

1872 Dailv News 3 May 6/1 The men who have earned them [laurels] and know what the earning cost. 1884 Pall Mall G. 4 Oct. i/i The real earning power of the property.

b. concr. in pi.: The amount of money which a person acquires or becomes entitled to by his labour; also, the income produced by invested capital. 1732 Acc. of Workhouses 29 To know their earnings, and to give an account to the trustees, Adam Smith W. N. I. i. vi. 56 The whole is commonly considered as the earnings of his labour. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. I. 416 The earnings of the peasant were very different in different parts of the kingdom. 1888 Daily News 16 Feb. 2/1 The gross earnings of railways have increased.

t2. The fact of deserving, merit; concr. that which one deserves. Obs. C1020 WuLFSTAN Homily in Sweet Ags. Reader xvi. 16 Mid miclan eamungan we jeearnodon pa yrm6a pe on us sittaS. CI175 Lamb. Horn. 19 Crist us jef moni freo 3eue.. nawiht for ure ernunge bute for his muchele mildheortnesse. ci200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 171 Danne wule he .. demen elch man after his eminge.

t3./)/. Gain, profit. Obs. ai200 Moral Ode (Egerton MS.) 161 in E.E.P. (1862) 32 3if we serueden god so we doS eminges, more we haueden of heuene panne eorles oper kinges. [But other texts read erminges.] 1703 Penn in Pa. Hist. Soc. Mem. IX. 182 Now is the time to make earnings in the islands. 1675 Brooks Gold. Key Wks. 1867 V. 15 If thou wouldst make any earnings of thy reading this treatise, then thou must—Read, and believe what thou readest. t'earning,

vbl.

sb.^

Obs.

[f.

earn

v.^;

=

YEARNING.]

1. Longing compassion.

desire;

poignant

grief

or

1631 R. H. Arraignm. Whole Creature xii. §4. 131 The strong movings of his hart, and the earnings of his affections. 1711 Steele Spect. No. 95 Pi The generous Earnings of Distress in a manly Temper.

2. The act of uttering the prolonged cry of hounds or deer. 1575 Laneham Let. (1871) 13 The earning of the hoounds in continuauns of their crie. 1631 R. H. Arraignm. Whole Creature xiii. §4. 219 The young Fawne with earning.

earning (*3:niB), vbl. sb.^ dial. Also yearning, [f. EARN v.^ + -ingL]

1, The curdling of milk for cheese. 1782 A. Monro Compar. Anat. (ed. 3) 40 It is this fourth stomach with the milk curdled in it, that is commonly taken for earning of milk. 1784 Twamley Dairying 31 To allow the Milk to stand an Hour, in earning, or after the Runnet is put in. Ibid. 45 A very material circumstance to be attended to in Cheese-making, is the time, .when the Milk is at rest, called earning time.

2. The means of curdling milk; rennet. Also attrib., as in earning-bag, -skin. Also earninggrass = BUTTERWORT. 1615 Markham Eng. Housew. ii. vi. (1668) 149 When your Runnet or Earning is fit to be used. 1727 Bradley Fam. Diet. I. s.v. Cheese, Go to the Pot where the Earning Bag hangs, and take so much of the Earning.. as will serve for the Proportion of Milk. 1775 Lightfoot Flora Scot. (1792) 1131 (Jam.) Pinguicula vulgaris. Steep-grass, Earning-grass. 1778 Fam. Acc. Bk. in E. Peacock N.-W. Line. Gloss. (E.D.S.) A calf-head and a piece of eaming-skin. C1820 Cottagers of Glenburnie 202 (Jam.) Mrs. MacClarty then took down a bottle of rennet, or yearning, as she called it. 1863 Atkinson Danby Provinc. N. Riding Yorksh.

earock,

var. form of eirack.

'ear-,pick, -'picker,

[f. ear s6.'] An instrument

for clearing the ear of wax, etc.; also fig. 1483 Cath. Angl. ii6 An Erepyke, aurifricium. 1568 Richmond. Wills (1853) 227 To James Gybson my godson .. one silver ear pick. 1580 Hollyband Treas. Fr. Tong, Vne cure Oreille, an eare picker. 1592 Lyly Midas v. ii. 63, I protest by cissars, brush & combe; bason ball & apron; by razor, earepike & rubbing clothes. 1614 T. Adams in Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. xxvi. to Alas! poor truth, that she must now be put to the charge of a golden earpick, or she cannot be heard. 1634 S. Rowley Noble Sold. it. i. Is the king at leisure.. to heare a Souldier speake. I am no earepicker To sound his hearing that way. 1700 Transactioneer 2t He Acts all the uncouth Faces, of a Transactioneer pausing over a China Earpicker. 1825 Hone Every-day Bk. I. 1255 Tweezers with an ear-pick.

t'ear-,rent.

Obs.

[perh. orig. f. ear sb.^

+

rent; but used (? punningly) with allusion to

? Some kind of agricultural rent. In quots. used punningly for: a. The loss of a person’s ears in the pillory, b. The ‘tax’ imposed on a listener’s patience by a profitless or noisy talker. EAR s6.^]

Obs. exc. dial. [app. a var. of yearnful; for the relations between the two forms cf. EARN t;.®] Anxious, full of longing desire; sorrowful. Hence 'earnfully adv. [a 1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt. xiii. 22 Eornfullness [t;.r. jeornfullnes] pisse worulde.] C1500 Noble Lyfe ii. Ixxxix, He cryeth eurnefulli ho, hoi 1575 T. Rogers Sec. Coming Christ 47/1 Their woofull cries..their earnefull plaintes. 1581 Studley Seneca's Hercules (Et. 191b, Philomele.. earnefully did mone Her tender Itis death. 1587 T. Hughes Arthur iv. ii. in Hazl. Dodsley IV. 323 A deep and earnful sigh. 1596 Lodge Marg. Amer. 136 Weeping piteously in so emeful manner. 1633 P. Fletcher Pise. Eel. v. viii. The earnful smart Which eats my breast. 1875 Parish Sussex Gloss., Ernful, sad, lamentable.

1610 B. JoNSON Alch. I. i, Raskalls would runne themselves from breath to see.. you t’ haue but a Hole to thrust your heads in. For which you should pay Eare-rent. 1624 Massinger Renegado iii. ii. You speak not tempests, nor take ear-rent from A poor shopkeeper.

'ear-ring, earring. Also i earing(e, eare ryng(e.

ear-hring, 5 aryng, 6

[f. ear si.*]

1. A ring worn in the lobe of the ear for ornament; often used for a pendant or ‘drop.’

EAR-RINGED

27

c 1000 i^^LFRic Exod, xxxii. 2 Nymal? syldene ear-hringas of eower wifa earon. 1468 Medulla Gram, in Cath. Angl. 45 Inauris, ))e Aryng in the ere. 1535 Coverdale Judg. viii. 24 For in so moch as y® men were Ismaelites, they had earinges. - Ezek. xvi. 12, I put..eare rynges vpon thyne eares. 1600 Hakluyt Voy. (1810) III. 454,1 send your honour two earerings. 01643 G. Sandys (J.) They, .gave the precious earrings that they wore. 1701 Lady M. W, Montague Lett. II. xliv. 18 Her earrings.. were two diamonds shaped exactly like pears. 1814 Scott Wav. xviii, A pair of gold ear¬ rings. 1876 Bancroft Hist. U.S. III. xi. 174 The lifeless frame, dressed as became a war-chief, glittered with belts, and ear-rings.

2. dial. The common fuchsia. Holland.)

(Britten and

'ear-ringed, a. [f. ear-ring + -ed’*.] Wearing ear-rings. 01846 B. R. Haydon Autobiogr. (1927) iii. xiii. 235 We were saluted as we entered by one of those ear-ringed, redcapped blackguards. 1883 J. Payn Thicker than Water xvi. The ear-ringed, ringleted sailors. 1892 Stevenson & Osbourne Wrecker viii. 123 Some ear-ringed fisher of the bay. 1920 Chambers's Jrnl. 561/1 His black-browed, earringed kind knew him of an older race. 1924 J. Buchan Three Hostages xiii. 192 The earringed Jewess.

fearsh. Obs. exc. dial. [A slurred pronunc. of eddish; see also arrish.] a. A stubble field, b. = Eddish or aftermath. 1622 May Virgil's Georg. (L.) Fires oft are good on barren earshes made. 1875 Parish Sussex Gloss., Earsh, a stubble field; as a wheat earsh, a barley earsh.

earshot (’lajot).

[f. ear sb.^ + shot; after bowshot, etc.] The distance at which the voice may be heard; hearing. 1^7 Beaum. St Fl. Worn. Hater i. iii, Hark you Sir, there may perhaps be some within ear-shots. 1713 Guardian No. 71 (1756) I. 315 Within ear-shot of one of those little ambitious men. 1844 Disraeli Coningsby ii. vi. 75 Tadpole and Taper.. withdrew to a distant sofa, out of earshot, and indulged in confidential talk. 1856 Mrs. Browning Aur. Leigh III. 1001 She was..not in earshot of the things Outspoken o’er the heads of common men.

earst, obs. var. erst; ? also of earnest a. eart, obs. form of art: see be v. earth (3:0), sb.^

Forms: a. 1-4 eor8e, iNorthumb. eorSu, eorSe, 2 horSe, 3-6 er8(e, 4-5 irthe, urth(e, 4-6 yerth(e, herthe, 5 3er)>, yorth, 6 earthe, yearth(e, (erith), 8-9 Sc. yirth, 9 Sc. and dial, yearth, orth, 6- earth. jS. 3-5 erd(e, 6 eard, eird, 8 yird, 9 Sc. and north, dial, yird, yeird, eard. [Common Teut.: OE. eorpe, wk. fern., corresponds to OS. ertha wk. fern. (MDu. aerde, erde, Du. aarde), OHG. erda str. and wk. fern. (MHG., mod.G. erde), ON. ipr3(Sw., Da.7ord), Goth, airpa str. fern.:—OTeut. *erpa, (? WGer.) erpon-', without the dental suffix the word appears in OHG. ero earth, Gr. epa-^t on the ground; no other non-Teutonic cognates are known to exist, the plausible connexion with WAryan root *ar, to plough, being open to serious objection. With the northern and Sc. forms with -d cf. ME. dede for death; the change of -p into ~d is rare at the end of a word, though in medial positions it is frequent in Sc. The northern forms of the present word were in the early ME. period graphically coincident with those of erd, and in some phrases the two words seem to have been confused.] (Men’s notions of the shape and position of the earth have so greatly changed since Old Teutonic times, while the language of the older notions has long outlived them, that it is very difficult to arrange the senses and applications of the word in any historical order. The following arrangement does not pretend to follow the development of ideas.)

A. Simple uses. I. The ground. 1. Considered as a mere surface, f to win earth cm: to gain ground upon; to lose earth: to lose ground. Beowulf 1533 Wearp 8a wunden mael.. pset hit on eorSan sti8 and stylecs. ciooo ,®lfric Horn, in Sweet Ags. Reader (ed. 5) 85 lohannes.. astrehte his lichoman to eor8an on langsummum gebede. C1200 Ormin 8073 Forr he [Herod] warrp seoc, and he bigann To rotenn burenn eor|?e. 1330 R. Brunne Chron. Wace (Rolls) 13860 \>ey wyj7-drowen hem, & erpe pey les. 1375 Barbour Bruce iv. 284 The Kyng. .Wes laid at erd. C1400 Destr. Troy 6817 Sum [he] hurlit to pe hard yerth. C143S Torr. Portugal 657 Twenty fote he garde hyme goo. Thus erthe on hym he wane. 1611 Shaks. Wint. T. v. i. 199 They kneele, they kisse the Earth. 1664 Evelyn Kal. Hort. (1729) 192 Let your Gardiner endeavour to apply the Collateral Branches of his Wall-Fruits.. to the Earth or Borders. 1847 Tennyson Princ. V. 486 Part roll’d on the earth and rose again. 1*5

2. Considered as a solid stratum. 01300 Cursor M. 4699 t>e erth it clang, for drught and hete. c 1340 Ibid. (Fairf.) 16784 The day was derker then the night >e erthe quoke with-alle. 1562 Bulleyn Bk. Simples 57a, The people..are constrained to inhabite in Caves, under the yearth. 1567 Maplet Gr. Forest 8 b, Of Gemmes, some are found in the earthes vaines, & are digged vp with Metalles. 1790 Cowper Iliad iii. 339 Who under earth on human kind avenge Severe, the guilt of violated oaths. [1865 Frost & Fire II. 182 Them is what we call marble stones; they grow in the yearth].

t3. Considered as a place of burial; esp. in phrase to bring (a person) to {the) earth. Obs. ri205 Lay. 4283 To gadere come his eorles & brohten hime to eorSe. c 1305 Edm. the Conf. 594 in E.P.P. (1862) 86 Ded he com iwis & t?er he was ibro3t an vr|7e. 1387 E.E.

EARTH

Wills (1882) 2 Y be-quethe iii./i to bringe me on erthe. 1541 Bury Wills (1850) 261 [William Clovyer, of Chelsworth, charged his wife] to brynge me vnto the herthe honestly accordynge to my value. Ibid. 141,1 commytt my body to be buryed in the churche erthe. 1590 Marlowe Edto. II, v. i. Every earth is fit for burial.

127 What proportion all the Rivers in the Earth bear to the Po. 1747 J. Scott Christ. Life III. 489 Spreading.. even to the utmost ends of the earth. 01813 A. Wilson Rab fef Ringan Poet. Wks. (1846) 147 He ca’d the kirk the church, the yirth the globe. 1854 Tomlinson Arago's Astron. 99 Men for a long while regarded the earth as a boundless plain.

4. The hole or hiding-place of a burrowing animal, as a badger, fox, etc.; also fig. to run to earth: to chase (the quarry) to its earth; fig. to capture or find (something sought for) after a long search. Similarly to go to earth, said of the quarry; also^g.

9. a. Considered as the present abode of man; frequently contrasted with heaven or hell. In poet, and rhet. use often without the article.

1575 'Turberv. Bk. Venerie 187 If you .. put the Terryer into an earth where foxes be or Badgerdes, they will leave that earth. 1611 Cotgr. Accul,.. the bottome.. of a foxes, or badgers earth. 1719 De Foe Crusoe (1840) I. xi. 183 Frighted hare fled to cover, or fox to earth. 1781 P. Beckford Hunting (1S02) 332, I recommend to you, to turn them into large covers and strong earths. 1828 Scott F.M. Perth 1.311,1 am ready to take you to any place of safety you can name. .But you cannot persuade me that you do not know what earth to make for. 1845 Darwin Voy. Nat. vi. (1879) 113 They were generally near their earths, but the dogs killed one. 1857 Kingsley Two Y. Ago xxviii, Frightened—beat—run to earth myself, although I talked so bravely of running others to earth just now. 1859 Tennyson Enid 253 And onward to the fortress rode the three..*So,’ thought Geraint, ‘I have track’d him to his earth’. 1876 [see RUN V. 42 fig.]. 1888 Spectator 7 Jan. 20/2 All the men who helped to run to earth the various members of the Ruthven family..were richly rewarded. 1913 Punch 26 Feb. 153/1 Men who used to go to earth behind evening papers on the entrance of a woman now spring to their feet in platoons without a moment’s hesitation. 1917 M. Webb {title) Gone to Earth. 1950 R. Macaulay World my Wilderness xvi. 194 The policeman.. turned back to assist his colleagues in flushing Barbary, so mysteriously gone to earth. 1953 ‘F. O’Connor’ Stories 63 Eventually he would run her to earth in some snug with a couple of cronies.

5. The soil as suited for cultivation; sometimes with a defining word denoting the nature or quality of the soil. £■950 Lindisf. Gosp. Luke xiii. 7 Hrendas forSon 8a ilea to huon uutedlice eorSo si-onetaS. C1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 155 Sum ful on pt gode eor8e and pat com wel for8. c 1340 Cursor M. 27268 (Fairf.) Tilmen.. better paire awen erp tilis. c 1440 Promp. Parv. 141 Erye, or erthe [erde K], terra, humus, tellus. C1420 Pallad. on Husb. i. 81 The bitterest erthe & werst that thou canst thinke. 1523 Fitzherb. Husb. §13 To plowe his barley-erthe. 1557 Lane. Wills (1854) I. 143 On close lyeinge nerest unto James Bailies called the merled earthe. 1617 Markham Caval. iii. 29 When you finde the chase to runne ouer any faire earth, as either ouer More, Medow, Heath [etc.] all which my countrymen of the North call skelping earths. 1751 Chambers Cycl. s.v. Earth, By means of sand it is, that the fatty earth is rendered fertile. 1821 Mrs. Wheeler Westmorld. Dial. 71 They racken his earth is as gud as onny ith parrish.

6. Electr. The ground considered as the medium by which a circuit is completed. Hence used for: Connection of a wire conductor with the earth, either accidental (with the result of leakage of current or dangerous differences of potential) or intentional (as for the purpose of providing a return path for a telegraph current, etc.). (Cf. GROUND sb. 15b.) [1773 H. Cavendish Jrnl. 9 Feb. in Electr. Researches (1879) 267 It was suspected that this increase of separation of the balls before they closed was owing to the wire designed to carry off the el[ectricity] to earth not conducting fast enough.] 1868 L. Clark Elem. Treat. Electr. Measurement vi. 42 The earth connections should therefore be carefully looked to occasionally. If a station have a defective earth, and have two wires leading to it, the evil will generally disclose itself. 1870 R. Ferguson Electr. 250 An ‘earth’, however, is generally put at each station. 1876 Preece & Sivewright Telegraphy 225 Upon no account whatever is a leaden gas-pipe to be employed for the purpose of affording earth. Ibid. 243 Earths are indicated by an increase in the strength of the current at the sending end, and by a decrease in the strength, or the entire cessation of it, at the other end. Ibid. 253 If the earth at B is bad while that at A and at C is good, then a part of A’s current, on reaching B, instead of going to earth there, will take the course of the wire to C, working C’s apparatus, and go to earth at C. 1901 L. M. Waterhouse Conduit Wiring 17 When the cables are pulled through, the braiding (and perhaps the rubber) is tom off and the result is a bad ‘earth’ at some future time. 1911 Encycl. Brit. XXVI. 523/2 The signals received on such sensitive instruments.. are liable to be disturbed by the return currents of other systems.. and to obviate this it is necessary to form the ‘earth’ for the cable a few miles out at sea. 1966 Buying Secondhand (Consumers’ Assoc.) 71 Earth is always green or green/yellow except in German-made appliances where earth is red.

II. The world on which we dwell.

7. The dry land, as opposed to the sea. ciooo ^LFRic Gen. i. 10 And God gecisde pa drisnisse eorSan. c 1160 Hatton Gosp. Matt, xxiii. 15 se befareS s® and eorSan. C1250 Gen. Ex. 116 De 8ridde dai..was water and er8e o sunder sad. 01300 Cursor M. 383 pe watris all he calid pe se, )?e drey he calid erd. 1382 Wyclif Gen. i. 10 God clepid the drie erthe. 1667 Milton P.L. vii. 624 The seat of men. Earth, with her nether Ocean circumfus’d. 1712-4 Pope Rape Lock iv. 119 Sooner let earth, air, sea to Chaos fall. 1826 J. Wilson Noct. Ambr. Wks. I. 6 There’s sae strong a spirit of life hotchin over yearth and sea.

8. The world as including land and sea; as distinguished from the (material) heaven. Beowulf 92 (Gr.) Se selmihtisa eor8an w[orhte]. CI175 Lamb. Horn. 139 Sunnen dei was ise^an pet formeste liht buuen eor8e. c 1205 Lay. 4154 He somenede ferd Swulc nes nsEuere eser on erde. C1250 Gen. & Ex. 40 Of no3t Was heuene and er8e samen wrojt. c 1320 Cast. Loue 95 God atte begynnynges Hedde i-maad heuene wip ginne.. And pe eorpe per-after per-wip. 1698 Keill .Ex0m. Th. Earth {iT^if)

CIOOO Ags. Gosp. Matt, xxviii. 18 Me is seseald aelc an weald on heofonan and on eorpan [950 Lindisf. on eor8o]. c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 47 Heo on eor8e 3eue8 reste to alle eor8e prelies wepmen and wifmen of heore prel weorkes. 01300 Cursor M. 29280 Crist has here in irthe leuyd pe hele of cristendom and heuyd. Ibid. 71 [Scho] saues me first in herth fra syn. And heuen blys me helps to wyn. C1380 Wyclif Sel. Wks. HI. 515 To conquere alle seculer lordship in pis eorpe. c 1400 Apol. Loll. 8 Wat pu byndist vpon 3erpe, it schal be boundoun al so in heuin. c 1420 Chron. Vilod. 462 Shalle not long w* 30U in urthe a byde. c 1430 Life St. Kath. (1884) 13 And he..loueth hir chastite a monge alle pe virgyns in erthe. c 1500 Lancelot 128 For in this erith no lady is so fare. 1546 Primer Hen. VIII, 74 To whom.. In heaven & yerth be laud and praise. Amen. 1597 J. Payne Royal Exch. 37, I came not to send peace in to the yerthe but warr. 1601 Shaks. Jul. C. i. iii. 45 Those that haue knowne the Earth so full of faults. 16^ Milton P.L. ix. 99 O Earth! how like to Heav’n, if not preferr’d More justly. 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg, iv. 813 Mighty C®sar..On the glad Earth the Golden Age renews. 1813 Hogg Queen's Wake 182 But Kilmeny on yirth was nevir mayre seine. 1858 Trench Parables ii. (1877) 15 Earth is not a shadow of heaven, but heaven.. a dream of earth.

b. transf. The inhabitants of the world. 1549 Bk. Com. Prayer, Benedicite, O let the Earth, speak good of the Lord. 1611 Bible Gen. xi. i The whole earth was of one language.

c. In the intensive expression on earth, chiefly in interrogative and negative contexts. Also, with a superlative, used as an intensive phr. 1774 Goldsm. Retal. 103 With no reason on earth to go out of his way, He turned and he varied full ten times a day. 1847 J. Carlyle Let. 15 July (1883) I. 389 If I could have done anything on earth but cry. 1859 Princess Royal Let. 26 Aug. in R. Fulford Dearest Child (1964) 207,1 cannot see what on earth he can have of very urgent business here in November. 1862 Thackeray Philip (1872) 228 What scheme on (h)earth are you driving at? 1873 ‘Mark Twain’ & Warner Gilded Age 29 I’ve got the biggest scheme on earth—and I’ll take you in! 1870 R. Broughton yo0n xiii. You people really have the worst small-beer in Europe. Where on earth did you get it? 1882 Mrs. J. H. Riddell Daisies Buttercups i.'w. 121 What on earth did itall matter to me? 1885‘F. Anstey’ Tinted Venus 128 Why on earth was she making this dead set at him? 1910 Wodehouse Psmith in City xviii. 158 Master Edward Waller., in frocks, looking like a gargoyle;.. in sailor suit, looking like nothing on earth.

d. Colloq. phr. the earth, used in intensive expressions indicative of great or excessive ambition, cost, expense, etc.; to cost the earth: see COST v. i d. 1928 Wodehouse Money for Nothing vii. 132 What’s the matter with you that you always want the earth? 1952Barmy in Wonderland xiv. 137, I pay a director the earth. Where is he? 1958 Engineering 4 Apr. 427/2 The customer has a perfect right to ask for the earth, but the supplier, if he is wise, will not necessarily let him have it. 1961 A. Christie Pale Horse xii. 129 Would it be terribly expensive?.. She’d heard they charged the earth.

10. a. Considered as a sphere, orb, or planet. C1400 Rom. Rose 5339 Erthe, that bitwixe is sett The sonne and hir [the moon]. 1555 Eden Decades W. Ind. Cont. (Arb.) 45 A demonstration of the roundenesse of the earth. 1658 Culpepper Astrol. Judgem. Dis. 18 The Earth is a great lump of dirt rolled up together, and.. hanged in the Air. 1726 tr. Gregory's Astron. I. 403 The Place of the Aphelion or Perihelion of the Earth. 1796 H. Hunter tr. St. Pierre's Stud. Nat. (1799) I. Introd. 32 The Earth is lengthened out at the Poles. 1854 Brewster More Worlds Introd. 2 The earth is a planet.

fb. transf. A world resembling the earth; a (supposed) habitable planet. 1678 Cudworth Intel! Syst. 381 He affirmed.. the Moon [to be] an earth, having Mountains and Valleys, Cities and Houses in it. 1684 T. Burnet Th. Earth I. 168 We will consider.. the rest of the earths, or of the planets within our heavens. 1841 Lane Arab. Nts. 1. 23, This is the ist, or highest, of 7 earths.

III. 111* [? After L, terra.] A country, land; portion of the earth’s surface. Obs. C950 Lindisf. Gosp. John iii. 22 ^fter 6as cum se hslend .. in iudea eor6u [975 Rushw. eorSo]. 01300 Cursor M. 5484 loseph.. first was berid in pat contre, Sipen born til his erth was he. c 1382 Wyclif Ezek. xxi. 2 Sone of man.. prophecy thou a3ens the erthe of Israel. C1435 Torr. Portugal 1325 They yave Ser Torent that he wan. Both the erth and the woman. 1556 Lauder 7’r0ct. (1864) 270 And..3e be nocht feird But doute for tc^ossesse the eird. 1595 Shaks. John ii. i. 344 This hand That swayes the earth this Climate ouerlookes. 1628 Hobbes Thucyd. {1S22) 41 The Athenians have the spirit not to be slaves to their earth.

IV. As a substance or material. 12. a. The material of which the surface of the ground is composed, soil, mould, dust, clay, 01000 Guthlac 351 (Gr.) Jjeah min ban and blod butu seweorSen eorSan to eacan. 01175 Cott. Horn. 221 God., eweS pat he wolde wercan man of eor8an. 01300 Cursor M. 928 Vnto pat erth pou was of tan. 01300 Havelok 740 A litel hus to maken of erthe. 1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 427 Askes and pouder, erthe and clay. 1534 Ld. Berners Gold. Bk. M. Aurel. (1546) C v. To graue.. in erthe, and other sculptures. 1664 Evelyn Kal. Hort. (1729) 193 Now is your Season for Circumposition by Tubs or Baskets of Earth. 1708 J. C. Compl. Collier (1845) 15 Mould, Sand, Gravil or Clay (all which I call Earth). 1806 Gazetteer Scotl. 54 Alternate strata of earth and limestone. 1836 Thirlwall Greece II. xiv. 213 The envoys.. undertook to give earth and water. 1865 G.

EARTH Macdonald A. Forbes III. 168 ‘Sober floories that smell o’ the vird like*.

f b. Clay as material for pottery. Obs. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 69 He wolde euer be serued in vessels of erth. 1660 Act 12 Chas. iv. Sched. s.v. Bottles, Bottles.. of Earth or Stone the dozen.

c. In Sugar-making. A layer of earth spread over the raw sugar in the process of refining. 1752 Ch.\mbers Cycl. s.v. Sugar, When the second earth is taken oflf, they cleanse the surface of the sugar with a brush.

13. a. As the type of dull, dead matter. 1593 Sh.vks. Rich. II, in. iii. 78 Dar’st thou, thou little better thing then earth, Divine his downfall?

b. As a disparaging term for precious metal. 1612 W. P.VRKES Curtaine Dr. (1876) 34 My bagges are full .. with the white and red earth of the world.

c. Used for: The body. Cf. dust, clay. a 1600 Shaks. Sonn. cxlvi, Poore soule the center of my sinfull earth. 1611 Be.aum. & Fl. Maid's Trag. v. (1679) 19 This earth of mine doth tremble, and I feel A stark affrighted motion in my blood. 1822 Shelley Hellas 21 The indignant spirit cast its mortal garment Among the slain— dead earth upon the earth.

14. Earth as one of the four so-called ‘elements’. Also, in pre-scientific chemistry, one of the supposed five (or six) elements; see quot. 1778. a 1300 Fragm. Pop. Sc. (Wright) 267 Of this four elementz ech quik thing y-maked is. Of urthe, of water, and of eyr, and of fur, i-wis. 1393 Gower Conf. III. 92 Four elements there ben diverse. The first of hem men erthe call. 1564 P. Moore Hope Health i. iii. 5 The yearth is the loweste and heauiest element. 1601 Shaks. Ttvel. N. i. v. 294 You should not rest Betweene the elements of ayre and earth. 1778 Diet, of Art & Sciences, s.v. Element, The elements .. to which all bodies may be.. reduced are.. Water.. Air.. Oil.. Salt.. Earth.

15. Chem. (See quots.) In mod. use restricted to certain metallic oxides, agreeing in having little taste or smell, and in being uninflammable, e.g. magnesia, alumina, zirconia, and the ‘alkaline earths’ barvTa, lime, strontia. 01728 Woodward (J.) Earths are opake, insipid, and, when dried, friable, or consisting of parts easy to separate, and soluble in water. 1751 Sir J. Hill Mat. Med. (J.) The five genera of earths are, i. Boles, 2. Clays, 3. Marls, 4. Ochres, 5. Tripelas. 1791 Hamilton Berthollet's Dyeing I. i. I. i. 22 They unite with acids, alkalis, .and some earths, principally alumine. 1814 SiR H. Davy Agric. Chem. 12 Four Earths generally abound in soils, the aluminous, the siliceous, the calcareous, and the magnesian. 1863-79 W.'XTTS Diet. Chem. II. 360 Earths, this name is applied to the oxides of the metals, barium, strontium, etc.

B. earth- in comb. 1. General relations. 1. attributive, a. Pertaining to the earth as a world, or as a globe or planet; as in earth-child, -god, -goddess, -history, -line, -lord, -magic, -measure, -noise, -pole, -power, -surface, -time, -year. b. Pertaining to the ground, dwelling or existing on, near, or below the surface of the ground, as in earth-beetle, -bird, -damp, -fly, -hole. c. Pertaining to the crust of the earth, as in earth-throe, -tremor, d. Pertaining to the earth in relation to electricity, as in earthresistance. e. Characteristic of earth as a substance, as in earth-colour, (hence earthcoloured adj.), -smell, -tint, -tone’, composed of earth, as in earth-bank, -bottom, -envelope, -mound, -wall. 1866 Kingsley Herew. xix. 236 He went along the *earth-banks of his ancient home. 1601 Holland Pliny II. 379 A kind of *earth-beetles called tauri, i. Buis, a 1225 Ancr. R. 132 }7eos..beo)7 •eor6 briddes, & nesteS o per eorSe. 1883 F. G. Heath in Century Mag. Dec. 169/1 Over the original *earth-bottom of the cave is a bed or layer of considerable thickness. 1906 Westm. Gaz. 2 June bjz *Earth-child, struggle no more. 1931 Blunden To Themis 56 Age cannot wither you, Tiny philosopher. Earth-child, musician. 1935 T. S. Eliot Murder in Cathedral i. 12 The labourer bends to his piece of earth, *earth-colour, his own colour. 1918 D. H. Lawrence New Poems 50 The waste all dr>'.. Stirring \rith *earth-coloured life, 1814 Scott Wav. xxxrii, The light usually carried by a miner.. certain to be extinguished should he encounter the more formidable hazard of *earth-damps or pestiferous vapours. 1884 H. R. Ha WEIS in Longm. Mag. Dec. 191 The *earth-envelope of mind is not the measure of mind. 1731 Medley Kolbens Cape G. Hope II. 176 There is a sort of Flies at the Cape which the Europeans call *Earth-flies. 1871 Swinburne Poems (1904) II. 124 The *earth-god Freedom. 1904 FolkLore Sept. 312 As an embodiment of the earth-god the king was responsible for the fruits of the earth. 1878 Gladstone Prim. Homer 74 We have no acknowledged *earth-goddess in the poems. 1880 A.. Wallace Isl. Life 83 The opposite belief, which is now rapidly gaining ground among the students of *earth-historyu ci200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 139 He tumde..fro mennes ■wunienge to wilde deores, and ches t7ere crundel to halle and *eor8hole to bure. 1866 G. M. Hopkins 6 May (1959) 135 A charming day, sky pied with clouds, near the *earth-line egg-blue. 1907 Kipling Twenty Poems (1918) 2 They are concerned with matters hidden—under the earth-line their altars are. 1628 Gaule Pract. The. 42 The •Earth-Lords [Adam’s] honour now layd in the dust. 1944 Blunden Shells by Stream 13 Something between a castle and a cave.. For that earth-lord to pace. 1901 ‘L. Malet’ Hist. R. Calmady vi. x. 603 All this, the unity and secrecy of the place .. circling them about with something of *earth-magic. 1928 C. Day Lewis Country Comets 9 For his was the simpleness Born of earthmagic. 1570 Billingsley Euclid xii. xviii. 389 It was nedefull for Mechanicall *earthmeasures, not to be ignorant

28 of the measure and contents of the circle. 1875 Emerson Lett. & Soc. Aims, Immortality Wks. (Bohn) III. 280 The Pyramids .. and cromlechs and *earth-mounds much older. 1850 Browning Poems II. 435,1 can hear it ’Twixt my spirit And the •earth-noise, intervene. 1847 Emerson Poems (1857) 32 From the *earth-poles to the line. 1887 Spectator 7 May 626/1 The •earth-powers which dwell in the billows, the rain, the frost, and the air. 1870 R. Ferguson Electr. 243 The •earth resistance to the current.. is next to nothing. 1895 K. Grahame Golden Age 14 The air was wine, the moist *earth-smell wine. 1942 T. S. Eliot Little Gidding i. 7 There is no earth smell Or smell of living thing. 1883 Proctor in Contemp. Rev. Oct. 566 An extent of •earthsurface to be measured. Ibid. Tens of thousands of human beings have., been destroyed by •earth-throes. 1951 A. C. Clarke Sands of Mars ii. 15 We keep normal ‘Earth-time —Greenwich Meridian—aboard the [space-]ship. 1951 S. Spender tr. Rilke's Life of Virgin Mary 47 Something endured Still, rest of earth-time, canker withered. 1865 Daily Tel. 27 Oct. 3/1 The colour of these tiles is a deep •earth-tint. 1973 T. Pynchon Gravity's Rainbow i. 149 All in some nameless ‘earth tone—a hedge-green, a clay-brown, a touch of oxidation, a breath of the autumnal. 1984 Homes & Land in Gatorland (Fla.) 17 Apr. 3/1 (Advt.), Fieldstone complements this cheerful 3 bdr. Decorated in earthtones. 1887 G. H. Darwin Earthquakes in Fortn. Rev. Feb. 274 These troublesome changes are called ‘earth tremors. 1884 Athenaeum 16 Aug. 217/3 Dr. Bruce also pointed out traces .. of the vallum or ‘earthwall. 1953 E. F. Russell Somewhere a Voice (1965) 18 It would take them most of an •Earth-vear to reach the fortieth parallel. 2. objective, a. (sense i), as earth-tilling,

-worker vbl. sbs.; earth-baking, -convulsing, -delving, -incinerating, -piercing, -trading ppl. adjs. b. (senses 7, 8), as earth-measuring vbl. sb.; \ earths-amazing, earth-crossing, -destroying, -devouring, -embleming, -ervergazing, -refreshing, -vexing pp\. adjs. c. (sense 9), as earth-poring, -seeking ppl. adjs. d. (sense 12), as earth-grubber, -maker, -scraper', eartheating vbl. sb. and ppl. adj.; earth-wheel¬ ing vbl. sb. 1624 Quarles Job (1717) 221 Jehovah did at length unshroud His ‘Earths-amazing language. 1847 Emerson Poems (1857) 143 ‘Earth-baking heat. 1819 Shelley Prometh. Unb. iv. (1878) II. 132 ‘Earth-convulsing behemoth. 1886 Proctor in igth Cent. May 692 A special ‘earth-crossing family of Comets. 1592 Shaks. Ven. & Ad. 687 Where ‘earth-deluing Conies keepe. a 1631 Drayton Wks. IV. 1540 (Jod.) This all drowning ‘earth-destroying shower. C1605 Montgomerie Poems 39 (Jod.) The ‘earth devouring anguish of despair. 1852 Th. Ross tr. Humboldt's Trav. II. xxiv. 499 These examples of ‘earth-eating in the torrid zone appear very strange. 1869 tr. Pouchet's Universe (1871)22 There are a tolerably large number of earth-eating tribes in North America. 1839 Bailey Festus x. (1848) 108 The sacrificial ox, ‘earth-embleming. C1630 Drumm. of Hawth. Poetns Wks. (1711) 33/2 The earth and ‘earth¬ embracing sea did shake. 1870 Bryant Homer I. ix. 274 They offered prayer To earth-embracing Neptune. 1883 Proctor in Contemp. Rev. Oct. 566 The ‘earth-fashioning power of vulcanian forces. 1661 K. W. Conf. Charac., Usurer (i860) 74 This miserable ‘earthgrubber doth., acquire this trash with vexation. 1869 Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. XV. 2 True believers do not.. bend double as earthgrubbers. 1801 Huntington Bank of Faith 34 Finding nothing could be done with the ‘earth-holders, I.. determined to build my stories in the heaven. 1598 J. Dickenson Greene in Cone. (1878) 134 ‘Earth-incinerating Aetnas wombe big swolne with flames. 1719 De Foe Crusoe (1840) II. xiv. 285 Potters and ‘earth-makers; that is to say, people that tempered the earth for the China ware. 1570 Billingsley Euclid xii. xviii. 389 Geometria, that is, ‘Earthmeasuring. 1816 Byron Cy^. Har. iii. xci, The peak Of ‘earth-o’ergazing mountains. 1839 Bailey Festus xix. (1848) 206 The broad and upturned base Of that ‘earth¬ piercing altar pyramid. 1646 G. Daniel Poems Wks. 1878 I. 24 High, and purged Soules Leave Time and Place, to dull •earthporing fooles. a 1631 Drayton Wks. II. 4-9 (Jod.) The ‘earth-refreshing Sun.. his golden head doth run Far under us. 1615 T. Adams Spiritual Navig. 34 ‘Earth scrapers.. that would dig to the Center to exhale riches. 1646 G. Daniel Poems Wks. 1878 I. 13 A low bruit Aflfection.. which binds In Sensuall Fetters, lowe ‘Earthseeking minds. 1875 E. White Life in Christ i. i. (1878) 3 Wearing so many crowns, as ‘Earth-subduer, Legislator. 1387 Trevisa Higden (Rolls) III. 31 bis kyng [Azarias] louede wel *er)?e telynge. 1382 Wyclif i Cor. iii. 9 3e ben the erthe tilyinge of God. 1592 Shaks. Rom. & Jul i. ii. 25 ‘Earthtreading starres, that make darke heauen light. 1611 -Cymb. V. iv. 42 This ‘earth-vexing smart. 1477 in York Myst. Introd. 21 note, Garthyners, ‘erthe wallers, pavers, dykers. 1885 Sir R. Rawlinson in Pa//Mo//G. 17 Jan. 1/2 Stockport, where men had been set to test work at ‘earth¬ wheeling. 1872 H. Macmillan True Vine ii. 57 ‘‘Earthworker,’ as the original word for husbandman should be rendered.

3. instrumental with passive pple., as earthblinded, -dimmed, -fed, -rampired, -stained, -worn. 1831 Carlyle Sort. Res. iii. viii, Thou the ‘Earthblinded summonest both Past and Future. 1884 W. G. Horder in Chr. World Pulpit 12 Nov. 310/3 Our ‘earthdimmed souls. 1605 B. JONSON Volpone iii. vii, ‘Earth-fed Minds That never tasted the true Heav’n of love. 1649 G. Daniel Trinarch., Hen. V, cli, ‘Earth-rampeir’d Ears, expect the Drum to Call. 1827 Keble Chr. Y. 24th Sund. after Trin., The ‘earth-stained spright Whose wakeful musings are of guilt and fear. 1866 E. Peacock Eng. Ch. Furniture 177 The ‘earth-worn face of the living.

4. adverbial with adjs. or vbl. sbs. Chiefly locative and originative (in, on, near to the earth; from, of the earth), and similative (as the earth); as in earth-bedded, -bound (also transf. and fig., and indicating motion towards the earth), -bowed, -bred, -burrower, -coloured, -creeping.

EARTH -ejected, -gaping, -grovelling, -lent, -long, -low, -made, -nurtured, -proud, -rooted, -sprung, -turned, -undone, -wide. 1813 Scott Rokeby ii. xv, Yon *earth-bedded jettingstone. 1605 Shaks. Macb. iv. i. 96 Who can.. bid the Tree Vnfixe his *earth-bound Root? 1869 W. James Coll. Ess. & Rev. (1920) I, The 'Sadducees’, as our author [sc. a spiritualist] loves to call the earth-bound portion of the community. 1931 C. Day Lewis From Feathers to Iron xv. 31 Earth’s first faint tug at the earthbound soul. 1935 Discovery Feb. 43/1 To an earth-bound rocket pressure is more important than velocity. 1950 S. Spender Sel. Poems Whitman ii With all his loftiness and idealism, he is peculiarly earth-bound. 1865 G. Smith Autumn iv. in Macm. Mag. XIII. 54 ‘Earth-bow’d trees. 1594 ? Greene Selimus Wks. 1881-3 XIV. 285 ‘Earth-bred brethren, which once Heapte hill on hill to scale the starrie skie. 1603 H. Crosse Vertues Commw. (1878) 90 Earth-bred wormes, .. will stand vpon termes of gentilitie. 1622 May Heir in Hazl. Dodsley II. 517 The earth-bred thoughts of his gross soul. 1883 Wood in Longm. Mag. Dec. 162 The mole is an ‘earth-burrower. 1877 Daily News i Nov. 5/7 We reached Biela at dark, ‘earth-coloured, wet and out of spirits. 1581 Sidney Apol. Poesie (1622) 530 So ‘earth-creeping a mind, that it cannot lift itself vp to looke to the skies of Poetry. 1819 Shelley Prometh. Unb. ii. ii. The earth-creeping breeze. 1886 Proctor in igth Cent. May 694 The orbit.. had been that of the ‘earth-ejected comet. 1596 FitzGeffrey Sir F. Drake (1881) 31 ‘Earth-gaping Chasma’s, that mishap aboades. 1642 H. More Song of Soul i. iii. xxxviii. This Province.. is hight ‘earth-grovelling Aptery. 1839 Bailey Festus vi. (1848) 61 With every ‘earthlent ray of every star Holy and special influences are. 1903 W. S. Blunt 7 Golden Odes 15 Herds knelt, their necks stretched ‘earth-long. 1935 C. Day Lewis Time to Dance 55 Earthlong and heaven-outfacing woes. 1600 Tourneur Transf. Met. cclxxxii, With fleecy Wooll, that hung on ‘earth-low brakes. 1849 Hare Par. Serm. II. 416 Everything ‘earthmade has a weight in it which drags it down to earth. 1881 H. Phillips tr. Chamisso’s Faust 15 Woe and wail! earthborn, ‘earth-nurtured! 1868 Hawthorne Amer. Note-bks. (1879) I. 218 Weary ‘earth-plodders. 1847 Emerson Poems (1857) 70 ‘Earth-proud, proud of the earth which is not theirs. 1871 G. Macdonald Songs of Days Sf Nts. 51 The long grass.. an ‘earth-rooted sea. 1614 R. Taylor Hog lost Pearl in Dodsley (1780) VI. 412 Tortur’d by the weak assailments Of ‘earth-sprung griefs. 01849 J* C. Mangan Poems (1850) 74 Earthsprung mothers, of an earthly name. Doomed to die. 1618 Braithwait Descr. Death. ‘Earthturned, mole-eied, flesh-hook, that puls us hence. 1850 Mrs. Browning Poems I. 313 As one God-satisfied and ‘earth-undone. 1864 R. S. Hawker Quest. Sangraal 4 The ‘Earthwide Judge, Pilate the Roman.

II. Special comb.: earth-almond = chufa; earth-bags = sand-bags (Adm. Smyth); see earth-sack-, earth-balls, truffles. Tuber cibarium (Britten and Holland); f earth-bath, a kind of medical treatment in which the patient was buried up to the shoulders in the ground; earthbattery {Electr.), a battery formed by burying two voltaic elements in the earth some distance apart; earth-bed, a bed upon the ground; the grave; t®arth-bind, some creeping plant; earth-bob, a maggot, the larva of a beetle; t earth-coal, coal as distinguished from charcoal; earth-car (see quot.); earth-chestnut = earth-nut; t earth-chine, a cleft in the earth; earth-closet, a substitute for a watercloset, in which earth is used as a deodorising agent; earth colour, pigment, a pigment obtained from native earth, as the ochres and umbers; so earth white; earth-current {Electr.), an irregular current due to the earth, which affects telegraph wires so as to render them temporarily useless for communication; t earth-dog, a terrier; earth-drake, mod. rendering of OE. eorS-draca earth-dragon; t earth-flax, some mineral, possibly asbestos; earth-flea, earth-fly, = chigoe; earth-foam, a variety of Aphrite; earth-fork, a digging fork; earth-gall, the Lesser Centaury, Erythrsea Centaurium-, earth-hog = aard-vark; earthhouse, an underground chamber or dwelling; fig. the grave; earth-hunger, a disease characterized by a morbid craving for eating earth; fig. desire to possess land, greed of territory; f earth-ivy = ground-ivy; f earthlice, transl. L. pedunculi terrae (see quot.); earth-life, terrestrial existence; earth-man, (a) a human being (or occas. a mythical creature) whose life and instincts are closely allied with the natural or material (as opposed to the spiritual) world; {b) esp. in science fiction, an inhabitant or native of the planet Earth; also earthsman, earth-woman; earth-marl, marl containing a large proportion of clay; earthmoss, the genus Phascum (Britten and Holland); Earth-Mother [tr. G. erdmutter], in mythology and folklore, a spirit or being taken as a symbol of the earth; a sensual and maternal woman; also = mother earth i; earth-mouse, the plant Lathyrus tuberosus (Britten and Holland); earth-mover orig. U.S., a vehicle or machine designed for the excavation or shifting of large quantities of earth; so earth-moving ppl. a.-, earth-moving vbl. sb., {a) =

EARTH

29

(b) the process of moving large of earth during excavation, etc.; earth-oil, petroleum; earth-pig, transl. Du. aardvarken = aard-vark; earth-pillar (Geol.), a pillar-like mass of earth (see quot.); f earthplanet, nonce-wd., a fugitive, wanderer; earthplate (Electr.), a metal plate buried in the earth, connected with a telegraph battery in order that the circuit may be completed by the earth; t earth-puff, a puff-ball fungus (Nares); earthreturn (a) Electr., an earthed return circuit, as distinguished from a metallic return; also attrib.', (b) attrib., returning to the planet Earth; fearth-ric (Orm. eorperiche), the earth-realm, earth as a region; earth-rind, rhetorically used for ‘crust of the earth’; also fig.-, earth-sack, a sack filled with earth, used as a fascine in fortifications; earth satellite, an artificial satellite projected into orbit around the earth; also attrib.-, earth-sculpture, the physical processes by which the form of the earth’s surface is altered; earth-shaker, also earthshaking ppl. a., chiefly used as epithets of Poseidon or Neptune; ppl. a., also^g.; earthshaking vbl. sb. , formerly = earthquake; earth-shine {Astron.) = earth-light; earthshock, a convulsion of the earth; fan earthquake; f earth-shrew, the Shrew-mouse; earth-side, nonce-wd., earthward side or aspect; also attrib. or as adj., and used adverbially; earth-smoke, the plant Fumitory (Britten and Holland); earth-soul, (a) Philos., the supposed collective consciousness of the earth, including as its parts the consciousnesses of all earth’s inhabitants (cf. anima mundi); (b) the soul of a former earth-dweller; earth-spider, the Tarantula; earth-spring, in electrical machines a spring connected with the earth; earth-star, a fungus so called from its stellate shape when lying on the ground; also as nonce-wd., applied to the earth considered as a ‘star’, and to luminous objects resembling stars; earthstopper, one who is employed to stop up the ‘earths’ or holes of foxes; earth-table {Arch.), see quot.; earth-tongue (Bot.), Eng. rendering of the name of the genus Geoglossum (Treas. Bot.); earth-wave, a seismic wave in the solid crust of the earth; earth-wax = ozocerite; earth-wire Electr., wire carried from a conductor into the earth, esp. to prevent contact from the leakage of current from one wire into another; hence earth-wire v., -wired ppl. a., -wiring vbl. sb.-, earth-wolf, transl. Du. AARDWOLF, q.v.; earth-woman (see earth-man above). Also earth-apple, -board, -born, -din,

earthquake;

quantities

-FAST, -LESS, -WORM.

-LIGHT,

-MAD,

-WISE,

-WORK,

1856 Rep. Comm. Pat.: Agric. 1855 (U.S.) p. xiii, The •Earth Almond, or Chufa, {Cyperus esculentus), a small tuberous esculent, from the south of Spain, has naturalised itself to our climate and soil, i860 Earth-almond [see chufa], 1765 Nat. Hist, in Ann. Reg. 108/2 The ‘Earth-bath .. may be used with safety only from the end .. of May to .. October, a 1300 Cursor M. 6962 loseph bans pai wit ham ledd, par pai pam grof in ‘erth bedd. 1637 Nabbes Microcosm, in Dodsley IX. 163 My earth-bed wet with nightly tears. 1877 Browning La Saisiaz 118 Of all earthbeds, to your mind Most the choice for quiet, yonder. 1579 Langham Card. Health (1633) 205 Headache of rheume, put in the iuyce of white ‘Earthbinde into the nose. 1740 R. Brookes Art of Angling i. iii. 13 The ’Earth-Bob or WhiteGrub is a Worm with a red Head. 1787 Best Angling (ed. 2) 57 The best bait for them in the winter is, the earth bob, it is the spawn of the beetle. 1874 Knight Diet. Mech., * Earth-car = dumping-car, a car for transporting gravel and stone in railway operations. ri220 Bestiary 402 [A fox] go6 o felde to a furg, and falleS Sarinne, In eried lond er in •erS-chine. 1870 Eng. Mech. 18 Mar. 661/3 He had converted a privy into an *earth-cIoset. 1871 Napheys Prev. & Cure Dis. I. viii. 233 The dry earth-closet is especially valuable. 1807 Southey Espriella's Lett. (1814) I. 12 They burn ‘earth-coal everywhere. 1913 N. Heaton Hurst's Man. Painters’ Colours (ed. 5) v. 155 Iron oxide is also the colouring principle of the group of pigments known as ‘‘earth colours’. 1951 Oxf. Jun. Encycl. VH. 325/1 Examples of such earth colours are yellow ochre, siennas (dark yellows), and umbers (browns). 1872 Phil. Mag. XLIII. 186 It is almost impossible to have two earth-plates inserted any distance apart without a difference of tension, .. This is due in some cases to ‘earth-currents. 1879 Thomson & Tait Nat. Phil. I. r. §376 An unknown and every varying electromotive force.. due to the earth (producing what is commonly called the ‘earth-current’). 1616 SuRFL. & Markh. Countr. Farm 699 The hunting of the Foxe and Broke.. is to bee performed with *earth-dogs. a 1000 Beowulf (Gr.) 2711 Sio wund .. |?e him se •eorS-draca 2er geworhte. 18.. Ogilvie, s.v. Earth-drake, cites W. Spalding. 1695 Woodward (J.) Of English talc, the coarser sort is called plaister, or parget; the finer, ♦earth flax, or salamander’s hair. 1872 Watts Diet. Chem. I. 349 A soft friable variety of it [aphrite] called •earth-foam, c 1000 Sax. Leechd. II. 186 Centaurian sume hataS hyrde wyrt sume •eordseallan. 1611 Cotgr., Repeyret, Feuerwort, Earthgall, Centorie the lesse. 1884 Miller Plant Names 40 Earth-gall, Erythraea Centaurium and other plants of the Gentian tribe. 1731 Medley Kolben's Cape G. Hope II. 118 The ♦Earth-

hogs .. are not unlike the European hogs, excepting that their colour approaches to a red. c 1000 Sax. Leechd. II. 146 Romane him.. worhton ♦eorj? hus for p^ere lyfte wilme. C1205 Lay. 2381 Seouen 3er wes Astrild i hissen eorC huse [1250 tip huse]. a 1856 Longf. Grave 28 Loathsome is that earth-house and grim within to dwell. 1856 Emerson Eng. Traits vii. Truth Wks. (Bohn) II. 53 The ♦earth-hunger, or preference for property in land, which is said to mark the Teutonic nations. 1884 Graphic 4 Oct. 342/2 The Boers.. whose earth hunger is notorious, will gradually ‘eat-up’ all the surrounding territories, c 1050 Voc. in Wr.-Wulcker 299 Hedera nigra, ♦eorfiifis. c 1265 Voc. Plant-names in Wr.Wulcker 558 Hedera nigra, oerjjiui. 1561 Hollybush Horn. Apoth. 37 a. Take the lesse Shaving girss.. and Earth yvy, of eche two handfull. 1601 Holland Pliny II. 379 Some tearme them, Pedunculos terra, ♦earth-lice. 1906 W. De Morgan Joseph Vance xix. 191 The black Shadow that oppressed me was bidden to..scatter itself over the remainder of my ♦earth-life. 1906 Daily Chron. 28 May 3/4 One brief day—as long as seven years of this earth-life. 1922 O. Lodge Raymond Revised 47 Humour does not cease with earth-life. 1958 New Statesman 15 Mar. 353/2 The spy from Outer Space..will be happy to discover..an authentic smell, that is, of mid-century earth-life in general, i860 H. B. Tristram Great Sahara i. 18 A negro from Timbuctoo engaged to remove the plague, and taught sacrifices to the ‘♦Earth-men’, or demons who roam the earth. These are believed to be harmless when once they have obtained a human residence. 1904 G. K. Chesterton G. F. Watts 126 He would see giants and the sea.. and brown earth-men and red earth-women lying in the heaps of greens and browns and reds. 1905 Daily Chron. 16 Mar. 8/2 The sensual earthman must be killed, beyond all chances of reviving, before the man after the divine pattern and will can live. 1930 A. H. Krappe Sci. Folk-Lore i. 20 In at least one type [of fairy tale], the story of the Earthman, the helper, a dwarf, sometimes a witch, has to be overcome by the hero first. 1936 C. S. Lewis Alleg. Love vii. 312 Mammon is the gold¬ hoarding earthman of immemorial tradition, the gnome. 1947 W. K. Richmond Poetry ^ People i. 14 At heart we are still Saxons, and deeper still we are countryfolk, peasants, earth-men. 1949 R. Heinlein Red Planet (1963) i. 3 The Mars creature saw an elderly pale Earthman. i960 Guardian 26 Aug. 2/7 If their site did indeed become the set of the space film, the corps members would not be suitable for the parts of earth-men. 1770-4 A. Hunter Georg. Ess. (1803) I. 226 note, A very considerable number of ♦earth-marls are of a stony hardness. 1831 Brit. Hush. I. 311 The origin of earth-marl is a subject of curious inquiry. 1904 Edin. Rev. Jan. 38 The Indian women disraimented still enact the ancient ritual of the Rain-Goddess or ♦Earth-Mother. 1906 Inst. Mag. Apr. 312 When the great, good Earth-Mother saw this, she called to April and sent her back to gain a victory over her malicious enemy. 1907 Academy 31 Aug. 837/1 Soft to his neck earth-mother clings. 1961 S. Lloyd Art Anc. Near East iii. 82 His symbolic marriage with Inanna, the ‘earth-mother’. 1962 o'London's 31 May 529/2 An earth-mother barmaid. 1%$^ All Y. RoundNo. 32. 126 The ♦earth-mouse (Lathyrus tuberosus), which the French peasant will not cultivate because, he says, it walks underground. 1382 Wyclif Matt. xxiv. 7 ♦Erthemouyngis schulen be by placis. 1939 Civil Engineering XXXIV. 228 {title) The development of earth moving equipment for highway construction. 1941 Agricultural Engineering X.XII. 19/1 Earth moving makes up the principal portion of construction work. Ibid. 24/1 Profit by experience of earth movers. 1959 B.S.I. News June 10/2 Giant earth-mover tyres. 1963 Times 24 Jan. 11/7 The earthmover, the caterpillar tractor. 1968 Daily Tel. 1 Nov. 19/4 Three or four heavy earth-moving vehicles started levelling the adjacent land. 1755 Baker in Dalrymple Or. Rep. I. 172 (Y.) About 200 Families .. employed in getting ♦Earth-oil out of Pitts. 1785 G. Forster tr. Sparrman's Voy. Cape Gd. Hope I. 270 The aard-varken, or ♦earth-pig, which, probably, is a species of manis. 1962 M. Burton Syst. Diet. Mammals 195 {heading) Aardvark, earth-pig, ant-bear {Orycteropus afer). 1923 L. C. Martin Colour Methods of Colour Reprod. vi. 73 Generally speaking, the ‘♦earth pigments’ are the most stable and satisfactory. 1870 Lyell Student's Geol. vi. (ed. 4) 82 ♦Earth-pillars with stones on their tops are relics of the country worn away all around them. 1591 Florio 2nd Fruites 141 Children, whores, and fugitiues.. A man must not beleeue these runagate ♦earth-planets. 1847 Brett & Little Compendium Improvements Electric Telegraphs 22 An ♦earth plate.. which carries the current back by the conducting powers of the earth. 1872 Earth-plate [see earth-current]. 1585 J. Higins tr. Junius Nomenclator (N.) Mushrooms, tadstooles, earthturfes, ♦earthpuffes. 1871 Eng. Mech. 8 Sept. 627/1 ♦Earth return currents are not practical. 1902 Encycl. Brit. XXXIII. 227/2 Steinheil of Munich.. discovered the use of the earth return. 1940 Chambers's Techn. Diet, z'j'jjz Earth return circuit, a telegraphic current using one transmission wire, the return current passing through the earth and thereby encountering a low resistance. 1962 F. I. Ordway et al. Basic Astronautics V. 191 Later, when Earth-return vehicles become feasible, samples can be brought back. 1968 Times 23 Dec. 6/4 There is no reason in logic why it should not.. eject them into an earth-return orbit. C1200 Ormin 12132 Nan eorl?li3 kinedom Here upponn ♦eort?eriche. 1850 Carlyle Latter-d. Pamphl. iv. 8 On what a bottomless volcano.. separated from us by a thin ♦earth-rind. Society.. in the present epoch, rests! 1871 Hartwig Subterr. W. i. 5 The history of the earth-rind opens to us a vista into time. 1708 Lond. Gaz. No. 4471/2 We began.. to fill the Fosse.. with Fascines and ♦Earth-Sacks. 1949 Rocket Jet Flying Spring 6 The '♦earth satellite vehicle program’.. is the most imagination-firing news we’ve heard in quite a while. 1950 Jrnl. Brit. Interplanetary Soc. IX. 155 As performances improve, so we may expect to see the appearance of the close-orbit Earth satellite vehicle. 1956 Collier's Year-Bk. 48/2 Plans to launch an earth satellite were announced in the middle of 1955. 1959 Davies & Palmer Radio Studies of Universe x. 180 A most spectacular and ambitious project.. has been the launching of earth satellites by Russia and the U.S. A. 1883 Mrs. Prestwich in Gd. Words 643/2 Glaciers and other agents of ♦earth-sculpture. 1647 R. Stapylton 184 Th’ ♦earth-shaker Neptune. 1846 Grote Greece (1869) I. 55 The mighty Poseidon, the earth-shaker and the ruler of the sea. 1387 Trevisa Higden (Rolls) V. 299 Mammertus.. ordeyned Rogaciouns a3enst ♦erpe schakynge. Ibid. vii. xv. (1527) 280b, In ytalye was an erth-sakynge that dured xl dayes. 1634 Milton Comus 869 By the earth-shaking

EARTH Neptune’s mace. 1807 J. Barlow Columbiad iv. 10 p. 135 Earth-shaking storms and constellated skies. 1875 Longf. Masq. Pandora iii. sp. 8 The earth-shaking trident of Poseidon. 1948 E. Sitwell Notebk. on Shakes, viii. 104 With the exception of two earth-shaking sentences, and one speech of great beauty.. lago never speaks ‘above a mortal mouth 1966 Ogilvy & Anderson Excurs. Number Theory xi. 144 Besides, what if a study is not of earth-shaking importance? 1834 Nat. Philos. (U.K.S.) III. Astron. iii. 77/2 That part of the moon which receives no light directly from the sun, may, by indirectly receiving it from the earth, become.. faintly visible. The appearance.. has received the name of ♦earth-shine. 1876 G. Chambers Astron. 87 The Earth-shine is more luminous before the New Moon than after it. 1946 Nature 21 Dec. 907/1 The portion of the moon’s surface that is lighted up by earthshine. 1963 Daily Tel. 20 May 26 {heading) Space man slept well... Kept out ‘earthshine’. ^1315 Shoreham 124 Altha was an ♦ertheschoke. 1816 Byron Siege Cor. xxxiii, All the living things that heard That deadly earth-shock disappear’d. 1693 in Phil. Trans. XVII. 851 The Shrew-mouse or Erd, i.e. ♦Earth-shrew. 1858 Sears Athan. ii. ix. 226 On this dark or ♦earth-side of his [Christ’s] nature. 1865 Dickens Mut. Fr. I. xiv. The earth-side of the grave. 1949 R. Heinlein Red Planet (1963) iv. 53 Many’s the time he’s told me stories about the school he went to back Earth-side. 1956 Galaxy Sci. Fiction XLIII. 11/2 Some Earth-side official of the Interstellar Prison Service. 1851 H. Melville Moby Dick 79 It smells like another world, more strangely than the moon would to an ♦Earthsman. 1871 Swinburne Songs bef. Sunrise 149 The ♦earth-soul Freedom, that only Lives, and that only is God. 1905 W. James Ess. Rad. Emp. (1912) iv. 136 Speculations like Fechner’s, of an Earth-soul, of wider spans of consciousness enveloping narrower ones throughout the cosmos, are.. philosophically quite in order. 1948 C. Day Lewis Poems ig43-47 64 You might well surmise They are earth-souls. 1883 Chamb. Jrnl. i Dec. 760/2 A common ♦earth-spider, the tarantula. 1881 Maxwell Electr. ^ Magn. I. 299 When P moves away from the ♦earth-spring it carries this charge with it. 1816 Byron Siege Cor. v. Its ♦earth-stars melted into heaven. 1839 Bailey Festus xxviii. (1848) 335 Is the earth-star struggling still with death? 1885 W. H. Gibson in Harper's Mag. May 912/1 The fungus called the earth-star, Geaster hygrometricus, a plant of the puff-ball tribe. 18^ Times 2 Nov. 4/5 There are huntsmen, whips, and grooms, kennel attendants, smiths, and ♦earth-stoppers to be employed. 1875 Gwilt Archit. Gloss., * Earth Table. .xhe. plinth of a wall.. or lowest course of projecting stones immediately above the ground. 1869 Phillips Vesuv. ix. 261 Heat in some way generates the force of the ♦earth-wave. 1878 Huxley Physiogr. 188 [In earthquakes] near the sea the water waves may be far more destructive than the earth waves. 1884 ♦Earth-wax [see ozocerite]. 1958 W. T. O’Dea Social Hist. Lighting 216 Ozokerit, or ‘earth-wax’, found in the region of the Roumanian oil wells, later proved.. superior, at a price, to paraffin wax candles. 1908 F. Maire Mod. Pigments iv. 40 *Earth whites are so named to distinguish that class of pigments which owe their origin to mother earth in contradistinction to those which are derived from a metallic origin. 1868 E. Atkinson tr. Ganot's Physics (ed. 3) 650 Into the other hole of the fuse a wire is placed which serves as ♦earth wire. 1876 Preece & Sivewright Telegraphy 258 It is always advisable to earth-wire at least the last five supports on each side of every office, as a protection against the effects of lightning. 1911 Encycl. Brit. XXVI. protection from lightning each pole has an ‘earth wire’ running from the top, down to the base. 1966 Earth wire [see earth d. 8]. 1876 Preece & Sivewright Telegraphy 215 ♦Earth-wiring... The object of the earthwires is to prevent contact from arising through the leakage of currents from one wire at its point of support into another. Ibid. 216 In dry sandy soil or in rock the earth¬ wiring is therefore to be avoided. 1904 ♦Earth-woman [see earth-man]. 1955 ‘J. Wyndham’ in ‘E. Crispin’ Best S.F. 72 He greeted Lellie [ic. a Martian] just as if she were an Earth woman.

t earth, Obs. or dial. Forms: i ierp, irj*, yr}>, ear)>, srp, 4-5 erpe, 6 earthe, 6- earth. [OE. WS. igrf) str. fern. (OTeut. type *arpi-z) f. *ar-, root of OE. (rian, EAR v.’^ to plough + suffix as in BIRTH.] 1. The action of ploughing; a ploughing. In OE. also ‘ploughed land’ and ‘produce of arable land, a crop’ (Bosw.-Toller). ^890 K. i^LFRED Beeda iv. xxviii, (Bosw.) Da jeorn Sser sona up jenihtsumlic yrp and wsestm. a looo Rect. Sing. Pers. in Thorpe Laws {1^40) 189 Feola syndan folcserihtu.. ben-feorm for ripe, jyt-feorm for yrSe. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. XVII. xviii (MS.) \>c more gardyne was of twenty days er|?e oper erynge [1495 erthe ar eryenge]. 1552 Huloet, Earth or earynge of Lande in some place taken for tyllage of lande, as the first earth.. first plowynge styrringe. 1573 Tusser Husb XXXV. (1878) 84 Such lande as ye bre^e vp for barlie to sowe, two earthes at the least er ye sowe it bestowe. a 1813 Vancouver in A. Young Agric. Essex I. 203 One or two deep clean ploughings is all that can..be required.. and one or both of these earths, under certain circumstances, had better be dispensed with.

2. The soil turned up by the plough on the edge of the furrow. 1765 A. Dickson Treat. Agric. 275 If the earths of the furrows are set on their edge, the harrows turn them back.

earth (3:9), v. Forms: a. Sc. and north, dial. 4-6 erde, 6 eird, 9 eard, yird. /3. 6- earth, [f. earth s6.‘; until i6th c. app. only 5c.] t \ .trans. To commit (a corpse) to the earth; to bury. (In Sc. formerly the usual word for this sense; in Eng. writers only poet, or rhet., with a reference to the etymology.) Now only dial. 1375 Barbour Bruce xiii. 666 And the laiff.. In-to gret pittes erdit war. ri425 Wyntoun Cron. ix. xii. 7 Robert oure secound Kyng.. Wes erdyde in Skone, quhare he lyes. 1513 Douglas JEneis v. ii. 12 The reliquies and bonis in feir Of my divyne fadir we erdit heir. 1557 Tottell’s Misc. (Arb.) 142 Though earthed be his corps, yet florish shall his fame.

EARTH-APPLE 1591 Greene Maiden's Dr. Wks. (1881-3) XIV. 316 His liuelesse bodie.. Let that be earthed., in gorgeous wise. 1626 Dk. Buckhm. Sp. Ho. Lords in Rushw. Hist. Coll. (1659) I. 377 If my Posterity should not inherit the same fidelity, I should.. be glad to see them earthed before me. 1742 R. Blair Grave 169 Why thy ado in earthing up a carcase? 1808 Poet. Register 73 We’ll earth her tomorrow, ’Tis the only wise method to bury one’s sorrow. 1832-53 Whistle-Binkie (Sc. Songs) Ser. ii. 100 But Lauchie did dee, and was welcomely yirdet. 1875 Whitby Gloss. (E.D.S.) Earded, consigned to the earth; buried.

2. To plunge or hide in the earth; to cover with earth. Also intr. (for rhetorical. Also fig.

earthing

30

reft.)

Only poet,

or

1648 Bp. Hall Select Th. §25 Let a man strictly examine his own affections, he shall find them so deeply earthed. 1652 Benlowes Theoph. xi. xliii. Seeds thrive When earth’t. 1742 Young Nt. Th. ix. 948 The miser earths his treasure. 1839 Bailey Festus (1848) 16 Could I, like Heaven’s bolt, earthing quench myself, This moment would I, etc.

3. Gardening. To heap the earth over (roots and stems of plants). Usually with up. 1693 Sir R. Bulkley, Maize^ in Phil. Trans. XVII. 939 It must be earth’d up with the Howe twice or thrice in growing, 1719 London & Wise CotnpL Gard. 299 In dry Soils, you must Earth up a little our Artichoaks, 1796 C. Marshall Garden, xv. (1813) 231 Earth up the plants frequently.. a little at a time, in order to blanch them. 1881 Whitehead Hops 8 The plant centres being ‘earthed’ or covered over with a few shovels of earth.

4. a. trans. To conceal in a hole or burrow. 1619 J, King Serm. 40 Beasts.. earthed in their thickets and bogges. a 1635 Corbet Iter Bor. 127 The cunning men, like moles, Dwelt not in howses, but were earth’t in holes.

b. reft. (In 17th c, often transf. and fig.) 1609 Bp. Barlow Answ. Nameless Cath. 335 This wily Creature, fearing lest hee should bee taken by the. .sent, hath earth’d himselfe backe againe into the 92 page. 1656 Artif. Handsomeness 137 He then retreats to this [stronghold] of Scandal, and earths himself in this burrough. 1719 D’Urfey Pills IV. 56 He Earths himself in Cellars deep.

c. intr. for refl. of the fox, etc.: To run to his earth; to hide in the earth. 1622 Fletcher Span. Curate ii. i, They wil not die here, They will not Earth. 1634 Heywood Witches of Lane. i. i. Wks. 1874 IV. 172 Perhaps some Foxe had earth’d there. 1713 Guardian No. 125 (1756) II. 163 Hence foxes earth’d, and wolves abhorr’d the day. C1820 S Rogers Italy (1852) 188 Once again he earths. Slipping away to house with them beneath. 1882 Echo 20 Feb. 4/2 The vulp earthed at last, and had to be left for another day.

5. trans. To drive (a fox, etc.) to his earth. Also fig157s Turberv. Bk. Venerie 239 We earth and digge a Badgerd. 1719 D’Urfey Pills II. 270 The vixen’s just now Earth’d, 1742 Young Nt. Th. iv. 96 The circling hunt, of noisy men.. Pursuing, and pursu’d, each other’s prey .. Till death, that mighty hunter, earths them all, 1827 Blackw. Mag. XXI. 272 The consciousness of having now fairly., earthed the objects of this arduous search.

6. intr. (See quot.) dial. 1875 Parish Sussex Gloss., Earth, to turn up the ground as a mole does.

7. In Sugar-making. See quot., and cf. clayed. 1727-52 Chambers Cycl. II. s.v. Sugar, Earthed Sugar is that which is whitened by means of earth laid on the top of the forms it is put in to purge itself,

8. Electr. To connect (a conductor) with the earth. 1885 Jrnl. Soc. Telegraph Engineers XIV. 454, I have myself seen a circuit ‘earthed’ at an intermediate station in the middle of a message. 1888 Science 13 July 18/1 In dry weather they [sc. conductors] are not earthed at all well. 1902 Encycl. Brit. XXV. 773/1 Let a conductor—say, a metallic sphere—be supported by a metal rod of negligible capacity whose other end is earthed. 1966 Buying Secondhand (Consumers’ Assoc.) 72 If the appliance is intended to be earthed, make sure there is an earth wire fitted.

Hence earthed ppl. a. and 'earthing vbl. sh. (also attrib.). 1727-52 [see sense 7 above]. 1889 Daily News 25 Dec, 6/7 A piece of mechanism known as an ‘earthing device’, the invention of Major Cardew, which infallibly cuts oflf the current if a condition of danger occurs. 1898 Ibid. 3 May 5/3 The swaying to and fro of the earthed line in the field due to terrestrial magnetism. 1906 A. F. Collins Man. Wireless Telegr. 212 Earthed terminal. The wire connecting the plate buried in the earth and the aerial wire. 1909 Install. News III. 80/1 Mr. Leckie recommended earthing through a resistance. 1966 Buying Secondhand (Consumers’ Assoc.) 72 With earthed appliances the continuity of the earth wire ought to be checked.

t 'earth-apple. Obs. [f. earth 1. In OE. ? A cucumber; also = glossarial L. mandragora. ciooo iELFRic Num. xi. 5 Cucumeres pset synd eorpaeppla. ciooo - Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 136 Mandragora, eorCaeppel.

2. = SOW-BREAD (? Cyclamen europseum). 1601 Holland Pliny II. 300 Cankerous sores are cured with the root of Sowbread, which we call the earth-apple.

3. ? The potato [transl. Fr. pomme de terre'\. In mod. Diets.

'earth-board, [f. earth sb.'^ (or perh. sb.'^) + BOARD.] The mould-board of a plough. 1649 Blithe Eng. Improv. Impr. (1653) 190 The Shieldboard, some call Breast-board, or Earth-board, or Furrowboard. 1765 Univ. Mag. XXXVII. 33/2 The plat, or earth¬ board, turned most of the carrots out of the ground. 1884 Longm. Mag. Feb. 403 The ‘hardy rustic’ still goes into the woods and seeks for an elm .. for the earth-boards.

'earth-born, ppl. a. poet, or rhetorical. 1. Born by emerging from the earth: applied

3. attrib. and in comb., as earthenware vessel, -dealer, -man.

e.g. to the Titans, to the offspring of the dragon’s teeth of Cadmus, etc. Also =

1812 J. & H. Smith Re}. Addr. v. (1873) 41 England is a large earthenware pipkin. 1813 Examiner 24 May 329/1 J. Downes, High Holbom, earthenwareman. 1868 Geo. Eliot F. Holt S3 The light by which the minister was reading was a wax-candle in a white earthenware candlestick.

AUTOCHTHONOUS. 1603 Knolles Hist. Turks (1638) 231 They had like the earth-borne brethren, wrought one anothers destruction. 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1776) VI. 403 Young turtles.. are seen bursting from the sand, as if earth-born. 1831 Carlyle Misc. (1857) II. 324 Lessing still towers in the distance like an Earth-born Atlas. 1875 Jowett Plato (ed. 2) III. 41 Cadmus and his earth-bom men.

2. Born on the earth; of earthly or mortal race, as opposed to angelic or divine. 1667 Milton P.L. iv. 360 Creatures of other mould, earth-born perhaps. Not Spirits. 1738 Wesley Psalms cxlvii. II, vi, By all the Earth-born Race His Honours be express’d. b. transf. Of humble, as opposed to royal

earthern a., corrupt form of earthen. 1726 Swift Corr. Wks. 1841 II. 591 Your earthern vessel, provided it is close stopped, I allow to be a good succedaneum. 177S Adair Amer. Ind. 407 Beating also with a stick.. on the top of an earthern pot covered with a wet and well-stretched deer-skin.

earthfast ('siOfaist, -faest), a. [f. earth sb.^ + FAST a.]

Fixed in the ground; cf. quot. 1869.

3. Of things; Produced by the earth; arising from the earth.

ciooo.®lfric Livci xvii. (1885) I. 130 Sume men synd swa ablende l>aet hi bringad heora lac to eorSfaestum stane. 1868 G. Stephens Runic Mon. I. 199 No runic earthfast monument of any kind.. has ever been found in any Saxon or German territory. 1869 R. B. Peacock Gloss. Lonsdale Dial., Earthfast, said of a stone appearing on the surface but fast in the earth. 1881 tr. Nordenskibld's Voy. Vega I. ii. 97 A box..fixed to the ground with earthfast stakes and cross-bars.

1702 Rowe Tamerl. v. i. Behold the vain Effects of Earthborn Pride. 1810 Scott Lady of L. i. xi, Nor were these earth-born Castles bare. 1864 Pusey Lect. Daniel ix. 563 The serene depth of heaven.. undimmed.. by the black earth-bom clouds, which roll so far below.

t 'earth-grine, -grith. Obs. rare. [f. earth sb.'^-, the correct form and the etymology of the second element are unknown.] An earthquake.

birth. 1709 Edm. Smith Phaedra ^ Hippol. i, ii. (1793) 594 Earth-born Lycon may ascend the throne.

t'earth-din.

Obs. For forms see earth sb.^y din; in 4 Sc. erdine, erdinge. An earthquake. a 1079 O.E. Chron. an, 1060 On )7isan jere wees micel eor8dyne. c 1250 Gen. & Ex. 1108 Oc sifien loth wente ut of hine, brende it Shunder, sane it er8e-dine. ei ordeynd an erj^e horn. Ibid. J>is was at Kouton more, )?at ]?e erjje homes blewe per pe Scottis misfore.

earthiness ('aiBims). [f. earthy a. + -ness.] 1. The quality of being earthy; the properties characteristic of earth as a substance or as an ‘element’. 1398 Trevisa BarlA. De P.R. xvii. exxiv. (1495) 685 Tame peres grene.. be soure: but in sethynge.. wyth hony .. the erthynesse.. therof maye be somwhat tempryd. 1678 R. R[ussell] Geber ii. ii. i. x. 166 We find Bodies of more Earthiness of more easie Calcination. 1750 tr. Leonardus' Mirr. Stones 18 There is no stone but will, by reason of its earthiness, sink in water. 1870 Reade Put yourself in his PL III. 275 The water had a foul and appalling odour, a compound of earthiness and putrescence.

fb. concr.

Farthy matter.

Obs.

1528 Paynell Salerne Regim. B iij b, The moystnes therof [of fleme] is conieyled and some what altered to erthynes. 1641 French Distill, i. (1651) 19 The Spirit.. ariseth.. without any earthinesse mixed with it. 1693 Evelyn De la Quint. Compl. Gard. I. 124 Having a juice extremely sweet and sugred, leaving no Earthiness or Lees behind it.

2. fig.

= EARTHLINESS I.

1670 Walton Lives iv. 340 This dignity hath no such earthiness in it, but it may very well be joined with Heaven. 1849 Ruskin Sev. Lamps v. §24. i6i There is dreaming enough, and earthiness enough .. in human existence. 1864 D. Mitchell Sev. Stor. 265 The eyes are living eyes, but with no touch of earthiness.

earthing ('aiGi^), vbl. sb. [f. earth v. -h -ing*.] Occas. attrib. fl. Burial, northern and Sc. 01300 Cursor M. iigo [Abel had] at his erthing [Gott. birijng, Trin. buryinge] all lede. c 1375 Barbour Troy-bk. ii. 2054 Nocht lange eftir his erdinge.. Egistus tuke to wyf Cletemistra. 1535 Stewart Cron. Scot. (1858) I. 86 Euerilk clan had .. ane commoun erding place.

fb. The state of being buried. Obs. a 1300 Cursor M. 18041 pat stinkand lazarun fra vs Of his erding pe thridd dai He losed him.

-I- -en.] intr.

2. The action of heaping (up) earth round a plant.

1839 Bailey Festus v. (1848) 39 While one so beautiful lies earthening here.

1664 Evelyn Kal. Hort. (1729) 195 Several of which [vegetables] .. are most of them to be blanch’d by laying them under Littier, and earthing up. 1721-1800 Bailey, Earthing is the covering of Trees, Plants, and Herbs with Earth. 1862 Delamer Kitch. Gard. 117 All that will be required after, besides these earthings, is a regular supply of air.

earth

To turn into earth.

earthenware ('3:0(3)nwe3(r)). [f.

earthen a. +

ware; until 19th c. often written as two words.]

1. Vessels or other objects made of baked clay. 1673 Ray yowm. Low C. 29 The Town [Delft] is noted for good earthen Ware, as Stone-jugs, Pots, etc. 1727 De Foe Eng. Tradesm. xxvi. (1841) 1. 267 Earthenware from Stafford, Nottingham, and Kent. 1792 Phil. Trans. LXXXII. 270 When earthen ware is mentioned in this paper, the cream-coloured or queen’s ware is meant. 1879 J. J. Young Ceram. Art 30 The manufacture of earthen-ware. b. In pi. Kinds of earthenware. 1832 G. Porter Porcelain i. 19 Efforts.. for improving the qualit^f common earthenwares made in Staffordshire.

2. The material of which such vessels are made. 1799 Med. Jrnl. 1. 295 Pour it into ajar of stone or earthen¬ ware. 1811 A. T. Thomson Lond. Disp. (1818) Introd. 40 A trough of earthen-ware, divided in its length by numerous partitions of the same material. 1873 Watts Fownes' Chem. 388 Earthenware is made from a white secondary clay.

t3. Anchorage.

Obs. rare.

1646 H. Lawrence Comm. Angels 171 Our anchor casts deepe in heaven, where there is good earthing.

4. a. The action of taking refuge in an ‘earth’ or burrow: concr. the earth or burrow itself, b. Driving an animal to its earth; perh. also used for UNEARTHING. 1597 2nd Pt. Return Parnass. II. v. 830 Do you meane at the vnkennelling, vntapezing, or earthing of the Fox? 1706 Phillips, Earthing, among Hunters, a Term us’d for a Badger’s lodging. 1741 Compl. Fam.-Piece ii. i. 295 Having found a Fox’s Earth, cause all his Holes you can find to be stopt.. in order to prevent his Earthing. 1854 H. Miller Sen. & Schm. (1858) 335 Our party.. had its dog.. and my companions were desirous of getting his earthing ability tested upon the badger of the establishment.

EARTHISH t'earthish, a. nonce-wd. [f. earth = EARTHLY.

+ -ish.]

I [The Church] has taken her own way in claiming earthly sovereignty.

1536 Tindale £*/). Matt. Wks. 1849 II. 87 But an if thou wilt not come within the covenant of God .. thou art bound by these words so fast that none .. can loose thee; no, though our earthish god whisper all his absolutions over thee.

b. Of or belonging to the material or lower elements of human nature.

'earthite. nonce-wd. [f. earth sb.^ + -ite.] An inhabitant of earth. 1825 R. Ayton Ess. & Sk. Char. 210 We loyal earthites may be pleased to think so; but what may the moonites.. say to such a notion?

'earthland.

[f. earth sb."^ +

earthquaky

31

land.]

Arable

land. 826 Chart. Ecgberht in Cod. Dipl. V. 84 Donon wsest for 6onte sealstub 06 Saet yrSland. ciooo Voc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 279 Arua, yrpland. 1885 Archxol. Jrnl. XLII. 271 That slight deposit of mud from the river which is at present imperceptibly converting them from earthland into marsh.

'earthless, a. nonce-wd. [f. earth sb.' + -less.] Unencumbered by earth (by the body). 1817 Byron Manfred iii. iv. 152 He’s gone—his soul has ta’en his earthless flight.

'earth-light. Astron. The partial illumination of the dark portion of the moon’s surface by light reflected from the earth; = earth-shine, q.v. in EARTH sb.' B. II. 1833 Sir J. Herschel Astron. vi. 223 It [the earth] then illuminates its [the moon’s] dark half by strong earth-light. 1874 Moseley Astron. xlvii. 150 In the conical shadow there is absolutely no light (except, perhaps, some little reflected from the earth called earthlight).

earthliness ('siSlims). [f. earthly a. + -ness.] 1. The quality of being earthly; the distinctive properties of terrestrial things; worldliness as opposed to heavenliness. 1583 Golding Calvin on Deut. cxcvi. 1215 When we .. worship him [ God], wee imagine not any earthlinesse in him. 1611 COTGR., Terresierrire.. earthlinesse, worldlinesse. 1665 Wither Lord's Prayer 107 They in whom the first natural Earthlyness and will, are predominant. 1813 Shelley Q. Mab i. (1853) 4 Each stain of earthliness Had passed away. 1851 Hawthorne Twicetold T. H. xiii. 211 For often there was an earthliness in his conceptions.

t2. = EARTHINESS I. Obs. ^1535 Dewes Introd. Fr. in Palsgr. 920 The one is pure, separate of erthlynesse. 1594 Mirr. Pol. (1599) 178 If of an earthly substance wee would make fire, we must first purge and purifie it from the earthlinesse. 1641 French Distill, v. (1651) 144 It is .. the earthlinesse that is so nauseous. 1642 Fuller Holy ^ Prof. St. v. iv. 371 Vulturs are said to smell the earthlinesse of a dying corps.

t'earthling, sb.^ Obs. Forms: i yr]?ling, 2 urjjling, 8 earthling, [f. earth sb.^ + -LING.] A ploughman, cultivator of the soil. Perh. only in OE.; quots. 1200 and 1714 merely give the OE. word in later spelling. CIOOO i^LFRic Colloq. in Wr.-Wiilcker 99 Se yrj^ling us ealle fett. ^21200 Fragm. JElfric's Gloss. (1838) 2 UrJ^ling. 1714 Fortescue-Aland Fortescue's Abs. & Lim. Mon. 79 [The Anglo-Saxon] Eorthling, is a Husbandman, or Earthling.

earthling ('aiGliq), sb.^ [f. earth sbf + -ling.] 1. An inhabitant of the earth. 1593 Nashe Christ's T. (1613) 124 Wee (of all earthlings) are Gods vtmost subiects. c 1630 Drumm. of Hawth. Poems Wks. (1711) 31 Nature gaz’d on with such a curious eye. That earthlings oft her deem’d a deity. 1819 H. Busk Vestriad iii. 176 Shall we..in absence be betray’d, Like puny earthlings by a faithless maid? 1839 Bailey Festus xxiii. (1848) 297 Behold this earthling standing by my side. 1949 R. Heinlein Red Planet (1963) viii. 125 An Earthling has no good way to estimate the age of a Martian. 1965 J. Blish Mission to Heart Stars vi. 77 The Earthlings are now deep into the Heart Stars. 1967 Ampleforth Jrnl. Summer 163 To receive the overspill by immigration.. the planets might come to the rescue of the Earthlings.

2. One who is earthly in mind or disposition. 1615 Rowlands Melanch. Knt. 35, I baue interiour excellence that shines Beyond your earthlings gold and siluer mines. 01652 J. Smith Sel. Disc. v. 148 It is not gold or silver that the earthlings of this world seek after. 1866 Alger Solit. Nat. & Man ii. 59 The cold earthlings who form the various embodiments of selfishness.

earthly ('aiGli), a. For forms see earth s6.' [f. EARTH sb.^ -I- -LYb] 1. a. Pertaining to the earth, terrestrial. Chiefly and now almost exclusively implied opposition to heavenly.

with

971 Blickl. Horn. 43 }72em wiperweardan beoj? pses mannes synna jecwemran ponne eal eorplic goldhord. ciooo Ags. Gosp. Matt. xxvi. 29 Witodlice ic secje eow past ic ne drince heonunforO of pysum eorplican wine, c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 39 pet pu luuie pine drihten ofer..alle eorOliche ping. i Elyot Image Gov. (1549) 67 Where diuerse citees by earthe quaues had ben frushed, and therewith defourmed,

'earth-ridge, [f.

earth sb."^ or sb.^] See quot. 1796 Marshall Rural Econ. W.Eng. 158 Earth-ridges are formed in the field, either with mold hacked from the borders of it, or with the soil of the area raised with the plow. 1848 Halliwell, Earth-ridge, a few feet of earth round a field which is ploughed up close to the hedges.

t'earth-tiller. Obs. [f. earth + tiller.] A cultivator of the soil. So in OE. and ME. erthetilie, -tilye [see tilie]. f 1000 iELFRic Gen. iv. 2 Abel was sceaphyrde, and Cain eorl^atilia. C1205 Lay. 22107 He haehte..|7a eorSe-tilien [1250 erl^e-tilies] teon to heore craeften. CI325 Ckron. Eng. 93 in Ritson Metr. Nom. II. 274 Bruyt hade muche folk with him .. That were erthe-tilyes gode. 1382 Wyclif Matt. xxi. 34 He sente his seruantis to the erthe tiliers, that they token fruytis of it. 1612 Davies Why Ireland, &c. (1747) 190 Over that 4d. or 6d. daily to every one of them to be had and paid of the poore earth-tillers. 1674 N. Fairfax Selv. To Rdr,, Off-cast words in the mouths of Handy-crafts-men and Earth-tillers. t'earth-tilth.

Obs, [f. earth sb.^ + tilth.] Cultivation of the soil, agriculture. Hence t earth-tilther = earth-tiller. c 1000 iELFRic Colloq. in Wr.-Wiilcker 99 Eor)?til)?, agricultura, 1388 Wyclif Ecclus. vii. 16 Haate thou not trauelouse werkis, and erthetilthe maad of the hi5este. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. xvii. clxxx. (1495) 720 Erthe tylthers and kepers of vynes.

earthward ('aiBwsd), adv, and adj. A. adv. Towards the earth. Also^ig. c 1440 Gesta Rom. xc. 413 (Add. MS.) The Fadre loked to the Erthward, and fownde a peny. 1646 Jenkyn Remora 28 Shall we run with the swiftnes of the Roe earthward, and go a dull Asses trot heavenward? 1880 Daily Tel. 4 Nov., The .. outpourings of smoke.. sink earthward.

B. as adj. 1870 M. D. Conway {title). The Earthward Pilgrimage.

t'earth-ware, sh. pi. Obs. [OE. eorpware, f. eorpe, earth sb.^ + -ware, as in heofonware heaven-dwellers, burhware, etc.] Earthdwellers. C893 K. .Alfred Oros. iii. v. §5 Crist.. sibb is heofonwara and eorSwara. c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 139 Sunne dei blissefi togederes houeneware and horSe ware, a 1225 Ancr. R. 322 A1 |?e wide worlde—eorSe ware and heouene ware.

earthwork ('aiBwark). [f. earth sb,^ + work sb.] 1. A bank or mound of earth used as a rampart or fortification. Not in i8th c. Diets. 1633 T. Stafford Pac. Hib. xv. (1821) 385 The Enemy had ground sufficient.. to cast up new Earth workes. 1830 Lyell Princ. Geol. I. 278 The remains of an ancient entrenchment.. This earth-work was evidently once of considerable extent, 1863 Kinglake Crimea (1877) III. iii. 340 The Russians had thrown up strong earthworks on the banks of the river.

2. The action or process of excavating (the bed of a canal, line of a railway, or other civil engineering work); the soil so cast up; EMBANKMENT 3. 1831-3 Encycl. Metropol. (1845) VIII. 247/1 The earth¬ work for a complete line of communication between Liverpool and Manchester. 1842 Francis Diet. Arts, Earth¬ work, a term applied to cuttings, embankments, and all other works where earth is to be removed or collected together, a 1854 C. Tomlinson Cycl. Useful Arts II. 448/2 The inclination of the earth-works, whether for excavations or embankments, must be determined mainly by their height. 1862 Chambers's Encycl. IV. 27/2 In the formation of canals, railways, and other roads, embankment and excavation go hand in hand, and, under the name of earthwork, form.. a vast branch of industry. 1899 Daily News 8 Mar. 7/1 The wretched earthwork labourers .. would be earning from z\ to 4 piastres per day near their own homes. 1911 Daily Colonist (Victoria, B.C.) 30 Apr. 1/7 Considerable heavy rock work here presents itself, as well as a fair amount of medium earthwork. 1955 Times 30 June 13/5 It is easy to forget that the gigantic earthworks of the railway age .. were performed in the main by spade and barrow, horse and cart.

earthworm

('aiGwaim). [f. earth sb.^ + WORM.] 1. A worm that lives in the ground, esp. an individual of the genus Lumbricus. 1591 Percivall Sp. Diet., Lombriz, an easse, an earth v/ormt, lumbricus. 1594 ? Greene Wks. 1881-3XIV. 220 We, like earth wormes lurking in the weeds, Do liue inglorious in all mens eyes. 1718 Quincy CompL Disp. 148 Earth-Worms, are often us’d in compositions for cooling and cleansing the Viscera. 1855 Owen Comp. Anat. (ed. 2) xi. 228 The second order [of annelids] includes the earth¬ worms.

2. fig. a. As a disparaging designation for a human being, esp. a mean or grovelling person, b. With allusion to the ‘worm’ in the grave. 1594 T. B. La Primaud. Fr. Acad. ii. Ep. Ded. 2 This generation of earth-wormes, which place nature.. in the roome of the Creatour. 1625 Burges Pers. Tithes 39 The Couetous Earth-worme would laugh in his sleeue to see his elbow vnderlaid with such a Cushion. 1684 Charnock

Attrib. God (1834) II. 606 How should such an earth-worm .. be afraid to speak irreverently of so great a king? 1869 Goulburn Purs. Holiness viii. 73 Apt to be smitten by the earthworm of death. attrib. 1626 W. Sclater Expos. 2 Thess. (1629) 22 God so ordering the state of his earth-worme Children.

earthy ('aiBi), a. [f. earth sb.^ + -y.] L 1. a. Of material substances: That is of the nature of earth or soil; having the characteristic properties of earth; resembling earth in some specific property. Of minerals: Without lustre, friable, and rough to the touch; also, containing impurities of the nature of earth, as in earthy cobalty hsematitey manganese, etc. 1667 Boyle Orig. Formes & Qual., The Earthy powder, I obtain’d from already distill’d Rain water. 1695 Woodward Nat. Hist. Earth (J.) All water.. is.. stored with matter, light in comparison of the common mineral earthy matter. 1797 M. Baillie Morb. Anat. (1807) 284 The kidneys have been said to be converted into an earthy substance. 1843 PoRTLOCK Geol. 225 Earthy Haematite is found at Bardahessigh. 1846 J. Baxter Libr. Pract. Agric. II. 293 An excess of vegetable matter is.. to be remedied by the application of earthy materials. 1863-82 Watts Diet. Chem. III. 814 Earthy Cobalt is a wad in which oxide of cobalt sometimes occurs to the amount of 33 per cent. 1877 Green Phys. Geol. ii. §5. 46 Crystalline rocks occasionally put on a loose friable form and are then said to be earthy.

b. Of qualities, etc.: Characteristic of earth. So earthy taste, smell, colour, earthy fracture: see quot. 1817. 155s Eden Decades W. Ind. ii. ix. (Arb.) 131 The skyn is of earthy coloure. 1626 Bacon Sylva §387 All sweet Smells have joyned with them some Earthy or Crude Odors. 1817 R. Jameson Char. Min. 235 When the fracture surface shews a great number of very small elevations and depressions, which make it appear rough, it is called earthy. 1839 T. Thomson Chem. Org. Bodies 508 An earthy fracture. 1840 R. Dana Bef. Mast xxxv. 133 The crispness of the raw onion, with the earthy taste.

c. Consisting of earth (said of the ground; cf. sandy), or of material resembling earth. Said fig. of the human body, esp. of a dead body. a 1586 Sidney Ps. xevi. Starry roofe, and earthy floore. 1593 Shaks. Rich. II, IV. i. 219 And soone lye Richard in an Earthie Pit. 1593-2 Hen. VI, iii. ii. 147 His dead and earthy Image, a 1652 J. Smith Sel. Disc. viii. 380 The soul must be wholly dissolved from this earthy body in which it is so deeply immersed. 1854 Hooker Himal. Jrnls, I. ii. 46 The.. egg-like earthy chrysalis of the Sphynx Atropos.

d. Electr. (See quot. 1940.) 1876 pREECE & Sivewright Telcgr. 257 If an underground wire becomes earthy, owing to the insulating covering being partly removed, and the conductor being thus laid bare, [etc.]. 1940 Chambers's Techn. Diet. 278/1 Earthy, said of (i) circuits when they are connected to earth, either directly.. or through a condenser; (2) any point in a communicating system.. which is at earth potential, although not actually connected to earth, through zero impedance. 1945 Electronic Engin. XVII. 735 The ‘earthy’ terminal is a shrouded insulated terminal which is connected to the earth terminal of the case. 1949 Ibid. XXI. 359 The feedback may be very conveniently t^en from the earthy end of the cathode load resistor.

H humorously. 1836 Dickens Sk. Boz (1877) 69 A damp earthy child.

t2. a. Having the properties of the ‘element’ earth, as distinguished from those of fire, air, or water; heavy, gross. So earthy vapour. Obs. 1626 Bacon Sy/tia §390 When they [flowers] are Crushed, the Grosser and more Earthy Spirit cometh out with the Finer and troubleth it. 1641 Wilkins Math. Magic (J.) Lamps are inflamed by the admission of new air, when the sepulchres are opened, as we see in fat earthy vapours. 1677 Hale Prim. Orig. Man. 76 The Clouds are attracted out of moist and watry, and also earthy Vapours.

b. fig. Grossly material, coarse, dull, unrefined. Sometimes with mixture of i. IS94 T. B. La Primaud. Fr. Acad. ii. 65 The sense of touching.. is most earthy of all the rest. 1610 Shaks. Temp. I. ii. 273 Thou wast a Spirit too delicate To act her earthy, and abhor’d commands. 1665 Boyle Occas. Refi. iv. ii. (1675) 176 Men whom., he was wont to undervalue, as being far more Earthy than himself. 1856 Emerson Eng. Traits xiv. Literature Wks. (Bohn) II. 103 They [the English] delight in strong earthy expressions .. coarsely true to the human body. 1868 Nettleship Browning ii. 74 The dumb striving of a humanity prisoned in too earthy a chamber.

3. Chem, Pertaining to the class of substances technically called ‘earths’, or to one of those substances; in mod. use, pertaining to the class of metallic oxides so designated, fAlso qxxasi-sb. 1718 Quincy CompL Disp. 10 The Particles of Sal Alcali do consist of earthy and acid united together. 1794 Sullivan View Nat. 1. 135 Bodies have been divided into six classes, saline, inflammable, metallic, earthy, watery, and aerial. 1805 W. Saunders Min. Waters 40 Sulphat of Lime .. is one of the commonest of all the earthy salts that are found in natural springs. 1809 Med.Jrnl. XXI. 475 Earthy carbonates. 1863-82 Watts Diet. Chem. II. 360 Baryta, strontia, and lime.. are sometimes designated earthy alkalis. 1883 Syd. Soc. Lex., Eastbourne. There is an earthy spring here of little moment.

4. Pertaining to the ground, or to what is below the ground; dwelling inside the earth; re¬ sembling a place underground. 1665 Dryden Indian Emp. ii. i. Wks. (1821) II. 313 Those earthy spirits black and envious are. 1794 Sullivan View Nat. II. 106 Beneath the earthy surface of the globe, we shall be able to trace its levelling and its dreadful energy. 1848 Dickens Dombey (C.D. ed.) 36 Little Paul might have asked with Hamlet ‘into my grave?’ so chill and earthy was the place.

fS. Pertaining to the earth in its geographical or astronomical aspect. Obs. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. xiii. v. (1495) 443 The ryuer Gyon hyghte Nilus.. and is cailyd the joynynge of the erthe, other erthy. 1640 Wilkins New Planet ii. (1684) 115 The gravity and magnitude of this Earthy Globe, do make it altogether unfit for so swift a Motion. 1721-1800 Bailey, Earthy Triplicity [in Astrology], the Signs Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn.

6. Dwelling or existing on the earth; characteristic of earthly as opposed to heavenly existence. Now only with a mixture of sense i, I c, or 2 b, as in the Biblical phrase of the earth, earthy. 159s Shaks. John iii. i. 147 What earthie name to Interrogatories, Can task the free breath of a sacred King? ihioq Chapman End of Learn, in Farr’s S.P. (1848) 253 Let a scholar all earthy volumes carrie. He will be but a walking dicionarie. 1615-Odyss. vii. 290 The impious race Of earthy giants, that would heaven outface. 1667 Milton P.L. IV. 583 If Spirit of other sort., have oreleapt these earthie bounds. 1682 Norris Hierocles 19 As apt to dwell and converse upon the Earth, and inform earthy bodies. 1829 H. Neele Lit. Rem. 45 The latter [Shakspeare] is of the earth, earthy. 18^ Sat. Rev. 13 Feb. 219 The..muse Urania is almost his only patroness; from her eight earthier sisters he gets hardly any assistance.

7. Comb. 01658 Cleveland Gen. Poems (1677) 167 O that in this case we were Earthy-minded. 1923 W. Deeping Secret Sanctuary vi. 62 A lean, peevish, earthy-faced man in a hard felt hat. 1922 D. H. Lawrence England, My England 240 Then he removed her saturated, earthy-smelling clothing.

'ear-,trumpet. An apparatus in the form of a straight or convoluted conoidal tube, used by persons somewhat deaf, to enable them to hear more distinctly. 1776 Burney Hist. Mus. I. 184 Perhaps Asclepiades was the inventor of the acousticon, or ear-trumpet. 1823 Byron Juan X. xxxiv, The ear-trumpet of my good old aunt.

eartu,

obs. f. art thou: see be v., and thou.

earun, obs. form of are: see be v. 'ear-wax. [f. ear s6.^] A viscid secretion which collects in the external meatus of the ear. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. xvii. v. (1495) 606 Eere wexe is put thereto to make it [aloes wood] somdeale bytter and redde. 1519 Horman Vulg. 27 b, Earewaxe doth stop the entrynge from small bestis. 1573 Art of Dimming 2 If there stand any belles uppon the sise, put in eare waxe, for it ys a remedy therefore. 1614 T. Adams in Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. xxvi. 10 Far be from our souls.. that the ear.. should be stopped with the earwax of partiality. 1791 E. Darwin Bot. Gard. II. 20 note, The ear-wax in animals seems to be in part designed to prevent insects from getting into their ears. 1876 Q UAIN Anat. (ed. 8) II. 631 The cerumen or ear-wax is secreted by these glands.

earwig ('rawig).

Forms: i, 2 earwiega, (i eorwiega), 5 erwyge, 3erwigge, erewygge, 6 erwygge, (herewigge), 6-7 earwigge, 7 earwick, earewigg, 6- earwig. [OE. earwiega, f. ear-e, ear sb.^ + OE. wiega earwig; cf. wiggle v. to wriggle. See also arwygyll. Cf. Fr. perceoreille, Ger. ohr-wurm.] 1. An insect, Forficula auricularia, so called from the notion that it penetrates into the head through the ear. ciooo .®lfric Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 122 Blatta, erowiega. ciooo Sax. Leechd. II. 44 Wif? earwiegan, jenim pset micle greate windel streaw twyeeje.. ceop on pact eare he bis of sona. 14.. Voc. Harl. MS. 1002 in Promp. Parv. 143 note, Auriolus, a jerwigge. c 1450 MS. Sloane 4. 80 in N. Q. III. VI. 4 Y' blacke flye, yr erwyge, y* old waspys. 1547 Salesbury Welsh Diet., Pryf klustioc, an erwygge. 1601 Holland Pliny II. 300 If an earwig.. be gotten into the eare .. spit into the same, and it will come forth anon, a 1643 W. Cartwright Poems (1651) (N.) I’m afraid ’Tis with one worm, one earwick overlaid. 1727 Swift To Young Lady, To fall into fits at the sight of a spider, an earwig or a frog. 01845 Hood Tale of Trumpet ix, No verbal message was worth a pin, Though you hired an earwig to carry it in!

H Perhaps with a pun on heretic. 1563 Foxe a. & M. (1631) III. xii. 988/2 He was once at the burning of an Herewigge (for so hee termed it) at Uxbridge.

■\2.fig. An ear whisperer, flatterer, parasite. 1633 Ford Broken H. ii. i. That gawdy earwig, or my lord your patron, Whose pensioner you are. 1688 Pol. Ballads (i860) 1. 260 Court earwigs banish from your ears. 1758 Herald II. 46 The earwigs of royalty.. will not hereafter be suffered to mislead majesty by whispering, etc.

3. Comb., as f earwig-brain, one who has a ‘maggot’ or craze in his brain. 1599 Nashe Lent. Stuffe 74 Eight score more galliard cross-points, and kickshiwinshes, of giddy ear-wig brains.

earwig ('lawig), v. [f. the sb.] 1. a. To pester with private importunities or admonitions, b. To influence, bias (a person) by secret communications; to insinuate oneself into the confidence of (a person). 1837 Marryat Dog-fiend (L.), He was so sure to be earwigged in private that what he heard or said openly went for little. 1839 Dickens O. Twist (1850) 251/2 Suppose he was to do all this.. not grabbed, trapped, tried, earwigged by the parson.. but of his own fancy. 1839 Blackw. Mag. XLV. 767 Each secretary of state is earwigged by a knot of sturdy beggars. 1867 S myth Sailor's Word-bk., Earwigging, feeding an officer’s ear with scandal against an absent individual.

EARWIGGY 2. in pa. pple. ? Having a 'maggot' or craze in one's brain, nonce-use. 1880 Browning Pietro 340 The people clamour, Hold their peace, now fight, now fondle, earwigged through the brains.

earwiggy ('lawigi), a. [f. earwig sh. + -y.] a. Infested by earwigs, b. Resembling an earwig. Hence 'ear.wigginess. 1870 Miss Broughton Red as Rose I. 82 A seat.. ‘I don’t fancy it.. it looks earwiggy’. 1865 Masson Rec. Brit. Philos. iv. 388 There was an inherent dogginess or earwigginess in the given kind of associable feelings.

earwise (’lawaiz), adv. rare. [See -wise.] 1. After the manner of an ear of corn, [ear sb.^] 1723 Bradley Fam. Diet. II. s.v. Mint, The Great Mint.. has leaves like Sage.. with a good Number of Stems at the End of which it produces Flowers growing Ear-wise.

2. By means of the ear; auricularly. [ear 56.^] 1835 T. Hook G. Gurney (1850) I. vii. 123 Although I took the advice earwise, I did not act upon it.

ear-witness, [f. ear sb.^] A person who testifies, or is able to testify, to something on the evidence of his own hearing. 1594 Hooker Eccl. Pol. v. 257 All which are present being made eare-witnesses. 1636 Healey Epictetus' Man. Ixix. 89 Let not.. the vulgar bee eare-witnesses of thy words, but eye-witnesses of thy workes. 1734 tr. Rollin's Anc. Hist. (1827) I. I. § I. 181 Strabo himself was an ear-witness of this. 1850 Grote Greece ii. Ixiv. VI11. 269 The last words of these drowning men reported by an ear-witness. 1870 Bowen Logic xiii. 433 The Testimony of eye- and ear-witnesses.

t'eary, a. Obs. In 6 earie. [f. ear sb.^ + -y.] Of the nature or appearance of an ear (of corn). 1578 Lyte Dodoens ii. xviii. 168 His spikie tuftes, or earie floures are greater, longer and fuller.

easalon, var. of esalon, a small buzzard. ease (i:z), sb. Forms: 3 eaise, ays, esse, (4 hess, hayse), 3-4 eise, ais, 3-6 es(e, 4 ess, eyss, 4-5 eyse, ayse, 5 aiese, (hesse), 6 eas, {Sc.) eais, eis, 4- ease. [a. OF. eise, aise (mod. aise) fern., cogn. w. Pr. ais, It. agio (formerly also asio), Pg. azo masc.; late L. type *asia, *asium, of uncertain origin. The earliest senses of Fr. aise appear to be: i. elbow-room (‘espace libre aux cotes de quelqu’un’, A. Darmesteter, from Heb.-Fr. gloss nth c.); 2. opportunity. It has been suggested by Bugge that *asia, *asium may be f. dsa, a recorded vulgar form of L. ansa handle, used fig. in sense ‘opportunity, occasion’. With reference to the sense ‘elbowroom’ it is remarked that ansdtus ‘furnished with handles ’ is used in Lat. for ‘having the arms a-kimbo’. This is not very satisfactory, but it does not appear that any equally plausible alternative has yet been proposed. Connexion with eath is impossible.]

fl. 1. Opportunity, means or ability to do something (cf. easy a. i). a 1225 Ancr. R. 288 3if per were eise uorto fulfullen pe dede. CI230 Mali Meid. 17 Man seiS pat eise makefi peof. a 1500 Life St. Katherine (Halliwell 1848) 2 The riche come .. and broghte with them ryches moche, And the pore come also And after there ese broght tho.

II. Comfort, absence of pain or trouble. 2. Comfort, convenience; formerly also, advantage, profit, and in stronger sense, pleasure, enjoyment, to take one’s ease: to make oneself comfortable. ^ to do (a person) ease: to give pleasure or assistance to. ^to be (o person’s) ease: to be pleasing, convenient, advantageous. a 1225 Ancr. R. 114 GruccheS 3if heo naueS nout oSer mete o6er drunch efter hire eaise. c 1230 Mali Meid. 28 I-se swote eise wiSute swuch trubuil. 01300 Cursor M. 22773 Werldis worschip. .siluer and gold and esse [F. ese, C. es, Edinb. ais] of lijf. 1375 Barbour Bruce in. 623 Bot mycht nane eyss let hyr to think On the king, that sa sar wes stad. 1393 Gower Conf. HI. 35 The woundes of his mala^ They [i.e. the hounds] licken for to done him ese. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. xviii. xlvi. {1495) 807 Them that hue delycately and in ease and reste. CI400 Cato's Mor. 199 in Cursor M. p. 1672 Quen pou art in gode ese . pou pink on misese. C1400 Rom. Rose 7500 We wolden, if it were your ese.. A short sermon unto you seyne. c 1440 Gesta Rom. Ixx. 386 (Add. MS.), I wil neper selle it..for the aiese that it dothe me. 1503-4 Act ig Hen. VII, xxviii. Preamb., His Highnes is not mynded for the eas of his subgiectes.. of longe tyme to calle.. a newe parliament. 1523 Ld. Berners Froiss. I. cccxcvii. 686 It was nat his ease to come to Tourney as at that tyme. 1535 Stewart Cron. Scot. II. 653 He levis weill that levis into eis. 01555 Latimer Wks. 1845 II. 479 Latimer:—‘Good master Prolocutor, do not exact that of me which is not in me.’ Pro/ocofor:—‘Take your ease.’ Latimer:—'\ thank you, sir, I am well.’ 1602 Shaks. Ham. i. i. 131 Any good thing.. That may to thee do ease; and grace to me. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. ii. xxx. 184 The ease, and benefit the Subjects may enjoy. 1762-71 H. Walpole Vertue's Anecd. Paint. (1786) IV. 234 The General could not live in it to his ease. 1825 T. Jefferson Autobiog. Wks. 1859 I. 4 The portion which came.. to Mrs. Jefferson.. doubled the ease of our circumstances. 1841-4 Emerson Ess. Manners Wks. (Bohn) I. 205 The popular notion [of a gentleman] certainly adds a condition of ease and fortune. 1870 Hawthorne Eng. Note-bks. (1879) II. 217 The occasional ease of rustic seats. fb. concr. A convenience, gratification,

luxury. 1393 Gower Conf. II. 38 Idelnesse. .secheth eses many folde. 1484-5 Caxton Curial 3 b. Noman preyseth ynough the ayses that he hath in hys pryuate and propre hous. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 81 She can cause her prelate to

EASE

33 dispence with her to haue suche pleasures & eases. 1629 Parkinson Paradisi in sole (1656) 5 A Fountain in the midst .. to serve as an ease to water the nearest parts thereunto. a 1631 Donne Serm. xxxix. 384 Uriah.. refused to take the Eases of his own house.

3. Absence of pain or discomfort; freedom from annoyance. a 1225 Ancr. R. 358 Nis he a kang knit pet secheS reste iSe nihte, and eise iSe place? a 1300 Havelok 59 panne was engelond at hayse. 1597 Morley Introd. Mus. 55,1 wish you such contentment of minde, and ease of bodie. 1657 S. PuRCHAS Pol. Flying Ins. 276 There were more ease in a nest of Hornets, then under this one torture. 1711 Steele Spect. No. 80 IP i They now no longer enjoyed the Ease of Mind and pleasing Indolence in which they were formerly happy. 1750 Johnson Rambl. No. 85 fP4 Ease, a neutral state between pain & pleasure. 1792 Burke Corr. (1844) IV. i The horrid scenes.. hardly leave one ease enough of heart or clearness of head to put down any thing .. on paper to you. 1863 Geo. Eliot Romola ii. ii. (1880) II. 16 He wanted a little ease.. after the agitation and exertions of the day.

4. Absence of painful effort; freedom from the burden of toil; leisure; in bad sense, idleness, sloth. 1393 Gower Conf. HI. 110 He loveth ese, he loveth rest. So he is nought the worthiest, c 1440 Promp. Parv. 143 Ese, or reste, quies. 1577 tr. Bullinger's Decades (1592) 138 Ease breedeth vice. 1697 Dryden Virg. George, i. 184 The Sire of Gods and Men .. Forbids our Plenty to be bought with Ease. 1871 R. Ellis Catullus li. 15 Ease hath entomb’d princes of old renown and Cities of honour.

b. Facility as opposed to difficulty. Chiefly in phrase, vuith ease. 1610 Shaks. Temp. iii. i. 30, I should do it With much more ease. 1^7 Dryden Virg. Georg, iv. 137 With ease distinguish’d is the Regal Race. 1737 Pope Horace' Epist. ii. i. 108 The mob of gentlemen who wrote with ease. 1856 Ruskin Mod. Paint. III. iv. xvi. §27 Another.. test of greatness is.. the appearance of Ease with which the thing is done. 1868 Tennyson Lucretius 174 Seeing with how great ease Nature can smile.

c. Indifference, unconcern; hesitation or scruple.

absence

of

1808 Bentham Sc. Reform 2 In your lordship it beholds its patron and introducer; the author, it is matter of ease to me not to know. 1818 Jas. Mill Brit. India II. v. viii. 661 Where the Governor-General spoke of pensions with so much ease, he well knew, that in the circumstances.. a pension.. little or nothing differed from a name.

5. Freedom from constraint; an unconstrained position or attitude; esp. in Mil, phrase, to stand at ease: see quot. 1802 C. James Mil. Diet., Fare.. signifies a prescribed relaxation of the frame from the erect and firm position which every well-dressed soldier should assume.. To stand at ease is to draw the right foot back about six inches, and to bring the greatest part of the weight of the body upon it. 1830 Marryat King's Own xli, His usual ‘stand at ease’ position. 1833 Regul. Instr. Cavalry i. 43 Stand at Ease. Ibid. 61 Sit at Ease. 1853 Stocqueler Milit. Encycl. s.v. Stand, To stand at ease is to be allowed., a certain indulgence with regard to bodily position, with or without arms.

6.

Freedom from embarrassment awkwardness in social behaviour.

or

1750 Johnson Rambl. No. 157 |f8 Enabled me to discourse with ease and volubility, a 1764 LLoyd Whim, Wears his own mirth with native ease. 1832 Ht. Martineau Hill & Vail. iv. 65 Mrs. Wallace envied Mrs. Sydney the ease and kindness with which she conversed. 1855 Macaulay Hist. Eng. III. 469 A certain graceful ease marks him as a man who knows the world. 1863 Froude Hist. Eng. VIII. 91 She..moved about among the dignitaries of the University, with combined authority and ease.

7. Phrases (senses i-6). a. at ease, at one’s ease, f well at ease: in comfort, without anxiety or annoyance, unconstrained, unembarrassed; formerly also, in comfortable circumstances, well-to-do. b. ill (feutZ) at ease: uncomfortable, uneasy, fc- little ease: used as a name for a prison-cell too small to permit the person occupying it to assume a comfortable position. a. a 1300 Cursor M. 13136 All war sett and ete at esse. Ibid. 17651 He was gestind ful wele at ais. 1375 Barbour Bruce i. 228 He levys at ess that frely levys. C1450 Merlin xxii. 397 Galashin was not all at his ese, ffor he was yet amonge the horse feet. 1535 Coverdale Hosea ii. 7, I will go turne agayne to my first huszbonde, for at y* tyme was I better at ease, then now. 1668-9 Marvell Corr. cix. Wks. 1872-5 II. 268 If.. you have given us a rule to walke by, our discretion will be more at ease. 1670 Cotton Espernon ii. v. 210 Monied men..amongst whom his Majesty conceiving the Duke of Espernon to be one the most at his ease, etc. 1711 Addison Spect. No. 106 f 2, I am the more at Ease in Sir Roger’s Family, because it consists of sober and staid Persons. 1821 Syd. Smith Lett, cc. An old Aunt has., left me an estate.. this puts me a little at my ease, i860 Tyndall Glac. I. §27. 202 We all felt more at ease when a safe footing was secured. 1868 E. Edwards Ralegh I. xxiv. 564 He felt much more at his ease in the saddle than afoot. b. a 1300 Cursor M. 16119 Mi wyf es sumquat iuel at ess [ v.r. ese]. 01450 Knt. de la Tour (1868) 59 She..was of euelle atte ease in this worlde. 1483 Vulg. abs Terentio 2 a, Iii. or .iiii. days 3itt j was euyll att ese in my hede. 1642 T. Taylor God's Judgem. i. 1. xx. 70 He feigned himselfe to be evill at ease. 1832 Tennyson Miller's Dau. xix, You were ill at ease.. Too fearful that you should not please. c. 1690 W. Walker Idiomat. Anglo-Lat. 156 A little ease (i.e. a prison). 1829 Heath Grocer's Comp. (1869) 92 note. Little Ease was a place of confinement for unruly apprentices; it was situated in the Guildhall.

III. Relief, alleviation. [Somewhat influenced by the verb.] 8. Relief or mitigation of pain or discomfort; release from an annoyance. Const, from, of.

1542-3 Act 34 J5 Hen. VIII, viii. §i Surgions.. mindinge onely their owne lucres, & nothing the profit or ease of the disesed or pacient. 1588 Allen Admon. 17 Sum little ease and release of the intollerable feares and miseries. 1702 J. Purcell Cholick (1714) 103 The Patient breaks much Wind upwards and downwards, and finds Ease thereby. 1729 Butler Serm. Wks. 1874 II. 61 That positive enjoyment, which sudden ease from pain.. affords. 1775 Johnson Tax. no Tyr. 61 That a great man may get ease from importunity. 1841 Lane Arab. Nts. I. 112 Liberate him, said the King, and give us ease.

h. ^to do one's ease: to relieve the bowels. So seat, t house of ease. c 1645 Howell Lett. (1655) I. § i. xviii. 28 It happen’d the King was come from doing his Ease. 1731 Swift Strephen 6 C. Wks. 1755 IV. I. 157 Had you but through a cranny spied, On house of ease your future bride, c 1850 Rudim. Navig. (Weale) 143 Round-house at the Head. Conveniences or seats of ease for the officers.

c. chapel of ease: see chapel. So also (humorously) court of ease, theatre of ease: one provided to relieve the crowding in a larger building. 1779 Sheridan Critic i. i. Make the stage a court of ease to the old Bailey. 1796 J. Owen Trav. Europe II. 429 It seems a sort of theatre of ease to that called the National.

9. Relief from constraint or pressure; abrogation or alleviation of a burden or obligation; fredress of grievances, ^vorit of ease: a certificate of discharge from employment; transf. a ‘bill of divorcement'. 1576 Lambarde Peramb. Kent (1826) 107 Hastings, Dover, Hithe [etc.].. were the first Ports of priviledge .. although.. divers other places also (for the ease of their charge) be crept in. 1587 Fleming Contn. Holinshed HI. 1345/2 Thus was justice ministred, and that execution to Gods glorie, & the ease of the common wealths greefe dispatched. 1643 Milton Divorce ii. xvi. (1851) 103 Salomith.. sent a writ of ease to.. her husband; which, as Josephus there attests, was lawful! only to men. 1647-8 Cotterell Davila's Hist. Fr. (1678) 18 Having.. tried gentle measures, and.. found no Ease. 1679-1714 Burnet Hist. Ref., Mischiefs.. might follow, if princes get not.. ease from the apostolic see. 1^3 W. Robertson Phraseol. Gen. 519 He hath a writ of ease given him; rude donatus est.

fio. concr. (from 8, 9): An act or means of relieving pain or discomfort, of giving relaxation from burdens, an easement, relief. Obs. C1440 Promp. Parv. 143 Ese, or cowmfort, levamen, consolamen. 1603 Florio Montaigne ii. xii. (1632) 275 Eases of griefes he reposeth.. in calling from the thought of offence. 1606 Shaks. Tr. & Cr. v. x. 56 Till then, He sweate, and seeke about for eases. 1701 J. Law Counc. Trade ^1751) 172 This ease., of the industry, would chiefly and principally fall on the lands by two several ways. 01718 Penn Life in Wks. 1726 I. 129 Dissenters receiv’d a General Ease, and enjoy’d their Meetings peaceably. 1737 Whiston Josephus' Antiq. iii. iii, That [discovery of springs] was an ease to them [the Israelites suffering thirst]. 1747 in Col. Rec. Penn. V. 141 Required by His Majesty from those Colonies to be done in ease of the National Expence.

IV. 11. Comb., as -^ease-bred, -loving adjs.; ease-and-comfort, a leg-rest, consisting of two boards fixed in the shape of a T ; f ease-room, a comfortable lodging-room; cf. easement i d. 1591 Troubl. Raigne K. John (1611) 62 The ease-bred Abbots, and the bare-foot Friars..Are all in health. 1629 Rutherford Let v. (1862) I. 47 In your house there are fair ease-rooms and pleasant lights. 1^7 C’tess Blessington M. Herbert (Tauchn.) I. 126 A bergere in each of the rooms, with abundant pillows to prop up her weak frame, and an ease-and-comfort to each, to support her legs. 1878 Bosw. Smith Carthage 175 Around Hanno gathered all that was ease-loving, all that was shortsighted.

ease, obs. and dial, var of eaves. ease (i:z), v. Forms: 4 eysy, eyse, (heise), eyss, {Sc.) eiss, eese, ayse(n, 4-5 esy(n, 4-6 ese(n, 5ease. [Prob. originally ad. OF. aaisier = It. adagiare, f. L. ad to, at -I- late L. *asiu-m ease but virtually f. the sb.] 1. a. trans. To give ease (physically) to; to render more comfortable, relieve from pain, etc. Also with out of and {U.S.) with up. 1340 Ayenb. 82 \>o pet byep zuo wyse to loky pet body and to eysy and to delyty. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. xvii. liii. (1495) 635 luy hathe vertue of rypynge, of clensynge and of easynge. ? 01400 Chester PI. ii. (1847) 5 This woman.. That esead me this hasse. 1413 Lydg. Pylgr. Sowle iv. xxxii. (1483) 81 Oftimes these armes wil bleden to esen and comforten the hede. 1535 Coverdale i Sam. xvi. 23 So was Saul refreszshed, & eased. 1588 J. Udall Diotrephes (Arb.) 7 Though it grieue mee to thinke vpon it, yet it easeth my stomacke to tell it. i8ire thyng Dat esful ware to pare lykyng. 1580 Sidney Arcadia iii. 377 Wishing easeful rest to Philoclea. 1577 Holii?(Shed Chron. I. 58/2 How pleasant and easefull the good lucke of those princes. 1607 C. Lever in Farr’s S.P. 168 To make his burthen Easeful as hee may. 1625 tr. Gonsalvio's Sp. Inquis. 123 A bed of flags which serued them both to couch on, more painefull a great deale then easefull. 1641 Milton Ch. Govt. Wks. 1738 I. 67 It is neither easeful, profitable, nor praiseworthy in this Life to do evil. 1820 I^ATS Ode Nightingale 52 For many a time I have been half in love with easeful Death. 1886 T. Hardy in Macm. Mag. 70 That easeful sense of accomplishment which follows work done that has been a hard struggle in the doing.

2. Unoccupied, at rest; addicted to ease or indolence, slothful, careless. 1611 CoTGR., Aiser, to be lazie, easefull. a 1618 Raleigh Seat of Govt. (1651) 66 Giving the best of their grain to the easefull and idle. 1628 Wither Brit. Rememb. iii. 18 The faire smooth way, of easefull Pleasure tends. 1686 J. Crook Ep. Yng. People prof. Truth 4 Rest no longer in an easeful mind..but sink down in deep Humility. 1855 Singleton Virgil I. 88 Winter is easeful for the husbandman.

Hence 'easefully adv., in an easeful manner; comfortably; idly, 'easefulness, the condition of being easeful. 1611 CoTGR., Estre en lapaille iusques au ventre, to be fully accommodated, easefully lodged, a 1639 W. Whateley Prototypes i. xix. (1640) 235 The diligent man takes as much content in his moderate labour, as the sluggard in somnolency and easefulnesse. 1883 Brit. Q. Rev. July 15 The exceeding sense of comfort and easefulness. 1886 Graphic z’j Feb. 242/1 Standing with her hands on her hips, easefully looking at the preparations on her behalf.

easel ('iizsl, 'iiz(3)l). Also 7-8 easle, 8 ezel. [ad. Du ezel = Get. esel ass. Cf. the similar use of HORSE.] A wooden frame to support a picture while the painter is at work upon it; a similar frame used to support a blackboard, etc. (In quot. 1791 a blunder iot palette.) 1634 J. B[ate] Myst. Nat. iig Provide a frame or Easel called by Artists. 1688 R. Holme Armoury iii. 193/1 St. Luke, the Patron of Painters.. is drawn at his Easle working. *733 Belchier in Phtl. Trans. XXXVIII. 196 The Trunk of a Skeleton fix’d to a Painter’s Ezel. 1791 E. Darwin Bot. Gard. 1. 7 Many of the unexpected changes in mixing colours on a painter’s easle.. may depend on these principles. 1859 Gullick & Times Paint. 199 The Easel is a frame which supports the painting during its progress.

b. as the typical instrument of a painter. 1838-9 Hallam Hist. Lit. I. i. iii. 223 note. Some productions of his easel vie with those of Raphael.

Hence 'easeldom (nonce-wd.), painting as a profession; the whole body of painters, easelpicture, easel-piece, a picture painted at the easel, or small enough to stand upon it. 1706 Art of Painting (1744) 308 He continued working on his easel-pieces. 1841 W. Spalding Italy & It. Isl. II. 396 His easel-pictures are perfect models of colouring, i860 Sala in Cornh. Mag. I. 578 This grandee of easeldom.

easeless (’iizlis), a. [f. ease sb. + -less.] 1. Of persons: Having no ease or rest. rare. 1632 Vicars JEneid ii. 915 Thus as I ceaselesse, easelesse pri’d about, In every nook, furious to finde her out.

2. Of pain or distress: Having no abatement, admitting of no relief. 01593 Smith Wks. (1867) II. 169 It will take from them all pleasure, and bring them to easeless, and yet endless, pain. 1633 Drumm. of Hawth. Speeches K. Chas., Thou becalm’st Mind’s easeless anguish. 01770 Whitefield Serm. xxxii. Wks. 1772 VI. to Easeless and endless misery.

3. Destitute of ease in bearing or manner, rare. 1811 Monthly Mag. XXXI. 5 It is often accompanied with a punctilious easeless behaviour.

easement ('iizmsnt). Also 4 eyse-, 4-5 esement, 5 esmint, -ment, aysyament, (6 hesement), 6-8 eas-, 7 aisment. [a. OF. aisement, f. ais-ier, ease V.: see -ment; cf. Anglo-Lat. aisiamentum.) 1. The process or means of giving or obtaining ease or relief from pain, discomfort, or anything annoying or burdensome; relief, alleviation; fredress of grievances. Now somewhat rare. c 1386 Chaucer Reeve’s T. 259 Some esement has iawe yshapen us. c 1400 Destr. Troy 7988 We exiled for euermore

EASER our easement to laite. 1583 Golding Calvin on Deut. xviii. 105 In sted of easement he findeth himself tormented dubble. 1640-9 Sir B. Rudyard in Rushw. Hist. Coll. iii. (1692) I. 24 They must.. be eased in their Goods, from the exactions.. of Pursevants [etc.].. And if the People have all these easements, yet if, etc. 1796 Burke Let. noble Ld. Wks. 1842 II. 260, I certainly stand in need of every kind of relief and easement. 1840 W. Howitt Visits Remark. Places 200 Seeking a little easement of their swollen purses. 1876 Bancroft Hist. U.S. III. ix. 405 He promised its reduction to three shillings in the pound, an easement to the landed interest of five hundred thousand pounds.

EASSIN

35 c 1386 Chaucer Prol. 471 Vp on an Amblere esily [v.r. esely] she sat. C1440 York Myst. xlviii. 298 Belyve 3e brought me of )?e beste And made my bedde full esyly. 1562 Act 5 Eliz. xii. §3 Persons seeking only to live easily, and to leave their honest Labour. 1600 Shaks. A.Y.L. iii. ii. 339 The one sleepes easily because he cannot study. Mod. The patient rested much more easily last night.

2. Without constraint or stiffness; smoothly, freely,

purchase makes the profit so much the greater. 1800 Stuart in Wellington's Disp. (1877) 575 Besides easiness of conquest, they would find wealth.

5. The quality of not being harsh or exacting; gentleness, indulgence, kindness. 1483 Vulg. abs Terentio 20 a, To holde chylder vndir wyth shame & gentillnes sofnes or esynes. 1611 Beaum. & Fl. Maid's Trag. iv. i. Do you raise mirth out of my easiness? 1651 Hobbes Leviath. iv. xliv. 347 The Easinesse of our Saviour, in bearing with offences, etc. 1748 Butler Serm. Wks. 1874 II. 304 That easiness of temper, which..is expressed by the word good-humour. 1862 Trench Mirac. xxiii. 344 Behind a seeming severity lurks the real love, while under the mask of greater easiness selfishness lies hid.

fb. dogs of easement', dogs employed to take up the chase in place of those that are spent. Obs.

1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. v. iii, pis puppis [the hinder part of the brain] is harde pat pe synewis of meuynge meue pt eseloker [1535 easelier] and pe soner. 1535 Coverdale 2 Sam. XX. 8 A swerde.. which wente easely out and in. 1599 Shaks. Much Ado v. i. 159 Sir, your wit ambles well; it goes easily. Mod. The window-frame fits quite easily.

1616 SuRFL. & Markh. Countr. Farm 692 Then also you must let slip some of your fresh dogs, or dogs of easement.

t3. Without hurry; deliberately, gradually. Also, calmly, quietly. Obs.

t6. The quality of being easily influenced; in bad sense, credulity; want of firmness, fickleness.

1384 Chaucer H. Fame 1675 That through the worlde her fame goo Esely and not to faste. C1400 Destr. Troy 2208 When Priam hade his prologe preched to ende, Ector hym answarede esely and faire. ci^o Anc. Cookery in Househ. Ord. (1790) 473 Let hit renne thorugh esiliche. 1483 Vulg. abs Terentio 7 b, Bere esily thy harme & it shall greue the the lesse. i6ii Tourneur Ath. Trag. ii. iv, I am acquainted with the way.. Lets easily walke. 1695 Ld. Preston Boeth. I. 9 She reach’d her Hand easily towards my Breast.

ae wind him gon wende, & stod of pan $st ende. eople, not far from these, Eastwardly, of a Dwarfish Stature. 1747 Dobbs in Phil. Trans. XLIV. 474 Behring sailed.. to the Isles of Japon, and from thence Eastwardly 50 German miles. 1791 Smeaton Edystone L. §100 There is a breeze e^twardly. 1807 Vancouver Agric. Devon (1813) 46 Continuing eastwardly along the coast.

B. adj. a. That has an eastern direction. Also, facing the east. b. Of the wind: That blows from the east. 1703 Essex Inst. Hist. Coll. XLII. 360 Thence on a Straigh[t] lien to a heap of Stones on the Eastwardly sied of a hill. 1768 Washington Diary 2 Aug. (1925) I. 286 Wind Eastwardly—with appearances of Rain. 1791 Smeaton Edystone L. §68 The wind was eastwardly. 1805 Flinders in Phil. Trans. XCVI. 258 The eastwardly winds appearing to have set in. 1870 Proctor Other Worlds iv. 108 note. Higher latitudes where the earth’s eastwardly motion is less. 1883 - in Knowledge 20 July 41/2 The body at P is carried eastward by the eastwardly motion of G.

eastwards ('iistwadz), adv. [f.

eastward + -s; cf. backwards, upwards.^ = eastward adv. 1517 Torkington Pilgr. (1884) 38 The londe.. marcheth Estwardis to the kyngdom of Araby. 1877 R. J. More Under Balkans, The corpse.. was.. laid feet eastwards.

'east 'wind, 'east-'wind. [OE. eastanwind: see EAST A. I.] a. The wind blowing from the east. In England and in New England proverbially bleak, unpleasant, and injurious to health; hence often fig. In quots. from or allusions to the Bible the fig. sense refers to the scorching and destructive east wind of Palestine. Hence eastwinded adj. ciooo i^LFRic Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 143 Subsolanus, eastenwind. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. xi. iii. (1495) 386 The Este wynde that hight Subsolanus. 1483 Cath. Angl. 118 J>e Estewynde, eurus. 1535 Coverdale Ezek. xvii. 10 Withered..as soone as y® east wynde bloweth. 1649 R. Hodges Plain. Direct. 4 An East-winde may spoil a nest of yong birds. 1722 De Foe Plague 262 It was to no more purpose to talk to them than to an East-wind, i860 Pusey Min. Proph. 75 The east wind in Palestine.. is parching, scorching, destructive to vegetation, oppressive to man. 1864 Lowell Fireside Trav. 53 [A nature] so steeped.. in sunshine that the east winds (physical or intellectual) of Boston.. assailed it in vain. 1873 Miss Thackeray Old Kensington ii. 9 One bitter east-winded morning.

b. In the game of mah jong the name given to one of the four tiles called winds, and to a disc representing this tile; hence, the player drawing this disc, who is the first to play. 1922 R. E. Lindsell Ma-cheuk 9 Four players make up a table, and seats are usually determined by chance, the four discs (‘East’, ‘South’, ‘West’, and ‘North’) being placed face-down on the table and each player drawing one in turn. The player who draws ‘East’ has choice of seats. Ibid. 25 In the East round, South has originally one East wind. 1923 Daily Mail 3 Mar. 7 Why ‘East Wind’ should have played his ‘Red Dragon’. 1924 Mah Jong Rules of Queen's Club 9 ‘Jong’ is always East Wind, the player on his right South. i960 R. C. Bell Board & Table Games vi. 152 The tiles are grouped into..The East, South, West, and North Winds. Ibid. 153 The person drawing East Wind takes the seat in front of the tong and drops his disc into it. Ibid. 156 The first round is East Wind’s, and continues until each player in turn has been East.

'east-wise, adv. (nonce-wd.) [f. = EASTWARD.

east + -wise.]

1882 E. C. Baber in Roy. Geog. Soc. Suppl. Pap. 1.1. 115 The elegant northward meander with the graceful turn eastwise provided for it by cartographers.

easy ('i:zi), a. and adv. Forms: 3-4 aisie, -y, ?eise, 3-5 eese, -i, -y, 4-6 esee, -i(e, -y(e, (4 eisy, 5 eyse, 3eesy, hesy), 6-8 easie, -ye, (9 dial, yezzy, yeasy) 4- easy. [a. OF. aisie (mod. aise)y pa. pple. of OF. aisety aisier to put at ease, whence EASE V. The development of the Eng. senses has been affected by ease sb.’y the mod.Fr. uses of aise may also have had some influence.] A. adj. I. At ease; characterized by ease or freedom from pain or constraint. fl. At liberty, having opportunity or means (to do something). Cf. ease sb. i. [Possibly eise in quot. 1225 may be a distinct word, a. Fr. aise at ease.] C1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 47 OflTredde loc for him . aise hie aisie was; gif hie was riche wimman . a lomb.. gif hie was poure two duue briddes. a 1225 Ancr. R. 20 Et te one psalme 3e schulen stonden, jif 3e beo6 eise, [v.r. aise] & et te o8er sitten.

2. Of conditions or state: Characterized by ease or rest; comfortable, luxurious, quiet. c 1380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 166 Worldly honour & aisy lif. 1483 Cath. Angl. 117 Esy; ediosus, securtdus. 1664 Evelyn Kal. Hort. (1729) 185 You vie Happiness in a thousand easy and sweet Diversions, c 1680 Beveridge Serm. (1729) I. 123 In the full enjoyment of all things that can make their life easy, pleasant and happy. 1719 De Foe Crusoe i. 114 My Condition began now to be.. much easier to my mind. 18.. Mrs. Browning Lit. Mattie v, ’Twas a green and easy world As she took it.

3. Of persons: Free from physical pain or discomfort, or from outward annoyance or burden.

C1440 Promp. Parv. 143 Esy, Quietus. 1695 Blackmore Pr. Arth. ii. 741 The sick grow easie, and the feeble strong, a 1791 Wesley Wks. (1830) XII. 131 Mr. W’s radical cure I shall hardly try, I am very easy, and that is enough. 1803 Med. Jrni. X. 256 Head easy, thirst and general indisposition continued. 1809 Ibid. XXI. 487 After an opiate he became easier. 1902 O. Wister Virginian iv. 44 ‘She’s easier this morning, since the medicine.’ This was the engineer, whose sick wife had brought a hush over Medicine Bow’s rioting.

4. a. Free from constraint or stiffness; chiefly of or with reference to bodily posture or movements. Also transf. of manners or behaviour: Free from embarrassment or awkwardness. Also in phrase,/rec and easy (see free). 1483 Cath. Angl. 117 Esy of gate; gracilis. 1656 H. More Antid. Ath. (1712) Gen. Pref. 17 That 1 might the more undisturbedly write the easie Emanations of mine own Mind. 1680 Burnet Rochester 7 His conversation was easie and obliging. 1704 Rowe Ulyss. 1. i. 77 Be easie, affable, familiar, friendly. 1750 Earl Shaftesb. in Priv. Lett. istLd. Malmesbury I. 77 Handel..is quite easy in his behaviour. 1821 Scott Kenilw. xvi, Leicester, bowing to his rival with the easiest and most graceful courtesy. 1837 Ht. Martineau Soc. Amer. III. 142 He was a most friendly personage, as willing as he was free and easy. 1850 Mrs. Jameson Leg. Monast. Ord. (1863) 279 To an easy graceful carriage.. he added.. great skill in argument. b. of written compositions: Showing no trace

of effort; smooth, flowing. writer or thinker.

Also transf.

Of a

1711 Steele Spect. No. 109 IP5 He sits with one Hand on a Desk writing and looking as it were another way, like an easy Writer. 1713 Guardian No. 15 (1756) I. 69 As there is an easy mien, and easy dress..so there is an easy sort of poetry. 1832 tr. SismontTs Ital. Rep. vii. 153 The light, elegant, and easy prose of his novels. 1880 L. Stephen Pope iv. 90 He could seldom lay aside his self-consciousness sufficiently to write an easy letter. 1884 Church Bacon ix. 220 Easy and unstudied as his writing seems, it was.. the result of unintermitted trouble and varied modes of working.

5. a. Not hard pressed: not hurried, gentle; said of motion, a breeze, a fire, etc. Also Naut.y as easy sail. C1385 Chaucer L.G.W. 284, I saugh comyng of ladyes nientene In.. a ful esy paas. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. III. xvii. (Tollem. MS.), To make pe sy3te perfit pis pingis bep nedful; pe cause efficient.. and takynge hede, and esy meuynge [L. motus mediocris^. Ibid. xix. lx. (1495) 897 Oximell is sodde on easy fyre and softe vnto it be thycke. CI440 Promp. Parv. 143 Esy, or softe, yn sterynge, lentus. 1607 Topsell Serpents 795 They have a very slow and easie pace. 1671 Milton P.R. i. 120 So to the Coast of Jordan he directs His easie steps. 1704 J. Cuningham in Phil. Trans. XXV. 1659 Fair and serene weather.. with easie Gales at S. 1716 Lond. Gaz. No. 5450/2 We made an easie sail for the Maese. 1834 Caunter Orient. Ann. i. 2 We coasted within four leagues of the land, under easy sail, with light breezes. 1852 G. W. Curtis Wand, in Syria i. i. 8 The donkeys are like large dogs, and of easy motion. 1867 Smyth Sailor's Word-bk, Easy draught. The same as light draught of water. Easy roll. A vessel is said to roll deep but easy, when she moves slowly, and not with quick jerks. b. be ea53;.' do not hurry, don’t be so eager.

Now considered an ‘Irishism’. 1746 W. Thompson Gentleman.. advised the for a little Time. 1838 J aisy!.. and don’t be after

R.N. Advoc. (1757) 26 That said William Thompson to be easy Grant Sk. Lond. 41 ‘Be aisy, be killin’ him quite.’

6. Free from mental anxiety, care, or apprehension. Phrase, to make (a person) easy. 1692 E. Walker Epictetus' Mor. xx, Manage the rest of your affairs of Life With easie Conversation, void of Strife. 1719 De Foe Crusoe (1840) I. xx. 363, I was perfectly easy as to the security of my effects. 1722-Col. Jack (1840) 208, I made her easy on that point. 1818 Jas. Mill Brit. India II. iv. v. 187 Meer Causim was not easy upon the prospect of a connexion between the Emperor and the English. 1885 Sir J. Hannen in Law Rep. 10 P.D. 88 A sensitive girl, whose conscience was not easy on the subject.

7. Fond of ease, averse to taking pains or thought; not strenuous, indolent; careless, thoughtless, unconcerned; = easy-going. 1649 Jer. Taylor Gt. Exemp. ii. §io. 3 The easie softnesses of religious affections. 1650-Holy Living ii. (1727) § 79 For no easie, healthful and idle person was ever chaste. 1^7 Dryden Virg. Georg, ii. 604 Easy Sloath. 1724 Watts Logic iv. i. (1802) 371 In this easy view of things. 1798 WoRDSW. Old Cumb. Beggar 108 The easy man Who sits at his own door,—and.. Feeds in the sunshine. 1862 StanleyCh. (1877) I. xiii. 251 They mark out for their prey the easy colonists. 1871 Rossetti Dante at Ver. xvi, He’d meet them flushed with easy youth.

8. a. (With mixed notion of 2, 3, 6.) In comfortable circumstances, well off. Also of ‘circumstances’, fortune. 1701 Col. Rec. Penn. II. 41 To make them and their Posterity easie in all times to come. 1708 Swift Abol. Chr. Wks. 1755 II. 1. 86 Such a rent as, in the modern form of speech, would make them easy. 1721 Berkeley Prev. Ruin Gt. Brit. Wks. III. 206 Men easy in their fortunes, and unprovoked by hardships of any sort. 1726 Butler Serm. vi. 108 One in easie Circumstances. 1783 Burke Sp. E. Ind. Bill Wks. IV. 59 These plots and rebellions.. are the offspring of an easy condition, and hoarded riches. 1796 Morse Amer. Geog. II. 46 Easy farmers display a variety of plate. 1857 Edin. Rev. July, The ‘easy’ classes will contrive to furnish the governing classes of the country. 1879 B- Taylor Stud. Germ. Lit. 160 He was in easy circumstances. b. easy street: comfortable circumstances,

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affluence. U.S.).

Esp. preceded by on. colloq. (orig.

1901 G. W. Peck Peck's Red-Headed Boy iii. 18 This rich old Jew.. who has been economical until he has got a million and is residing on easy street, will forget the traditions of two thousand years. 1902 G. V. Hobart It's up to You 31 A young man who could walk up and down Easy Street. 1903 A. H. Lewis Boss 205 Just as a sport finds himself on easy street. 1923 Wodehouse Adv. Sally xiv. 180 Honestly,.. it’s the chance of a lifetime. It would put you right on easy street. 1932 M. DE la Roche Master ofjalna v. ix. loi i‘Are you sure you can spare it?’ ‘Good Lord! I hope so—after the sale! I’m in Easy Street.’ 1938 F. Scott Fitzgerald Lei. 25 Nov. (1964) 44 There will have to be a period of tough sledding before you come to Easy Street. 1957 L. P. Hartley Hireling viii. 60 He knew that she lived in Easy Street, but then so did most, if not all, of his customers.

II. 9. a. Conducive to ease or comfort; chiefly of appliances for repose. See also easy-chair. 138. Antecrist in Todd 3 Treat. Wyclif 129 J>ei slepyn ful soft in ful eesi beddis. C1400 Rom. Rose 5609 Though he have lytel worldis goode, Mete & drynke, & esy foode. 1525 Ld. Berners Froiss. II. Ixxviii. [Ixxiv.] 234 Theyr lodgynge .. was not so easye nor large as thoughe they had ben at Parys. 1855 Bain Senses (S Int. ii. i. §19 (1864) 104 Driven along at a moderate speed, in an easy carriage. 1879 Walford Londoniana II. 105 An office much sought after as one of those ‘easy cushions’ reserved for the repose of men of merit or favourites of the great.

t b. Advantageous, satisfactory. Obs.

EASY

40

EASY

affording convenience,

C1485 Digby Myst. (1882) ii. 126 [A horse is] esy and prophetabyll. 1673 Temple United Prov.VIks. 1731 I. 34 Having all one common End of publick Good, they come after full Debates to easie Resolutions.

c. In phrs. easy to look aty easy on the eye{s)y affording pleasure to the beholder; esp. of women; comely, beautiful, colloq. (orig. U.S.). Also in various combs., as easy-to-makey easyto-operatey easy-to-usey easy-to-weary etc, 1902 Ade Girl Proposition 141 He put his Tag on a blonde Canary 17 Years of Age who spelled Sure with an H and had from 7 to 9 Thoughts every 24 Hours. But she was very Easy to Look at. 1922 Wodehouse Clicking of Cuthbert x. 253 Her Highness is the easiest thing to look at these eyes have ever seen. 1937 C. Beaton Diary 3 June in Wandering Years (1961) 310 A pliable, easy-to-pose subject. 1937 Punch 8 Sept. 260/1 The same incorrigibly cheerful creature, very easy to look at, very pleasant to listen to. 1938 Amer. Speech XIII. 205 [The dictionary] is a substantial compilation, easy on the eyes, comparatively rich in idiomatic expressions. 1939 Vogue's Cookery Bk. i. 15 This is an easy-to-make soup for a hot day. 1943 D. E. Stevenson Two Mrs. Abbotts v. 35 Miss Walters was certainly easy on the eye. 1949 Consumer Reports Feb. 68/2 Many prospective purchasers want an easy-to-operate device. 1951 in M. McLuhan Mech. Bride 153/1 The same easy-to-follow lessons. 1958 Oxf. Mail i July 6/5 One of the good Westerns, east on the eye and mind, and pretty tough on the pulses. 1959 Times 9 Mar. Suppl. p. x/3 Easy-to-serve packed foods. 1959 Easy-to-use [see applicator]. News Chron. 10 Aug. 6/5 This hat has the soft easy-to-wear line, i960 Farmer & Stockbreeder 15 Mar. 122/1 This tough, easy-to-use, real wood building panel. i960 Guardian 25 Apr. 4/1 Easy-to-follow recipes.

III. Causing little discomfort or obstruction. 10. a. Of the means, method, or object of an action; Presenting few difficulties; offering little resistance. Const, inf. (act., less freq. pass.) or of followed by sb. denoting the action; also with the nature of the action contextually implied; of books, language; = easy to read, understand; of the soil; = easy to cultivate, etc. c 1340 Cursor M. 16357 (Trin.) }?ei.. cut t?is tre in two; J?ei fond hit good and esy to dele wi^?. CI380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 202 )?is pater noster pat is best & most hesy of alle. 15.. Frere Boye 76 in Ritson Anc. Pop. P. 38 The olde man was easy to please. 1578 Lyte Dodoens iii. xlviii. 385 Vitalba.. hath long branches ful of ioyntes, easie to ploy. 1581 Charke in Confer, iv. (1584) Cciij, The place is easie Greeke. 1609 Holland Livy xxiii. xiii. 481 Nothing..is more eise and easie [facilius'\ to be knowne. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. ii. xviii. 89 From want of understanding this easie truth. 1674 Brevint Saul at Endor 240 Two ready and easie waies of procuring Atonement. 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. II. 283 Ploughing is an imitative Toil, Resembling Nature in an easie Soil. 1712 Addison Spect. No. 291 f 6 This part of a critick is very easie to succeed in. 1762-71 H. Walpole Vertue's Anecd. Paint. (1786) II. 163 notey Those, which being in great collections are most easy of access. 1776 Adam Smith W.N. 1.1. i. 11 Men are much more likely to discover easier.. methods of attaining any object. 1823 Lamb Elia Ser. II. xii. (1865) 314 The writings of Temple are, in general, after this easy copy, 1879 Lubbock Sci. Lect. ii. 31 The colors and scents are useful in making the flowers more easy to find.

b. Of a road; That may be travelled without discomfort or difficulty. Of a slope; Gradual, not steep. 1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 1402 J?e way of dede semes large and eesy. 1523 Ld. Berners Froiss. I. ccxxxiv. 328 And all the other of the Companyons.. had more easy passage thanne those that passed the day before. 1563 Homilies ii. Repentance ii. (1859) 536 An easie and short ladder, whereby we may climbe. 1596 Spenser State Irel. 3 Subdued the people unto him, & made easie way to the settling of his will. 1613 Shaks. Hen. Vllly iv. ii. 17 At last, with easie Rodes he [Wolsey] came to Leicester. 1709 Steele Taller No. 179 If 6 You mount by six easy steps. 1801 Southey Thalaba vii. xx. Children of Earth,.. Whom I have guided here By easier passage.

c. Of water, etc.; not rapid, swift, or turbulent. 187s ‘ Mark Twain’ Old Times Mississippi iii. 52 Follow along close under the reef—easy water there—not much current.

d. easy listeningy designating a category of (recorded) music which is popular without

being loud, abrasive, or otherwise demanding; also transf. 1965 Billboard 5 June 1/3 Billboard this week introduces the ‘Top 40 Easy Listening’ chart. 1974 C. James in New Rev. Aug. 20/2 We found out how to write from talking Scouse... That’s what makes our poems easy listening. 1976 National Observer (U.S.) 25 Sept. 9/1 All the plants can groove to continuous music. ‘I stick with easy-listening or classical,’ said Blakeley, pointing to mounted speakers. 1979 Farmington (New Mexico) Daily Times 27 May (Entertainment Suppl.) 6/2 (Advt.), All of yesterday’s and today’s sounds! Country & Western, Easy Listening, Contemporary and Disco. 1986 W. Safire in N.Y. Times Mag. 7 Sept, 16/3 You can also get easy listening, which until recently meant the music of the 6o’s played in the 8o’s with the style of the 40’s.

11. Of actions; Not difficult; to be accomplished with little effort. Frequently as complement when the subject is a vb. in the inf.; = EATH I. C1380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 245 For drede of lettyng of bettre occupacion l?at is more li3t or eisy. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. vi. xx. (1495) 208 In olde men abstynence of meete is softe and easy. 1538 Starkey England iii. 69 Much easyar to spy ij fautys then amend one. 1578 T. Procter Gorg. Gallery in Heliconia I. 81 As eese a broken Syve Should holde the dropping rayne. 1626 Bacon Sylva §57 After taking of somewhat of easie Digestion. 1650 Hubbert Pill Formality 144 You must live after the spirit.. and thats no easie thing to do. 1729 Butler Serm. Wks. 1874 II. 128 It is as easy to close the eyes of the mind as those of the body. 1842 A. Combe Physiol. Digestion (ed. 4) 144 The easier digestibility of animal food in man. 1876 Mozley Univ. Serm. vii. 151 It is of the nature of habit to make acts easier and easier. 1878 Morley Carlyle, Crit. Misc. 196 It is easy to make a solitude and call it peace.

12. a. Of persons and their dispositions; Moved without difficulty to action or belief; soon yielding, compliant; credulous, lady of easy virtue: euphemistically for an unchaste woman, easy game, marky meat: see sense 13 b. 1611 Shaks. Cymb. ii. iv. 47 Not a whit. Your lady being so easy. 1643 Denham Poems 169 An easy ear deceives, and is deceiv’d. 1672 Dryden Conq. Granada iii. i. An easie King deserves no better Fate. 1^7-Virg. Mneid ii. 261 With such Deceits he gain’d their easie hearts. 1752 Young Brothers iii. i, To which his easy nature, soon appeas’d. Invited me. 1809 W. Irving Knickerb. v. i. (1849) 263 The great city.. seemed, like some fair lady of easy virtue, to lie open to attack, and ready to yield to the first invader. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. I. 258 Juries were no longer so easy of belief.

fb. Not unwilling, ready. Const, inf. Now only with passive, as easy to be entreated; cf. 10. Obs. 1653 Holcroft Procopius iii. 83 When men ignorantly.. do wrong, the wronged are to be easie to grant pardon. 1665 Mrs. Hutchinson Mem. Col. Hutchinson (1848) 55 Hutchinson was neither easy to believe it, nor frighted at the example. 1715 Burnet Own Times I. 529 He was too easy to enter into any employment that might bring him into favour. 1738 Wesley Psalm cxvi. 5 How easy to forgive!

c. Esp. in colloq. phr. Fm easyy Fm ready to comply (with whatever is proposed), without having any strong feelings (about the proposal); I don't mind one way or the other. 1941 in Baker Diet. Austral. Slang 27. 1945 in C. H. Ward-Jackson Piece of Cake (ed. 2) 26. 1948 D. Ballantyne Cunninghams (1963) ii. xviii. 80 ‘How about you, honey?’ ‘I’m easy.’ 1968 ‘L. Marshall’ Blood on Blotter xii. 84 You can believe ’em or not. I’m easy. Ibid. xxi. 14s You’ll have to make up your own mind. I’m easy.

13. a. That is obtained with ease, with little effort or sacrifice, easy money: money obtained without effort, and, often, illegally; also with an amount specified (easy dollary etc.) (orig. U.S.). 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. 11. 641 The Swain.. Receives his easy Food from Nature’s Hand. Ibid. iv. 704 A Fault which easie Pardon might receive. Were Lovers Judges. 1785 CowpER Tiroc. 766 Disease or comes not, or finds easy cure. 1856 Trevelyan Macaulay (1876) II. xiv. 463 He obtained an easy pardon. 1882 Sydney Slang Diet. 5/1 The money earned by a prostitute is said to be ‘honest’, as distinguished from that earned by a thief. Probably from the story of the converted burglar who determined to sin no more himself and who lectured against dishonesty, but sent his wife out every night to earn an honest shilling. 'Easy shilling' is synonymous in the foregoing sense. 1896 Ade Artie x, 79, I guess it’s easy money too from the way he lets go of it. 1909 ‘O. Henry’ Roads of Destiny vi. 88 The boarding houses were corralling the easy dollars of the gamesome law-breakers. 1914 G. Atherton Perch of Devil I. i. 15 It may be this..spirit that inspires the midnight burglar.., not merely the desire for ‘easy money’. 1923 Wodehouse Adv. Sally vi. 79 If you want to make a little easy money, you go and bet somebody ten seeds that I’m going to interrupt it again. 1935 Discovery Feb. 50/1 It is not to be assumed.. that fox farming is a short cut to easy money. 1956 ‘J. Wyndham’ Seeds of Time 100 To enable quick-turnover spivs to make easy money out of suckers. 1967 Observer 26 Mar. 9 Here the pursuit of happiness fuses with the pursuit of the easy dollar.

b. easy mea^ (colloq.); someone or something overcome, mastered, or persuaded without difficulty; anything compassed with ease. Similarly easy gamOy mark. 1896 W. C. Gore in Inlander Jan. 147 Easy mark, an easy prey to a joke. Ibid., Easy meat, one easily duped. 1899 ‘Mark Twain’ in Harper's Dec. 49/1 So I disguised myself and came back and studied you. You were easy game. X927 T. E. Lawrence Let. 8 Dec. (1938) 557 That., made him easy meat for all the politicians, a 1928 in C. F. S. Gamble North Sea Air Station (1928) ix. 143 Had the Zeppelin been picked up by a searchlight, it would.. have been easy meat. 1929 Wodehouse Gent, of Leisure i. 9 If a man’s fool enough

to be an easy mark-. a 1935 T'. E. Lawrence Mint (i955) I. xix. 66 The driver is an old sweat, not a rookie’s easy meat. 1935 Evening News 29 June 3/1 An immense number of names has been invented for the victims [of confidence men] —.. suckers, easy marks, wise guys, come-ons. i943 ^fchiU Rev. XCIII. 23 All are easy meat, because a civilization is disintegrating and has lost its standards. 1944 EHarney Taboo (ed. 4) 92 He had a gentle nature, ever out to please. He was the type that is known both to white and black as ‘an easy mark^ I955 •S'ci. News Let. 28 May 342/1 American pipelines are easy game for an enemy. 1958 Times 29 Oct. 3/2 The play was chosen, no doubt, on the principle that comedy is easy meat for the inexperienced. 1967 Partridge Diet. Slang Suppl. 1105/1 Easy mark, a girl easy to persuade into sexual intercourse: since ca. 1920.

14. a. Of burdens or penalties; Not oppressive or painful. Of prices or conditions: Moderate, not burdensome. 1382 Wyclif Matt. xi. 30 My 30c is swete, or softe, and my charge Ii3t, or eisy. 1413 Lydg. Pylgr. Sowle iii. vi. (1483) 54 That hath.. graunted the to be purged with more esy peynes. 1426 Audelay Poems 47 Curators Engeyne 36 not to 3eesy penans, ne to strayt algat. 1488-9 Act 4 Hen. VII, ix. They woll sell theym at none esier price. 1557 N. T. (Genev.) Matt. xi. 22 It shalbe easier for Tyre and Sidon at the day of iudgement, then for you. 1663 Gerbier Counsel Cijb, Where Marble is to be had at easy rate, but where Copper is very dear. 1696 Pepys Diary VI. 187 Secure it for me on the easiest terms you can. 1766 Entick London IV. 31 An easy fee*of one shilling, a 1771 Smollett Love Elegy 18 And bid the turf lie easy on my breast. 1855 Macaulay Hist. Eng. IV. 251 He remained there in easy confinement. 1879 Froude Caesar iv. 34 Peace was granted to him on the easy conditions of a nominal fine.

fb. Of persons: Not oppressive or severe; not exacting; lenient, gentle; cf. 12. In i8th c. also: Not difficult to ‘get on* with [cf. Fr. aise avivTe\. C1325 Body & Soul (Laud MS.) in Wright Mapes' Poems 336 For I [the body] the [the soul] so eise fond the[r]fore couthe I nevere blinne. c 1386 Chaucer Prol. 223 He was an esy man to yeue penaunce. 1460 Capgrave Chron. (1858) 70 Sche mad hir son more esy, and sesed mech his persecucion. 1483 Vulg. abs Terentio 30 b, Faders shuld be esy ande tendyr anemste theire chyldere. 1699 Bentley Phal. 310 Pisistratus,. .a generous and easie Govemour. 1714 Swift Pres. St. Affairs Wks. 1755 II. i. 221 Supposing.. that the elector should refuse to be.. easy with the queen herself. 1727- To very yng. Lady Wks. II. ii. 42 A shrew from Billingsgate would be a more easy and eligible companion.

c. easy rider {U.S. slang): {a) a sexually satisfying lover (see also quot. 1926); (6) a guitar. 1912-13 W. C. Handy Memphis Blues, Mr. Crump don’t ’low no easy riders here. 1926 in R. de Toledano Frontiers Jazz (1947) iii. 37 ‘Rider’, ‘easy rider’, which term means both lover and (not either, or) procurer... Fidelity to his woman is expected of the easy rider. 1927yrn/. Abnormal & Social Psychol. XXII. 16 ‘Easy rider’. This apt expression is used to describe a man whose movements in coitus are easy and satisfying. It is frequently met both in Negro folk songs and in formal songs. ‘I wonder where my easy rider’s gone’, is a sort of by-word with Southern negroes. 1949 R. Blesh Shining Trumpets vi. 128 In rural Negro parlance.. easy rider meant the guitar.. carried suspended by its cord. In the double meaning of Negro imagery, the femininely formed guitar.. typifies also a woman companion. In Negro ‘city talk’, the term easy rider has come to mean either a sexually satisfying woman or a male lover who lives off a woman’s earnings. 1958 p. Oliver in P. Gammond Decca Bk. Jazz i. 24 For the blues singer, the most valuable instrument was the guitar,.. and, as his ‘easy rider’, could be slung across his back when he wished to travel.

115. Of small ‘weight* or importance, insignificant, slight; not very good, indiflFerent. So easy birth, easy capacity; cf. dial. ^Easy, idiotic’ (East Cornw, Gloss.). Obs. 1468 Sir J. Paston in Lett. (1874) II. 321 Thow..I.. have govyn yow bot easy cause to remembyr me.. yet.. let me not be forgotyn. 1475 Bk. Noblesse 78 Holden vertuous ;.though he were descendid but of esie birthe. 1481 Caxton Tulle's Old Age Hj, Of so grete age that he.. shold be of easy power of bodily strength to make werre ayenst Carthage. 1491 Will of Cliff (Somerset Ho.), I shall leue but Esy good. 1519 Horman Vulg. 147 b, Easy agrement foloweth.. where women be maried not for loue but for good. 1542 Udall Erasm. Apophth. (1877) 348 Wine that was but easie and so-so. 1642 R. Carpenter Experiences ii. vii. 171 Shall one of us dirty creatures.. frowne and be troubled.. moved by every small and easie occasion. 1648 Symmons Vind. Charles I, 191 Though an easie capacity might foresee that they could do nothing by such an enterprize.

16. Not pressing opposed to tight.

hardly;

loosely

fitting;

1594 Shaks. Rich. HI. v. iii. 50 Is my beaver easier? 1601 -All's Well V. iii. 278 This womans an easie gloue my Lord, She goes off and on at pleasure. Mod. The coat is an easy fit. An easy pair of slippers. The nut of the screw is a little too easy.

17. Comm. (opposed to tight.) Of a commodity: Not much in demand; hardly maintaining its price. Of the state of the market; Not characterized by eager demand; showing little firmness in prices. 1836 p. Wmster Private Core. (1856) II. zi The deposit and distribution bill has become a law, and money is already getting to be much easier, as the phrase is. 1848 Bartlett Diet. Amer. s.v., ‘The money market is easy’; i.e. loans of money may easily be procured. 1870 J. K. Medbery Men & Myst. Wall St. 69 The lender seeks the borrower. Money becomes a drug. Technically it is ‘easy’ or ‘inactive’. 1873 Money Market (ed. 3) 4 When the total supply of surplus money, unemployed in a reproductive manner, is abundant, the market is said to be ‘easy’; when it is scarce, the market is tight’. 1875 Economist 2 Jan. 18/2 The prevailing anticipation of an easy money market. 1888 Standard y Apr. 2/8 (Trade report) Bacon is easier, a 1891 Mod. "The money-

EASY market is easy. 1957 Economist 7 Dec. 867/2 The objective expert inquiry which Mr Eisenhower sought was swamped in the House when the advocates of easy money climbed aboard.

18. In Whist, honours easy, said when the ‘honours* are evenly divided, (Merely colloq.: the technical phrase is ‘honours divided’.) 1884 Sat. Rev. 26 July 103 If we have the worst of that, honours are easy.

B. adv. In an easy manner. 1. Without difficulty. Chiefly in compar. or superl.; now colloq. or vulgar. 1400 in Pol. Rel. fef L. Poems (1866) 239 For esye he comun al esye ho ssuln wende. 1564 Brief Exam. •**b, This thyng is easyer.. saide of you, then proued. 1596 Spenser F.Q. I. viii. 4 Three miles it might be easie heard. 1600 Shaks. Sonn. cix, As easie might I from my selfe depart, As, etc. 1680 Sir R. Filmer Patriarcha iii. §12 The voice of a multitude is easier heard. 1768-74 Tucker Lt. Nat. (1852) 11. 279 The good man can easiest persuade himself that God is good. 1823 Byron xiv. Ixxxv, A wavering spirit may be easier wreck d. 1871 Smiles Charac. v. (1876) 134 All the easier led away by bad example.

t2. In a very moderate degree. Obs. f47S Fk. Noblesse 72 Many of the officers have be but esy vaileable to the defense of youre countre.

3. Not tightly, with freedom of movement. 1710 Steele Tatler No, 204 [fa Fit as easie as any Piece of Work. 1820 Keats St. Agnes xli, The bolts full easy slide.

4. a. colloq. At a leisurely pace, comfortably, without much trouble; in a comfortable position (also transf. of a ship). In phr. to take it easy, to make oneself comfortable, to do no more than one must; also, to let one off easy, i.e. with a light penalty; to go easy (on or with), to use sparingly; to act cautiously, to proceed with caution; also absol. (cf. quot. 1885); easy does it, go carefully, take your time. 1779 Forrest Voy. N. Guinea 13 Which kept the vessel’s head to the sea, and made her lie easy. 1821 Byron Lett. civ. in Moore Life 1833 III. 139 ‘The two dozen’ were with the cat-o’-nine tails;—the ‘let you off easy’ was rather his own opinion than that of the patient. 1850 Mrs. Stowe Uncle Tom's C. xii. 103 Everything was going on quite easy and comfortable. 1867 Smyth Sailor's Word-bk. s.v.. Taking it easy. Neglecting the duty. 1885 Illust. Lond. News 23 May 539/2 Taice my advice, and go easy for a bit. 1891 Farmer Slang II. 352/1 Easy does it! (popular). An exclamation of encouragement and counsel = ‘Take your time and keep your coat on.’ 1900 C. W. Winchester Victories of Wesley Castle vii. 143 You will have to go easy on that subject. 1928 J. P. McEvoy Showgirl 21 No high pressure stuff, sis. Easy does it with Dick. 1934 R. Macaulay Going Abroad xxx. 279 I’ve more or less gone easy on the powder and lipstick. 1935 ‘A. Bridge ’ Illyrian Spring xi. 143 Easy does it—to be easy was the thing. 1947 D. M. Davin For Rest of Lives xxii. 108 Go easy with that torch. 1955 L. P. Hartley Perfect Woman xxx. 272, I won’t ask her yet what’s the matter he decided. Easy does it. 1965 Times Lit. Suppl. 22 Apr. 317/1 A couple of foreign translations of my works should have warned me to go easy.

b. colloq. As word of command, easy!: (move) gently! Also easy ahead!: (steam) at a moderate speed!; easy on: steady on! go easy! In Boating, easy all!: stop (rowing)! Hence as sb. A short rest. 1865 A Don’ Sketches fr. Cambr. 119 Hallo! easy all! Hard word there. Smith! what does it mean? 1867 Smyth Sailor's Word-bk., Easy, lower gently. 1883 Mrs. Bishop Sk. in Malay Pen. v. in Leisure Hour 193/2 ‘Easy ahead’, shouts the.. captain. 1885 Standard 6 Mar. 3/7 They reached Iffley lock without an easy. 1892 G. R. Lowndes Camping Sk. v. 161 We took a day’s easy at Tyn-y-groes,.. by the salmon pool. 1922 T. E. Lawrence Let. 7 Sept. (1938) 365, I.. read it in an easy, as we sat on the stye roof. 1928 Observer 19 Feb. 14 In the fourth [movement], being unable to switch off, I took an easy by thinking of something else. 1929 M. de la Roche Whiteoaks x. 490 ‘What’s the todo?’.. ‘Easy on, Mama... It’s nothing but young Finch. We’ve found out where he is.’ 1941 Baker Diet. Austral. Slang 27 Easy on\, go easy! desist! be sensible!

c. stand easy : an order in military use allowing a greater freedom of posture than ‘stand at ease’. 1859 Field Exerc. Infantry 5 If the command to Stand-atEase is followed by the word Stand Easy, the men will be permitted to move their limbs, but without quitting their ground. 1883 Ibid. i. 6 On the word Squad being given to men standing easy, every soldier will at once assume the position of standing at ease. 1914 Recruit Training {Infantry) 5 Stand at Ease. Feet sufficiently apart. Easy position. Dressing maintained. Men perfectly still till ‘Stand easy’ given. 1920 Galsworthy Foundations iii. 62 Form fours—by your right—quick march!.. Left turn!.. Stand easy!

C. Comb. a. parasynthetic, as easy-hearted, -humoured, -priced, -spirited, -tempered’, b. adverbial, as easy-borrowed, -flawing, -handled, -held, -rising, -spoken, -yielding. Also EASY-GOING. 1605 Shaks. Lear ii. iv, 187 A Slaue whose ‘easie borrowed pride Dwels in the fickle grace of her he followes, 1839 J, Darley Introd. Beaum. & FI. Wks. 1839 I. 25 Fletcher’s liveliness, bustle, his ‘easy-flowing language.. are sure to titillate a mixed audience. 1876 Geo. Eliot Dan. Der. II. XXV. 142 One of those ‘easy-handled personages. 1634 Milton Comus 164, I..wind me into the ‘easyhearted man, And hug him into snares. 1591 Shaks. i Hen. VI, V. iii. 139 Her ‘easie held imprisonment. 01720 Sheffield (Dk. Buckhm.) Wks. (1753) II- I77 Tully, the most ‘easy-humoured and facetious man in the world. 1876 Geo. Eliot Dan. Der. II. xxv. 147 The easiest-humoured amateur of luxury. 15931 Shaks. 3 Hen. VI, ii. i. 171 Haue wrought the ‘easie-melting King, like Wax. 1625 K. Long tr. Barclay’s Argents li. xi. 98 There were small hillocks

EAT

41 upon an ‘easie-rising plain. 1633 Ford Love’s Sacrif. ii, iv, I was a good, cold, ‘easy-spirited man. 1865 M. Arnold Ess. Crit. i. lo A world, where most of us are plain ‘easyspoken people. 1822 W. Irving Braceb. Hall iv. 38 Her ladyship is one of those ‘easy-tempered beings, a 1680 Butler Rem. (1759) XIV. 65 For what does vast Wealth bring, but Cheat.. An ‘easy-troubled Life, and short? 1597 Daniel Civ. Wares i. clxi. And ‘easie-yeelding zeale was quickly caught.

c. Special collocations, easy-care, used attrib. of (the properties of) man-made and other fabrics; convenient, serviceable (implying rapid drying after laundering, and crease-resistance); easy-clean, used attrib. of a fabric, etc., that is easy to clean; easy-paced a. Cricket and Golf, said of the ground or pitch when the ball comes at an easy pace off or along it. i960 Farmer ^ Stockbreeder 12 Jan. Suppl. 2/1 The easycare properties common to all synthetic fibre or man-made fabrics. 1962 J. T. Marsh Self-Smoothing Fabrics ii. 11 The production of‘easy-care’goods. 1963 KorAer 8 June 88 Walking shorts, made expressly for us in cool, easy-care cotton-and-acetate seersucker. 1937 Times 5 Oct. 6/5 The easy-clean wheels have large hubs—a break from Daimler tradition. 1966 Daily Tel. 26 Oct. 13/2 Easy-clean fabrics for chair covers are not yet all available by the yard in shops. 1905 Westm. Gaz. 25 July 8/2 Cotter, though he made the ball bump considerably at times, was scarcely suited by the easy-paced wicket. 1^2,% Observer i July 28/1 Batting first on an easy-paced pitch, Leicestershire began well against Warwickshire. 1959 Times 12 Sept. 3/4 Easy-paced greens.

D. as sb.’, see B. 4b. 'easy, v. facilitate.

[f. prec. adj.] f®- To make easy; to Obs. fb. To relieve, assist. Obs.

1567 Maplet Gr. Forest 68 Their [cranes’] flight is like a Triangle, sharpe at the ende, and broade aboue, and easied therewithal! by one another his helping. 1551 Recorde Cast. Knowl. (i 556) 51 If I myght see their forme I shoulde be muche easyed in framynge it.

c. intr. Of an oarsman or crew: to cease rowing, d. trans. To give (an oarsman or crew) the order to stop rowing. 1852 ]. F. Bateman Aquatic Notes iii. 32 The University steerer, supposing he had bumped them there, ‘easied all’, but his Crew, perceiving their mistake, pulled on again. 1881 Rowing, Steering & Coaching on Cam 25 All boats going down are supposed to give way to boats coming up —i.e., to easy and pull in their oars. Ibid., You must always easy for the ’Varsity trials in the October term. Ibid. 26 You must take care to easy some distance from where you want to stop. 1882 Daily Tel. 2 Mar. (Cassell), They..were not easied until reaching Iffley Lasher. 1890 S. Lane-Poole Barbary Corsairs ii. xvi. 213 She.. ‘easies’ with every blade suspended motionless above the waves. 1959 Times 13 Mar. 18/1 King’s easied opposite the Doves.

'easy 'chair, ,easy-'chair. A chair adapted for sitting or half reclining in in an easy posture, often furnished with arms and padded back. 1707 Farquhar Beaux' Strat. iv. i, Get my easie chair down stairs, put the gentleman in it. 1713 Guardian No. 131 (1756)11. 188 Immersed in the luxury of an easy-chair. 1855 Macaulay Hist. Eng. IV. 371 His host was confined by gout to an easy chair. 1881 Mrs. A. Ellis Sylvestra II. 65 He sunk.. into an easy-chair, pipe-and-bottle life.

'easy-'going, ppl. a. a. Of a horse; Having an easy gait or step, h.fig. That takes things easily; comfort-loving; inactive, indolent. 1674 Ch. ^ Court of Rome 7 Let us suppose an easiegoing, good-natur’d man. 1837 Thackeray Ravenswing iii. That easy-going cream-coloured ’oss. 1862 Burton Bk.hunter i. 3 Antiquarianism, which used to be an easy-going slipshod sort of pursuit. 1879 Beerbohm Patagonia iii. 36 He is a careless, easy-going vagabond, always cheerful.

Hence ,easy'goingness. 1879 Mrs. Houston Wild West 34 The temptation to cheat..owing to the easy-goingness of his master. 1881 N. Y. Nation XXXII. 164 The good-natured easygoingness of the then leader of the House of Commons.

eat (i:t), v. Pa. t, ate, eat (eit, £t, i;t). Pa. pple. eaten ('i:t(3)n). Forms: Inf. i-z et-, eat-, eatt-, eotan, 2-4 eat-, eoten, ete(n, (2-3 aeten, 4 ethen, 3-4 hete, heyt), 4-6 ete, ette, (4 eete, ehyt, 4-5 eyt(e), 3-7 eate, 6 Sc. eait, eit, 6- eat. Pa. t. 1-3 aet, (2 aeat), 2-4 et(t, 4-6 ete, 3-4 at, (4 hete), 4-5 eet(te, 6-7 eate, 7-9 eat, 6- ate. Pa. pple. 1-5 eten, 4-5 ete, eete(n, 4-6 etin(e, -un, -yn, ettyn, 6 Sc. eatin, eittin, 7-9 eat, 8-9 ate, 7- eaten. [Common Teut. and OE. etan str. vb. (3rd sing, pr. ytt, ietep, pa. t. ist, 3rd sing, xt, xt, pi. xton, pa. pple. eten) = OFris. ita, eta, OS. etan (MDu., Du. eten), OHG. ezan, ezzan (MHG. ezzen, mod.G. essen), ON. eta (Sw. dta. Da. dde), Goth, itan:—OTeut. etan = L. ed-ere, Gr. fS-eiv, Ir., Gael, ith, Lith. ed-, Skr. ad-. The accentuation of OE. MSS. shows that this verb differed, as in Goth, and ON., from other verbs of the same conjugation in having a long vowel in the pa. t. sing, xt, whence the mod. eat (i:t); but a form xt, with short vowel, must also have existed, as is proved by the ME. form at, mod. ate. The pronunc. (et) is commonly associated with the written form ate, but perh. belongs rather to eat, with shortened vowel after analogy

of wk. vbs. read, lead, etc.; cf. dial, (bet) pa. t. of beat.) I. To consume for nutriment. 1. a. trans. To take into the mouth piecemeal, and masticate and swallow as food; to consume as food. Usually of solids only. C825 Vesp. Psalter xlix. [1.] 13 Ah ic eotu flesc ferra. c 1000 Ags. Gosp. John vi. 54 Se h$f5 ece lif pe ytt [1160 Hatton et\ min flsesc. C1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 181 For l?at |7U ete J^at ich he forboden hadde. c 1250 Gen. ^ Ex. 337 Sum 3he Ser at, and sum 3he nam, And bar it to her fere adam. a 1300 Cursor M. (Cott.) 922 J?ou sal wit.. suinc Win hat hou sal ete and drinc. Ibid. 11111 He hete na bred ne dranc na win. 1382 Wyclif Isa. xxxvii. 30 Et this jer that freeli ben sprunge, and in the secunde jer et appelis. c 1400 Maundev. ii. (1839) II That Tree that Adam ete the appulle of. ^1420 Liber Cocorum 29 Tho heroun is rosted.. And eton with gynger. c 1449 Pecock Repr. 498 The Tacianys.. helden that fleisch schulde not be ete. 1508 Fisher Wks. i. (1876) 56 Ete vnholsome metes, and anone cometh sekenes. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 174 A synner is not worthy the breed that he eateth. 1557 North Gueuara's Diall Pr. (1619) 700/1 In that golden age.. they.. eate rootes for breade and fruites for flesh. 1667 Milton P.L. ix. 724 Whoso eats thereof forthwith attains Wisdom. 1763 Priv. Lett. Ld. Malmesbury I. 93 Whitebait.. are only to be eat at Greenwich, i860 Tyndall Glac. i. §22. 155 Up to this point I had eaten nothing.

b. Of liquid or semifluid food. Now chiefly with reference to soup, or other similar food for which a spoon is used. 1644 Evelyn Mem. (1857) I. 75 We eat excellent cream. 1691 Ray Creation ii. (1704) 405, I observed it afterwards not only to eat Milk. 1789 Wolcott (P. Pindar) Ep. falling Minis. Wks. 1812 II. 127 He might have eat his soup. 1885 SiNNETT Karma II. 36 He began to eat the soup.

c. In phrases, to have something, enough, little, etc. to eat, formerly also to have to eat, to give (a person) to eat. Cf. F. donner a manger. In some dialects ‘something to eat’ is the common expression for food; ‘The something to eat at the hotel was very good’ (Sheffield). T893 K. i^)LFRED Oros. III. xi. §3 Seo leo bringS his hungrejum hwelpum hwset to etanne. CI175 Lamb. Horn. 147 Mon . Ieuse6 his fleis, hwenne he him 3efe8 lutel to etene. a 1300 Cursor M. 13501 All pzi had i-nogh at ette. 1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 6191 Yhe wald noght gyfe me at ete. c 1380 Wyclif Serm. Sel. Wks. I. 17 J^ei hadden not to ete. 1611 Bible 2 Chron. xxxi. 10 Wee have had enough to eate. 1887 Pall Mall G. 13 Oct. 2/2 We had hardly anything to eat all the while we were prisoners.

To submit to, ‘swallow’ (an insult, an injury). Also, To treasure up, ‘feed upon’ (thoughts, words, etc.); orig. a Biblical idiom, 1382 Wyclif yer. xv. 16 Found ben thi wrdys, and Y eet hem [1611 I did eate them]. 1607 Dekker Sir T. Wyatt Wks. 1873 III. 119 He eate no wrongs, lets all die, and lie dye. 1611 Shaks. Wint. T. iv. iv. 185 Hee vtters them as he had eaten ballads, and all mens eares grew to his Tunes.

e. absol. with of in partitive sense. ME. sometimes with genitive.

In early

c 1000 i^^LFRic Gen. iii. 17 For San.. 8u aete of Sam treowe. Lamb. Horn, ii Moyses..j>es da3es..nefre ne ete mennisses metes, c 1175 Cott. Horn. 241 Se J>e of Jjese brad ett, ne sterfeS he nefer. CI205 Lay. 18858 Of his breosten scullen aeten aSele scopes, a 1300 Cursor M. 3944 O sinnu etes \v.r. etis] neuer juu. ci3^ Sir Ferumb. 5258 Hymself dronke whit wyn & eten of hure vytaile. 1581 Marbeck Bk. of Notes 108 Finding him eating of an Albrew. 1611 Bible Ex. xxxiv. 15 Lest.. thou eate of his sacrifice. 1835 Willis Pencillings I. ii. 19 But the rest eat very voraciously of a loaf of coarse bread. CII75

f. colloq. fig. To receive (esp. a stage performance) with gusto; to acclaim. Also eat up. (Cf. DEVOUR V. 6.) 1911 L. Merrick Peggy Harper iv. 197 They ate the piece —it was only Galbraith they were guying. 1917 Wodehouse Uneasy Money iv. 23 I’m an English countess, doing barefoot dancing to work off the mortgage on the ancestral castle, and they eat me. 1919 F. Hurst Humoresque 195 You wait until you see the way they’re going to eat me up in the court scene in ‘Saint Elba’. 1928 ‘Ian Hay’ Poor Gentleman iii. 58 The highbrow and pacifist reviewers there simply ate it [^c. the book] up, and said that if this was war, war ought to be stopped. 1949 N. Mitford Love in Cold Climate 261 London society.. simply ate Cedric up, occasional echoes of his great success even reaching Oxford. 1958 K. Amis I like it Here 158 He held forth instead in a series of essays... The Sunday Times would absolutely eat this chap.

g. U.S. slang. To practise fellatio or cunnilingus on (a person). Cf. to eat pussy s.v. PUSSY sb, 6. Also used absol. 1927 Immortalia 167 He tried at her dent But when his thing bent. He got down on his knees and he ate ’er. 1951 S. Longstreet Pedlocks iv. x. 249 ‘I could eat you with a spoon.’ ‘Never mind the dirty remarks.’ 1975 L. Alther Kinflicks V. 133 ^Eat me,' he said, seizing my head with his hands and fitting my mouth around his cock and moving my head back and forth. 1976 N. Thornburg Cutter & Bone xii. 276 Cutter winked lasciviously at the girl. ‘Well, I don’t know,’ he said. ‘I already did quite a bit of eating this morning.’ Monk, turning scarlet, closed her eyes.

2. Phrases, chiefly transf. and fig. a. to eat one’s terms’, a colloquial phrase for ‘to be studying for the Bar’; students being required to have dined in the Hall of an Inn of Court three or more times during each of twelve terms before they can be ‘called’. Also, to eat dinners. 1834 Macaulay Pitt Misc. (i860) II. 312 He had already begun to eat his terms. 1850 Thackeray Pendennis xxix, In term time, Mr. Pen showed a most praiseworthy regularity in performing one part of the law-student’s course of duty, and eating his dinners in Hall. 1856 H. Mayhew Gt. World

EAT of London 1. 72 Lawyerlings ‘qualify’ for the bar by eating so many dinners. 1861 Lever One of Them 159 He had eaten his terms in Gray’s Inn. [1867 Cassell's Mag. I. 287/2 These dinners he must eat in hall in his own person.] 1879 Chamber's Jrnl. 23 Aug. 539/2 No student shall be called to the Bar until he has eaten a certain number of dinners at his Inn. 1929 A. Waugh Three Score & Ten 71 The eating of dinners in the Temple, and the attendance of lectures.

fb. to eat the air: to be ‘fed upon promises*, tantalized. Obs. 1597 Shaks. 2 Hen. IV, 1. iii. 28 Who lin’d himself with hope, Eating the ayre, on promise of Supply.

c. to eat one's words: to retract in a humiliating manner. See also humble pie. 1571 Golding Calvin on Ps. Ixii. 12 God eateth not his word when he hath once spoken, a 1618 Raleigh Rem. (1644) 73 Nay wee’le make you confesse that you were deceived in your projects, and eat your own words. 1679 Hist. Jetzer 35 He.. began to boggle, and would fain have eaten his words. 1725 Ramsay Gentle Sheph. iv. i, Ye lied auld roudes, —and, in faith, had best Eat in your words. 1806-7 J- Beresford Miseries Hum. Life (1826) vii. xli, Unguarded words, which, as soon as you have uttered them, you would die to eat. 1837 Sir F. Palgrave Merch. & Friar (1844) Ded. 7 Quoting one’s own books is next worst to eating one’s own words.

d. t to eat iron, a sword: to be stabbed {obs.). to eat stick: a mod. orientalism for ‘to be beaten*. 15.. Hickscomer in Hazl. Dodsley I. 168 The whoreson shall eat him \i.e. the dagger], as far as he shall wade. 1594 Contention betzv. Lancaster & York l. (1843) 63 He make thee eate yron like an Astridge. 1862 W. M. Thomson Land & Bk. 319, I frequently hear them say of one who has been bastinadoed on the soles of his feet, that he has eaten fifty or five hundred sticks. 1865 Spectator 4 Feb. 122 The uncivilized freedom in which they could do as they liked, ‘eating stick’ included.

e. In certain Biblical Hebraisms; to eat the fruit of one's own doings: to receive the reward of one’s actions; to eat the good of the land, etc. 1611 Bible Prov. xiii. 2 A man shall eate good by the fruit of his mouth.-Isa. iii. 10 They shall eate the fruit of their doings.

f. to eat earth: a colonial expression for ‘to possess oneself of land’; cf. earth-hunger. 1882 Times 8 Apr. 9/5 A man [in Australia] can eat as much earth as he likes for 55. to los. a square mile. g. to eat dirt: see dirt sb. 6 c.

h. to eat one's hat: see hat sb. 5 c. 3. a. intr. To consume food, take a meal. £•825 Vesp. Psalter xxi[i]. 26 EataS Searfan and bi6 jefylled. ciooo Ags. Ps. lxxvii[i]. 29 Swi6e aetan and sade wurdan. c 1175 Cott. Horn. 223 [Hio] seat and 3iaf hire were, and he aet. C1205 Lay. 13456 For alle heo sculden aeten [1275 heote] ther. C1250 Gen. ^ Ex. 1779 Dor-on he eten bli6e and glaC. C1325 Coer de L. 3497 Whenne they hadde eeten, the cloth was folde. a 1340 Hampole Psalter xxi. 27 Jje pore sail ete & t>ai sail be fild. c 1400 Apol. Loll. 93 Weper het 3e or drynk.. do all f ingis in pe name of our Lord. 1483 Cath. Angl. 118 To Ete, epulari. 1526 Tindale Acts xi. 3 Thou wentest in unto men uncircumcised and atest with them. 1563 Foxe A. & M. (1684) III. 905 Now we cannot eat, unless we gnaw with our Teeth, a 1678 Marvell Wks. III. 457 He had not eat since the day before at noon. 1687 Shadwell 23 He does forget..his Friends Face, with whom last Night he Eat. 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1776) IV. 46 They eat and sleep at proper intervals like all other quadrupedes. 1856 Emerson Eng. Traits, Wealth Wks. (Bohn) II. 74 There should be temperance.. in eating.

b. to eat -well: to have a good appetite; also, to keep a good table, be an epicure. So also f to eat ill: to be badly fed. Art of War 16 The Peasant.. eats and lodges worse than the Citizen. 1709 Addison TatlerNo. 148 IP9 Who is a great Admirer of the French Cookery, and (as the Phrase is) eats well. 1677 Earl Orrery

c. Const, tow, upon (a kind of food). Cf. to dine on, feed on; also i e. Also const, from, off, fiw (gold, china, etc.). 1605 Shaks. Macb. i. iii. 84 Have we eaten on the insane Root, That takes the Reason Prisoner? 1607 Topsell Fourf. Beasts 361 [He] did eat upon Cakes made with meal and hony. 1625 Purchas Pilgrimes il. 1474 Hee alwayes eates in priuate among his women vpon great varietie of excellent dishes. 1642 C’tess Sussex in yth Rep. Comm. Hist. MSS. (1879), I am loth .. to eat in pewter yet, but truly I have put up most of my plate. 1735 Pope Ep. Lady 82 Yet on plain pudding deign’d at home to eat.

d. to eat out of another's hand: to be completely submissive to a person, to be under another person’s control, 1915 Conrad Victory ii. vii. 139 He’s like that— sometimes that familiar you might think he would eat out of your hand, and at others he would snub you sharper than a devil. 1921 H. S. Walpole Young Enchanted ii. v. 185, I won a glorious victory and Victoria has eaten out of my hand ever since. 1957 J. Masters Far, far the Mountain Peak xxiii. 236 This reconnaissance would have him eating out of his hand before it was done. 1968 M. Carroll Dead Trouble iii. 53 Shaun won’t turn me out now. I’ve got him eating out of my hand.

4, quasi-irflwy. uses of 3. a. with obj. followed by adj. or prep.: To affect in a certain way by eating: e.g. to eat oneself sick, into a sickness; to eat (a person) out of house and home (i.e. to ruin him by eating up his resources): of animals: to eat the ground bare. Cursor M. 4574 In pat medu sa lang pai war pat etten pai had it erthe bare. 1597 Shaks. 2 Hen. IV, ii. i. 80 All I haue, he hath eaten me out of house and home. 1712 ArbuthnotJo/iw Bull (1755) S3 John’s family was like to be eat out of house and home. 1807 Anna Porter Hungar. Bro. v. You would not deny me my dinner, because I might eat

moche volk. 1609 Beaum. & Fl. Scorn/. Lady ii. 70 Thou art cold of constitution, thy eat unhealthful. 1782 Mme. P’Arblay Diary 26 Oct. (1842) II. 158, I was too much tired to choose appearing at dinner, and therefore eat my eat upstairs. 1889 Kansas Times Star 7 May, A majority.. adjourned to the Coates House for ‘eats’ and refreshment. 1897 Kipling Captains Courageous ix. 213 How shall I take money when I make so easy my eats and smokes? 1912 W. Owen Let. 23 Apr. (1967) 130, I suppose I must thank you for the eats too. 1918 ‘Ian Hay’ Last Million p. xiii, There is no ice-water, no ice-cream, no soda-fountains, no pie. It is hard to get the old familiar eats in our restaurants. 1955 J. P. Donleavy Ginger Man (1962) xxi. 214 On the tables were eats the like of which I’m sure have never been seen on this isle.

2. The action of eating; a meal. £iooo Ags. Ps. Ivi i[ix]. 15 (Gr.) Hi to aete ut jewitaO. a 1200 Moral Ode 258 in Cott. Horn. 175 J>o pe sungede muchel a drunke and an ete. ri200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 63 J>e lichames festing is wiStiging of estmetes.. and untimliche etes. 1844 J. T. Hewlett Parsons & Widows III. liv. 269 What was he to do ‘between the eats’? 1904 Westm. Gaz. 20 May 10/1 One Tennessee innkeeper described his establishment as.. 25 cents a sleep, 25 cents an eat. 1951 J. Frame Lagoon 60 Goodbye and thank you for the little eat.

eat, Sc.

consumer, devourer, and with prefixed, as breads, flesh-eater.

object

sb.

azooo Prov. i8 (Bosw.) Eteras, commessatores. 1340 Ayenb. 47 Ase byel> J?e mochele drinkeres and eteres. 1483 Caxton Gold. Leg. 26’jlz Thou etar of porrete wene thou to take me out of myn hows? 1483 Cath. Angl. 118 An Eter, comestor. 1535 Coverdale Ezek. xxxvi. 13 Thou art an eater vp of men, and a waister of thy people. 1625-6 Shirley Maids' Rev. in. ii, Do I look like a spider-catcher, or toadeater? 1710 Fuller Tatler No. 205 1^2, [I] always speak of them with the Distinction of the Eaters, and the Swallowers. 1807 Sir R. Wilsonyrw/. 7 June Li/e (1862) II. viii. 253 We slept like pudding-eaters. 1837 J. H. Newman Par. Serm. (1842) VI. vii. 95 It severs the fruit from the eater. fig. 1829 E. Elliott Vill. Patriarch Notes 179 Unless the bread-tax-eaters can be induced to convene.

b. with adj. prefixed, as great, moderate, etc. 1796 Morse Amer. Geog. II. 37 They are great eaters. 1809 Jas. Moore Camp. Spain 62 He [Sir John Moore] was a very plain and moderate eater. 1865 Carlyle Fredk. Gt. III. VIII. V. 43 He is no great eater.

c. transf. Of chemical corrosives. 1610 Markham Masterp. ii. cxxx. 432 Litergie, or lime, in lye.. are likewise very violent and strong eaters.

2. A fruit that eats well, or is intended to be eaten uncooked (cf. cooker 2).

variant of oat.

eatable('i:t3b(3)l),

eater ('i:t3(r)). Also 1-5 eter(e, 5 etar. [f. eat v. -h -ER.] 1. a. One who eats; also with up, a

a. and56. [f. eat?;. + -able.]

A. adj. That may be eaten, suitable for food; edible, esculent. 1483 Cath. Angl. 118 Eteabylle, comessibilis. 1551 Turner Herbal i. (1568) M vb. The eatable cucumbre pepon that is to saye type, is of a fyne substance. 1579 Fulke Heskins' Pari. 306 The crosse maketh our Lordes neshe layde vpon it eatable of men. ?i690 Consid. Raising Money 15 To lay a Home-Excise upon things eatable and drinkable. 1756-7 tr. KeyslePs Trav. (1760) IV. 8 Bread mixed with sea-water.. in time becomes so bitter as not to be eatable. 1863 Lyell Antiq. Man 13 The common eatable oyster.

B. sb. That which may be eaten; an article of food. Chiefly in pi.

1906 N. Sf Q. V. 156/1 The apples with none, or only small pips, were not so good as eaters or cookers. 1930 Observer 11 May 13/2 The blossom is as thick.. on the hardy ‘cooker’ as on the shy and delicate ‘eater’. 1953 E. Hyams Vineyards in England ix. 78 This [grape] is quite a good eater. Hence 'eatress [see -ess], a woman who eats. 1834 Beckford Italy II. 244, I never beheld eaters or eateresses lay about them with greater intrepidity. 1840 New Month. Mag. LIX. 312 In a salon filled with the insatiable eaters and eatresses of macaroni.

eatery (’htan). colloq. (orig. U.S.). [f.

eat

-I-

1795 Southey Letters fr. Spain (1799) 113 P.’s theory of the eatability of cats. 1813 Ann. Reg. 1812 Chron. 518 Water-cresses, of the eatableness of which the Persians appeared totally ignorant.

-ERY 2 b.] An eating-house. 1901 ‘H. McHugh’ Down the Line 52 Muttheimer’s is one of those eateries where the waiters look wise. 1923 WoDEHOUSE Inimit. Jeeves i. 11 Why, then, was he lunching the girl at this God-forsaken eatery? 1927 Daily Express 30 Nov. 10/5, I think you served me with tea and toast at one of those cheap, colossal eating-houses in the West-End... No doubt you think that that clattering eatery.. is ‘life’ and independence. 1938 M. Allingham Fashion in Shrouds xx. 366 Lugg and I have been round every fishy club and suspicious eatery in London. 1959 Times 26 May 8/1 His inability to make contact with a really good hunk of beefsteak in the eateries of Germany, Italy and France. 1959 Vogue June 124 Pull in at one of the curb-service eateries.

eatage

eath, eith (i:S, i:0), a. and adv. Obs. exc. Sc.

1672 Petty Pol. Anat. 362 More eatables were exported anno 1664, than 1641. 1719 De Foe Crusoe (1840) II. ii. 46 Bread or other eatables. 1726 Berkeley in Fraser Life iv. (1871) 137 Whether a minor be not chargeable for eatables and wearables. 18.. Landor Wks. (1868) II. 82 We had brought no eatable with us but fruit and thin marzopane. 1879 Beerbohm Patagonia xvi. 242 Till.. all the drinkables and eatables in Pedro’s shop had disappeared.

Hence 'eatableness; also eata'bility, nonce~wd.

('i:tid3). north, dial. [f. eat v. -f -age; cf.

EDDISH, which may have been confused.]

1. Grass available only for grazing; esp. the aftermath, or growth after the hay is cut. Also with some defining word, as after-, spring, winter. 1641 Best Farm. Bks. (1856) 129 Three landes in the Carre at i6^. Sd. a lande without the eatage. 1723 Lond. Gaz. No. 6209/4 T'be Winter Eatage.. arising from.. West Inggs. 1784-1815 A. Young Ann. Agric. XIX. 313 in Old Country Wds. (E.D.S.) There is no grass that will bring so heavy a crop of hay [as clover and rye-grass] and that after an early spring eatage. 1797 Burns Eccl. Law III. 469 The aftermowth or after-eatage. Ibid. 477 Cattle.. put and kept upon the same land.. for the spring eatage. 1863 Mrs. Toogood Yorksh. Dial., The eatage of the Lanes of the Township will be let by ticket. 1877 Justice Lush in Law Rep. Queen's B. II. 449 The winter eatage of the tenement.

2. The right of using for pasture. 1843 [see eddish 2 b]. 1857 C. B. Robinson Gloss. Best's Farm. Bks. (1856) 184 An increased charge being made for eatage of the fogge. 1869 Pall Mall G. 6 Sept. 5 It is the eatage of the straw rather than the straw itself which belongs to the off-going tenant. 1885 East Cumbrld. News 18 July, To be sold, eatage of fog.

t 'eat-bee. Obs, An English name for the Merops apiaster, (sometimes wrongly identified with the Wood-pecker.) Cf. bee-eater. [1573 Cooper Thesaur., Apiastra Auicula est, Seruius, Eadem qua merops, auis Germanise ignota. Longe enim errant, quse picum viridem interpretantur.] 1608 Topsell Serpents 646 Divers living creatures are nourished by.. honey; as the bear..the woodpecker or eat-bee. 1611 CoTGR., Guespier, a Woodwall, Wood-pecker, Eat-bee (a little bird). 1^3 W. Robertson Phraseol. Gen. 520 An eatbee, a bird; apiaster, merops.

t eat-bill. ? Blundered form of prec. Obs. 1598 Florio, Grallo, a woodpecker, or eate-bill, or witwall.

eatche. Also

7 eitch. Sc. form of adze. 1611 Rates (Jam.) Eitches for cowpers, the dozen iii/. xih. 1818 Scott Br. Lamm, xxv, ‘Let me hae a whample at him wi’ mine eatche—that’s a’.’

eatelich.

var. of atelich a., Obs. frightful.

eat, sb. Forms: 1-3 set, 2-4 ete, (2 hete), 3 at, 4 ethe, 7 eat. [Com. Teut.: OE. ast = OFris. et, OS. at, OHG. azy ON. di:—OTeut. *xto-my f. ablaut-stem of *etan to eat. In later use perh. the vb, stem used subst.] 1. That which is eaten, food. Now freq., esp. in pi. (colloq.).

1599 Minsheu Span. Gram. 80 Eaten bread is forgotten. 1656 Dugard Gate Lat. Uni. IP862. 271 Half-eaten morsels, and other scraps. 1864 Swinburne Atalanta Thou whose mouth Looks red from the eaten fruits of thine own womb. 2. Gnawed, corroded, ulcerated. Cf. moth-,

a 1000 Guthlac 708 (Gr.) Oft he him sete heold. ciooo i^^LFRic On O. T. in Sweet Ags. Reader 60 Moyses.. aetes ne gimde on eallum Sam fyrste. rii75 Lamb. Horn. 109 On monie wisen mon mei wurchen elmessan, on ete and on

worm-eaten. 1581 Sidney Apol. Poetrie (Arb.) 31 Old Mouse-eaten records. 1607 Topsell Four-f. Beasts 401 The aforesaid eaten or lanced wounds.

eaten ('i:t(3)n), ppl. a. [pa. pple. of 1. Consumed as food; devoured.

eat u.]

Forms: 1-3 eaS(e, eS(e, 1-4 e)>(e, 3-6 eth(e, 3 xp, eiS, eitht, ith, iejte, yj>e, 4-5 e^h, (4 eej>, eeth, esathe), 6 eathe, 6- eath. Sc. eith. [(DE. eape adv. = OS. 63o easily, perhaps, OHG. odo perhaps (also in un-odo ‘with difficulty’):—OTeut. *aup6\ the combining form cap- = ON. au'S-, as in aud-ggrr easy to do. Of the adj. the normal OE. form is iepe, ype (also used as adv.) = OS. odi easy, OHG. odt easy, possible:—WGer. *aupjo-z-, perh. the word was orig. an -u stem, which would account for the existence of the form eap(e without umlaut. The OE. compar. degree of the adv. was iep, ep, but there is no distinct evidence of its survival into ME. It has been disputed whether the present word is related to OHG. odi, MHG. ode, cede, mod.G. ode, ON. audr, Goth. aups (? or aupeis, aupus), desert, uninhabited, empty. The sense offers no valid objection to the connexion of the words, as the notion of ‘empty’ might give rise both to that of ‘desert’ and to that of ‘free from difficulties’.]

A, adj. 1. Of an action: Easy, not difficult. C1200 Ormin 19673 And Crist wass se)? to witenn )?att Forr Crist wat alle J?ingess. 01300 Cursor M. 18385 Of eldrin men ]7ai mette wit tuin, b^t )?ai war aid was eth [i>.r. ith] to se. ri340 Gaw. & Gr. Knt. 676 To fynde hys fere vpon folde, in fayth is not e)>e. 1375 Barbour Bruce wii. 454 It wes nocht eyth till ta the toune. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. VI. xxi, In olde men abstinence of mete is eth and esy. 1513 Douglas dEneis Exclamatioun 28 Far eithar is..Ane othir sayaris faltis to spy and note, Than but offence or fait thame self to wryte. C1579 Montgomerie Navigation 200 To the Porte of Leith: To come right in, we thoght it very eith. 1647 H. More Cupid's Confl. xiii. And eath it was, since they’re so near a kin. 1748 Thomson Cast. Indol. 1. Ixxiv, To stir him from his traunce it was not eath. 1821 Mrs. Wheeler App. Cumbrld. Dial. 10 E’en yet its eith to trace A guilty conscience in my blushing feace. 1862 Hislop Prov. Scotl. 55 Eith working when will’s at hame.

b. Of a passage, etc.: That may be travelled with ease, not rough. Beowulf 228 (Gr.) Wedera leode .. jode pancedon pses pe him yplade eaSe wurdon. 1579 Spenser Sheph. Cal. July 90 Hereto, the hilles bene nigher heauen, and thence the passage ethe. 1627 P. Fletcher Locusts 1. ix, Hels yron gates to every guilty soule yeelds entrance eath.

2. Of the object, means, or method of an action: Making slight resistance; presenting few difficulties; = easy. Const, inf., usually active in form but passive in sense. a 1225 Juliana 57 Wenest tu pat we beon se eS to biwihelin? 01240 Wohunge in Cott. Horn. 279 Pouerte wifi menske is eafi for to polien. 1297 R. Glouc. (1810) 327 He was symple & myldore, & ep to ouercome. c 1374 Chaucer Troylus v. 849 He was ethe ynough to maken dwelle. c 1400 Rom. Rose 3955 A foole is eyth to bigyle, c 1450 Henryson

EATHE Mor. Fab. 58 The Bairne is eith to buske that is vnborne. 1532 More Confut. Tindale Wks. 382/1, I woulde euery other thinge wer as ethe to mend as thys is. a 1535-Wks. 83 For as saint Poule saith, y« fleshly sinnes be eth to perceiue. 1632 Sanderson Serm. 323 A great mountaine is eath to be seene. 1691 Ray N.C. Words Coll. 23 It is eath to do, i. e. Easie. 1847-8 H. Miller First Impr. xiy. (1857) 235 One of our old Scotch proverbs [says] God’s bairns are eath to lear, i. e. easily instructed.

tb. Of a person: Easy to be entreated, gentle; in ME. with genit, edi modes gentle of mood. Also, Ready, susceptible; const, inf, Obs. C1250 Gen. ^ Ex. 2249 God hunne him e6i-modes ben. 1596 Spenser F.Q. iv. vi. 40 Her gentle hart..More eath was new impression to receive.

EAVE

44 'eat-in, attrib. phr. Chiefly N. Amer. [f. eat v. + IN prep.l eat-in kitchen, a kitchen designed for eating as well as cooking in; a kitchen-diner. (Estate agents’ jargon.) 1955 N. Y. Times 3 Apr. VIII. 12R/6 (Advt.), An oversized living-dining room combination with fireplace, eat-in kitchen, 3 master sized bedrooms, 2 tiled baths. 1968 Globe & Mail (Toronto) 13 Feb. 30/4 (Advt.), 5 bedrooms and den, ‘eat-in’ kitchen, rec. room with bar and fireplace. 1969 Sydney Morning Herald 24 May 39/8 (Advt.), Huge loungerm., eat-in kit., ultra mod. bathroom. 1979 Arizona Daily Star 5 Aug. (Advt. Section) 17/2 Eat-in kitchen with adjacent family rm. 1984 Real Estate Buyer (St. Augustine, Florida) Mar. 3/3 (Advt.), Heated, screened pool, brick BBQ, equipped eat-in kitchen.

fS. Comfortable, at ease, free from pain. CI205 Lay. 2234 E6 him wes on heorten. Ibid. 8178 J?a wes his hurte 2eiSe.^Ibid. 1250 )?o was he l?e ej^ere.

B. adv. Easily, without difficulty. a 1000 Boeth. Metr. ix. 54 He wel meahte unriht him eSe forbiodan. a 1000 Andreas 425 (Gr.) God eaSe m®5 heaSoliSendum helpe jefremman. c 1175 Cott. Horn. 219 He wolde and eaSe mihte bien his sceoppinde 3elic. 01200 Moral Ode 284 in Cott. Horn. I’j’j Ie)7e he muwen ben ofdrad pe hine sculled bi-helde. a 1225 Ancr. R. 62 Ablinde pe heorte, heo is e6 ouercumen, & ibrouht sone mid sunne to grunde. 01300 K. Horn 61 So fele mi3ten ype Bringe hem pre to dipe. a 1300 Cursor M. 11219 Moght he not Jjan.. Be born vte of a maiden eth At pe time o nine moneth? c 1315 Shoreham 7 Wel e3athe, God thorwe miracles ketheth hit A-lyve and eke a-dethe. CI460 Towneley Myst. 193 Gone worde myght thou speke ethe. 1538 Starkey England i. ii. §6 (1871) 32 We may the. .ether also avoyd thys ignorance. 1600 Fairfax Tasso x, xlii. 187 Who thinkes him most secure is eathest shamed. 01774 Fergusson Rising of Sess. Poems (184s) 28 Eith can the pleugh-stilts gar a chiel Be unco vogie Clean to lick alT his crowdie-meal. 1862 Hislop Prov. Scotl. 54 Eith learned, soon forgotten.

C. eath” in Comb. 1. Forming adjs. (which did not survive beyond 14th c.), the final element being f. the stem of a verb: eSbete [see beet t;.], easy to amend; eSfele [see feel tj.], easily felt; [see GET v.]y easily obtained; eSlete [see let and cf. OE. earfoSl^te emitted with difficulty], easily dismissed, lightly esteemed; eSluke [see LOUK ^.], easily pulled; e5sene [see sene a., see tJ.], easy to see; e}?winne [see win ?;.], easy to win. CI200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 63 hat we hauen agilt her biforen . .buS *efibete gif hie us sore rieweS. C1225 Ancr. R. 194 Uor6i pet heo beo6 *e5 fele. c 1000 iELFRic on O. & N. Test. 32 (Bosw.) Him wses *ea)?gete ele to Cam ba^e. C1275 Sinners Beware 19 in O.E. Misc. 74 py vs is ep~gete Helle )?at is unlede. 01200 Moral Ode 38 in E.E. Poems (1862) 24 *ESlete [is] muchel gyue Senne 6e heorte is ille. 01225 Juliana 70 Me ledde hire & hleac forC ant heo wes *eSluke. 01000 Cynewulf Crist 1235 Daer bij? *ej?5esyne l^reo tacen. 0x200 Moral Ode 338 in O.E. Misc. 70 p&t is wel ej?-sene. 01225 Leg. Kath. 381 Sutel is and eCsene.. peet tu were iset 3ung to leaf and to lare. 01225 Ancr. R. 116 WiCuten writunge, |>e fulCe is to eS-cene. c 1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 49 Nime we pe turtles bitocninge pat is *eCwinne. 2. With final element f. a sb.: see edmod, -MEDE.

feathe, v, Obs. rare. In 3 pa. t. e66ede. [f. eath a.] trans. To lighten, alleviate, assuage. c 1250 Gen. & Ex. 1439 Eliezer him cam a-gon, ECCede his sor3e, bro3t him a wif Of fai5er waspene.

eather, dial, form of edder, osier. t'eathly, a. and adv. Obs. Forms: see eath. [f.

a. + -LY.] A. adj. 1. Easy, not difficult.

eath

ciooo Ags. Gosp. Matt. xix. 26 Ealle h^ng synt mid Gode eaSelice [cii6o Hatton seSelice]. cii6o Hatton Gosp. Matt, xix. 24 iE|?elicor beoS pam olfende to ganne p\irh needle ea3e. CI175 Lamb. Horn. 135 Of ane eCeliche dede.

2. Inconsiderable, slight, trifling. Often in antithesis to eche (= eternal): Of short duration. C890 K. ^Elfred Baeda ii. v. (Bosw.) Gif Su ne wilt us 5el7afian in swa sSelicum )?ingo. CI176 Cott. Horn. 221 Mid pare aeCelice hyrsumnesse )?u 3earnest hefen rices merhCe. 01225 Ancr. R. 282 On eCelich stiche, oCer on eSelich eche makeC uorte understonden hwu lutel wurC is prude.

3. a. Of a person: Low in station; mean in character, b. Of a thing: Of small value. C1200 Trin. Coll, Horn. 35 Ne was pe engel isend ne to kinge .. ac to lo3e and eCeliche men alse heordes bu5. 0 1300 Floriz & Bl. 274 Abute pe orchard is a wal; pe e)?elikeste ston is cristal.

B. adv. Easily, without difficulty. ciooo Ags. Gosp. Luke xviii. 25 EaSelicor mae^ se olfend gan hurh are naedle cage, c 1200 Ormin 12532 Sol? Godd .. mihhte standenn ael7eli3 38en himm. 1513-75 Diurn. Occurr. (1833) 249 His lyik eithlie culd not heirtofoir be fundin. 1737 Ramsay Scot. Prov. Ded., You may eithly make yoursells master of the hale ware. 1813 Hogg Queen's Wake 73 The rein deir dun can eithly run, Quhan the houndis and the hornis pursue. 1872 Blackie Lays Highl. 71 This only lore my beggar wit Could eathly understand.

b. At an easy price, cheaply. C1225 Ancr. R. 290 Ne sule )?u neuer so eCeliche.. his deorewurSe spuse.

t eaths, adv. Obs. [f. eath a. with genitival -s; cf. UNEATHS.] Easily. 1594 Cornelia in Hazl. Dodsley V. 209 Which eaths appear in sad and strange disguises To pensive minds.

eating ('i:tii)), vbl. sb. [f. eat v. + -iNoh] 1. The action or habit of taking food. CI175 Lamb. Horn. 19 J>e licome luuaS muchele slauSe and muchele etinge and drunkunge. C1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 37 Sume men ladeS here lif on etinge and on drinkinge alse swin. c 1380 Wyclif Serm. Sel. Wks. I. 66 Hous of etynge. Ibid. III. 410 Ffor gostily eetynge of Cristis owne body, o 1450 Knt. de la Tour 22 Ther was gret noyse betwene the man and hys wiff for etinge of the ele. 1528 Paynell Salerne Regim. E., They that haue a putrified feuer, are forbyden eatynge of mylke. 1601 Shaks.^u/. C. i. ii. 296.1651 Hobbes Leviath. iii. xli. 264 By eating at Christ’s table, is meant the eating of the Tree of Life. 1755 Smollett Quix. (1803) II. 133 The proof of the pudding is in the eating of it. 1884 Ruskin in Pall Mall G. 27 Oct. 6/1 You have.. kickshaws instead of beef for your eating.

b. An act of taking food; a meal. Also a way or manner of feeding, arch. 1483 Cath. Angl. 118 An Etynge, commestio, edilis. 1535 in euery eatynge. our selues in our eatings, in our apparrell, in our companie, in our recreations. 1847 L. Hunt Men, Worn. & B. I. iv. 77 Marvelling at their eatings, their faces, and at the prodigious jumps they took. 1873 Lytton K. Chillingly iii. v. (1878) 188 Epochs are signalised by their eatings. CovERDALE Ecclus. xxxvii. 29 Be not gredy 1608 Hieron Wks. 1. 691 Taking heed to

c. good, etc., eating: said of an article of food, 1763 Mrs. Harris in Priv. Lett, ist Ld. Malmesbury I, 93 Whitebait.. are really very good eating. 1781 Phil. Trans. LXXI. 169 note, White Ants..are most delicious and delicate eating. 1871 Gd. Words 720 A.. fish, weighing from half-a-pound to two pounds, and excellent eating.

2. Corrosion; disintegration by a chemical agent, 1691 T. H[ale] Acc. New Invent, i The extraordinary Eating and Corroding of their Rudder-Irons and Bolts.

3. attrib. and Comb,, as eating-apple, -parlour, etc. Also eating-house, -room. c 1440 Promp. Parv. 143 Etynge appulle tre, esculus. 1483 Cath. Angl. 118 An Etynge place, pransorium. 1509 Fisher Fun. Serm. Marg. C'tesse Richmonde (1708) 12 The hour of dyner.. of the Etynge day was ten of the Cloke, and upon the fastynge day, Eleven. 1535 Coverdale Ruth ii. 12 Whan it is eatinge tyme, come hither, and eate of the bred. 1622 Massinger, etc. Old Law in. i, I shall have but six weeks of Lent..& then comes eating-tide. 1630 J. Taylor (Water P.) Gt. Eater Kent 12 Nothing comes amisse. Let any come in the shape of fodder or eating-stuffe, it is welcome. 1719 De Foe Crusoe (1840) I. xv. 256 The said man-eating occasions. 1823 F. Cooper Pioneer vii. (1869) 35/2 The remainder of the party withdrew to an eating parlour. 1845 Darwin Voy. Nat. viii. (1873) 172 The elevatory movement, and the eating-back power of the sea. 1853 Rock Ch. of Fathers III. ii. 86 They went in procession to the eating-hall.

eating ('htiq), ppl. a. [f. eat + -ing^.] 1. That eats; chiefly in comb, with prefixed obj. Formerly also, Greedy, voracious.

t'eatnell. Obs.~^^ [obscurely f. eat z;.] 1611 Cotgr., Croqueteur, lickorous feeder.

an eatnell, a greedie,

and

eaton, obs. form of etin, giant. Ileau (o), French for ‘water\ occurring in the names of several liquids, used as scents or in medicine, as eau-de-Cologne, a perfume consisting of alcohol and various essential oils, originally (and still very largely) made at Cologne; also {nonce-use) as a vb.; eau de Javelle, see Javelle; eau-de-Luce, a medicinal pre¬ paration of alcohol, ammonia, and oil of amber, used in India as an antidote to snake-bites, and in England sometimes as smelling salts; eau-denil (erron. -du-), eau-de-Nil [lit. ‘water of (the) Nile’], a pale green colour supposed to resemble that of the Nile; eau de Portugal, a perfume comprising an essential oil known as essence of Portugal; eau de toilette = toilet-water s.v. TOILET sb. 9b; eau-de-vie [lit. ‘water of life’], the Fr. name for brandy; eau sucree (o sukre), water with sugar in it. See also ewe ardaunt, EWROSE. • 1802 C. Wilmot Let. 19 June in Irish Peer (1920) 72 The Ladies most frequently have their Baths perfum’d with *Eau de Cologne, Rose Water, or some perfume of that kind. 1823 Byron To Ld. Blessington 14 Apr., Neither lemonjuice nor eau de Cologne, nor any other eau. 1845 Tait's Mag. XII. 803 Her maid, .comforted and eau-de-cologned her. 1854 Mrs. Gaskell North & S. xxii, Mrs. Thornton bathed Margaret’s temples with eau de Cologne. 1756 Gentl. Mag. XXVI. 33 This gives you the genuine *Eau de luce. 1808 Med. Jrnl. XIX. 492 The wounds were deeply scarified, and filled with eau de luce. 1852 Th. Ross tr. Humboldt's Trav. II. xxiv. .^7 In vain have ammonia and eau-de-luce been tried against the Curare. 1870 Young Ladies' Jrnl. VII. 482 A pretty toilette of *eau-du-nil. 189^ [see crevette]. 1891 Truth 10 Dec. 1240/2 A row of begonia leaves in eau-de-Nil velvet. 1905 E. F. Benson Image in Sand ix, Four greens—eau-de-nil, vert-dori, aquamarine, and emerald—shone and shimmered together. 1928 Times 9 May 11 /s A robe de style of eau-de-nil tulle, i960 Times 30 Jan. 7/4 Eau-de-nil and tilleul green. 1825 H. Wilson Mem. 43 ‘A little *Eau de Portugal would do no harm.. ’ I remarked,.. alluding to his dislike of perfumery. 1848 Mrs. Gaskell Mary Barton I. vi. 104 Did not I get you that eau de Portugal from town. 1938 L. MacNeice Zoo xiv. 229 We poured a bottle of eau-de-Portugal over our heads. 1963 ‘M. Albrand’ Call from Austria vii. 64 He smelled of Eau de Portugal, the lotion he used on his hair; he smelled a little like an orange. 1907 Yesterday's Shopping (1969) 537/3 Houbigant’s *Eau de Toilette.. bot. 4/6. 1985 Times 23 Jan. lo/s The continental man has never had any reservations about buying eau de toilette rather than aftershave. 1748 Smollett R. Random II. xlii. 54 We..were treated at breakfast with chocolate and *Veau de vie by our paramours. 1804 M. Wilmot Lei. 24 Jan. in Russ.Jrnls. (1934) i. 78 The desert was in another room, dry’d fruits, C^es, and eau de vie. 1840 Barham IngoL Leg. ist Ser. 168 Many a flaggon Of double ale.. and eau-de-vie. 1846 Dickens Pict.fr. Italy 86 He.. produces a jorum of hot brandy and water; for that bottle.. now holds nothing but the purest eau devie. 1911 E. M. Clowes On Wallaby vii. 184 Delicately burning his spoonful of eau-de-vie over his coffee. 1825 H. Wilson Mem. III. 69 The Frenchman.. drank *eau sucre, and studied in his dictionary. 1844 Thackeray Misc. Ess. (1885) 61 There was eau sucree in the dining-room if the stalwart descendants of Du Guesclin were athirst. 01845 Barham Ingol. Leg. 3rd Ser. (1847) 189 Lemonade, eau sucree—and drinkables mild. 1872 E. Braddon Life in India viii. 314 Playing dominoes and drinking eau sucree.

1483 Cath. Angl. 118 Etynge, edax, edaculus. 1712 Spect. No. 446 |P6 An eating Parasite, or a vain¬ glorious Soldier. Mod. He has killed a man-eating tiger. fb. quasi-s6. = eater. Obs. C1340 Cursor M. 7125 (Trin.) Of pe etyng pe mete out sprong. 1382 Wyclif iV0^wm iii. 12 His vnripe fijgis.. shuln falle in to the mouth of the etynge [1388 etere].

eau, erroneous form of EA, canal.

2. That consumes or eats away; gnawing, corroding, fretting; of sores, chemical corrosives, etc.

a 1000 in Thorpe Laws I. 374 (Bosw.) WiS aejliwylcne sewbryce. ciijs Lamb. Horn. 49 Alse peos men do6 pe liggeS inne eubruche. ri200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 137 Alle po.. don ewuebruche on here agene spuse. Ibid. 213 Ollende word and idele lehtres.. beS bispeke ewebruche. a 1225 Ancr. R. 204 Heo beoth .. Hordom, Eaubruche, etc.

Addison

1621 Burton Anat. Mel. ii. iv. iii. (1651) 383 Plaisters to raise blisters, eating medicines of pich, mustard-seed and the like. 1702 Rowe Tamerl. iv. i. 1774 Drops of eating Water on the Marble. i8?5 Browning Paracels. 130 Festering blotches, eating poisoning blains. fig. c 1602 Fr. Davison Ps. Ixxiii. in Farr’s S.P. (1845) 322 From sweatting toyle, and eating care. 1632 Milton UAllegro 135 And ever against eating cares. Lap me in soft Lydian airs. 1702 Rowe Ambit. Step-Moth. i. i. 278 That eating canker. Grief. 1876 Blackie Songs Relig. & Life 186 From eating care thy heart to free.

'eating-house. A house for eating, esp. one in which meals are supplied ready dressed; a cook’s shop, restaurant. Cl440 Promp. Parv. 143 Etynge howse, pr0n5ormm. 1673 Dryden Marr. a la Mode iv. iv, An eating house. Bottles of wine on the table. 1748 Smollett Rod. Random xiii, To dine at an eating-house. 1805 N. Nicholls Let. in Corr. Gray (1843) 49 He dined generally alone, and was served from an eating-house.. in Jermyn Street. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. 1. 237 A third had stepped into an eating house in Covent Garden.

t'eaubruche, Obs. Forms; i sewbryce, 2-3 eu-, ewe, ewue, eaubruche. [OE. sewbryce, f. OE. xw, X sb.^ marriage + bryce, bruche, a breaking.] Adultery.

t'eaubruche, sb.^ Obs. Forms; i tewbryca, 2 eubruche. [OE. xwbryca, f. prec.] Also 'eaubrekere. Obs. In 2 eawbrekere. [f. ME. brekere breaker.] An adulterer. 01000 in Thorpe Laws II. 268 (Bosw.) Se 6e his sewe forlaet, and nim8 o8er wif, he bip aewbryca. CI17S Lamb. Horn. 13 Ne beo pu eubruche. Ne do pu peofCe. Ibid. 29 Rubberes .. and pa eawbrekeres .. habbe8 an pone fulneh.

Ileau forte [lit- ‘strong water’], French for ‘nitric acid’; hence, for an etching. Hence eau fortiste, an etcher. 1882 Society 11 Nov. 22/1 The etching being by the wellknown eaufortiste, Mr. J. L. Steele.

room

eave (i:v). [Back-formation from eaves, treated as pi.] Used as the sing, of eaves. Hence eave v., to provide with shelter under eaves; eaved ppl. a., provided with eaves; 'eaving sb. (usually pi.) = EAVES.

1613 in Northern N. Sf Q. I. 74 Chalmeirs to be ordinaire eitting roomes. 1751 Smollett Per. Pic. (1779) HI- Ixxvi. 27 He handed her down stairs into the eating-room. 1849 H. Mayo Pop. Superst. vi. 87 He went to the hotel of M. Lafargue.. and entered the eating room.

1580 North Plutarch 378 He hid the Money he had stolne under the house eavings. 1611 Cotgr., Agouttis, the eauings of a house. 1710 T. Ward Eng. Ref. i. (1716) 102 (D.) His hat.. With narrow rim scarce wide enough To eave from rain the staring ruff, a 1722 Lisle Husb. (1757) 445 On these walls.. is a large eaving to his house. 1823 P.

'eating-room.

Obs. exc. arch. A appropriated for eating; a dining-room.

EAVER Pract. Build. 402 Eave.—The skirt or lower part of the slating hanging over the naked of the wall. 1851 Ruskin Stones Ven. (1874) I. xiv. 151 The Eaved Cornice.. as represented in the simplest form by cottage eaves. 1871 Tyndall Forms Water §37. 258 The water trickles to the eave and then drops down. Nicholson

eaver* ('i:v3(r)). Obs. exc. dial. Also ever. [Of unknown origin; some have suggested adoption of F. ivraie darnel, Lolium temulentum; the forms of the Eng. word, however, seem to forbid this.] Rye grass {Lolium perenne). 1732 De Foe Tour Gt. Brit. (1769) I. 359 Clover, Eaver, and Trefoil Grass. 1796 W. Marshall West of Eng. Gloss. Eaver, lolium perenne, ray-grass. 1880 East Cornwall Gloss. (E.D.S.) Eaver, in some parts pronounced Hayver. The grass, Lolium perenne.

eaver^ ('i:v3(r)). dial. Also 7 eever, 9 ether. A provincial term for the direction of the wind; a quarter of the heavens. (Adm. Smyth.) 1867 Smyth Sailor’s Word-bk. 1875 Lane. Gloss. (E.D.S.) Eaver (sometimes Ether).. The wind is in a rainy eaver.

eaver, obs. Sc. var. of aver. 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. 72 Great number of eavers or beasts.

eaver, var. of ever, Obs., wild boar. eaves (i:vz). Forms: i efes, 3-5 eouesen (pL), ouese, -ise, 4 euez, euese, 4-8 eves(e, (4 hevese), (6 ease, 6 pi. esen), 7 eaues, (eeves, heaves), dial. eize, 7- eaves. [OE. efes, fern. = OFris. ose, Flem. (Kilian) oose, OHG. obasa (MHG. obse, mod. dial.G. obsen) eaves, porch (:—WGer. *obis{zv)a, *obas{w)a) = ON. ups (Sw. dial, uffs), Goth, ubizwa porch; prob. f. same root as over. The final -s has been mistaken for the sign of the pi., and in mod. Eng. the word is commonly treated as pi., eave being occas. used as the sing. The forms ME. ovese, WSomerset office (Elworthy), point to an OE. form *ofes:—WGer. *o6as(w)fl.] 1. a. The edge of the roof of a building, or of the thatch of a stack, which overhangs the side. a 1000 Lamb. Psalter ci[i]. 7 (Bosw.) Geworden ic com swa swa spearwa.. anwuniende on efese. £^1205 Lay. 29279, I pan eouesen he [pa sparwen] grupen. c 1220 Bestiary 462 De spinnere .. festeS atte hus rof hire fodredes o rof er on ouese. CI440 Promp. Parv. 144 Evese, or evesynge of a house, stillicidium. ^1500 Partenay 5504 Allso thys chambre well depeynted was Ffro foote of wallure the ouise vnto. 1570 Levins Manip. 211 Y® ease or cues of a house. 1579 Lyly Euphues (Arb.) 91 The Swallow which in the summer creepeth under the eues of euery house. 1610 Shaks. Temp. v. i. 17 His teares runs downe his beard like winters drops From eaues of reeds. 1611 Coryat Crudities 323 The pentices or eauisses of their houses. 1629 S'hertogenbosh 48 It.. ruined some houses; of some the heaues and tops were damnified very much. 1632 Milton II Penser. 130 Ushered with a shower still.. With minute-drops from off the eaves. 1663 Cowley Verses & Ess. (1669) 104 The Birds under the Eeves of his Window call him up in the morning. 1751 W. Halfpenny New Designs Farm Ho. 5 Thence to the Eves of the Roofs one Brick and half. 1799 J. Robertson Agric. Perth 161 The best form of corn stacks is circular, with .. a conical top, diverging a little towards the eaves. 1819 Shelley Ros. ^ Helen 367 Like twinkling rain-drops from the eaves. 1849 Freeman Archit. 178 The eaves..rest commonly on small arcades or corbel-tables. fig. 1675 Crowne City Polit. ii. i, I hang on the eves of life, like a trembling drop, ready every minute to fall.

fb. Of a wood: The edge, margin. Ohs. 898 O.E. Chron. an. 894 }}a foron hie.. bi swa hwaj?erre efes swa hit l?onne fierdleas waes. c 1325 Gloss. W. de Biblesw. in Wright Voc. 159 Desouz Voverayl, under the wode-side wode-hevese. ^1340 Gaw. & Gr. Knt. 1178 bus laykez )7is lorde by lynde wodez euez.

2. transj. Anything that projects or overhangs slightly, as fthe brow of a hill, fthe flaps of a saddle, the edge of a cloud or precipice, the brim of a hat; also poet, the eyelids. 1382 WYCLipyo^ xi. 5 Anne forsothe sat beside the weye eche dai in the euese [1388 cop; Vulg. supercilio] of the hil. 1663 Butler Hud. i. i. 412 He got up to the saddle eaves. From whence he vaulted into th’ seat. 1850 Tennyson In Mem. Ixvi, Closing eaves of wearied eyes I sleep. 1855 Maury Phys. Geog. Sea xi. §511 The southern eaves of the cloud plane, i860 Tyndall Glac. i. ii. 21 Overhanging eaves of snow. 1862 Borrow Wales I. 4 A leather hat.. with the side eaves turned up.

3. attrib. and Comb, as eave(s)-shoot, -spout, -trough (designating various forms of gutter or spout to catch the drip from eaves); also eavestroughing) eaves-board (also eave-board; see eave), eaves-catch, -lath (see quot. 1875); feaves-knife, a knife for cutting thatch at the eaves; eaves-martin, the House Martin (Hirundo urbica). Also eaves-drop sb. and v., -dropper, -dropping. 1399 Mem. Ripon (Surtees) HI. 131 Tabulas quse vocantur *Esborde. ^^1505 Church~w. Acc. St. Dunstan's Canterb., For xlv fote of *evys bordexvtf. 1627 MS. Acc. St. John's Hosp. Canterb., To the Sawyers for cutting of evesboord. 1809 R. Langford Introd. Trade 88 The eaveboards project.. 16 inches. 1875 Gwilt Archit., Arris fillet. When.. used to raise the slates, at the eaves of a building, it is then called the eaves’ board, eaves’ lath, or *eaves’ catch. 1641 Best Farm. Bks, (1856) 139 A thatchers tooles are.. an *eize-knife for cutting the eize. 1422-3 Archives Christ Ch. Canterb. in Archaeol. Cantiana XIII. 561 Item payd for

EBB

45 of the Schretherris •Evys-lathe, lathe, and tyle.. iiii. iiij^/. 1833 J. Hodgson in J. Raine Mem. (1858) II. 307 The *eaves-martin very plentiful. 1889 ‘Herring’ & ‘Ross’ Irish Cousin II. iii. iv. 207 The noisy splashing of the water that fell from a broken ‘eaveshoot on to the gravel. 1899 Somerville & ‘Ross’ Exper. Irish R.M. i, The rain sluiced upon me from a broken eaveshoot. 1846 in N. Eliason Tarheel Talk (1956) 270 Put up smart of the *eve spout. 1865 H. B. Stowe House & Home P. 103 The water-barrel which stood under the eaves-spout. 1889 R. T. Cooke Steadfast xxxv. 369 A wild November storm shrieked and wailed in the eave-spout. 1851 H. Melville Moby Dick III. xxxv. 211 Same with cocked hats; the cocks form gable-end *eave-troughs. 1878 B, F. Taylor Between Gates 176 Every day a wooden spout, a great eaves-trough was laid from the top of the steps. 1968 Globe & Mail (Toronto) 17 Feb. 53/3 (Advt.), Roofing & Eavestroughing. Chimney, eavestrough, roof repairs, free estimates, guaranteed.

'eavesdrip, -drop, sh. [OE. yfesdrype, f. eaves H- DRIP, afterwards refashioned after DROP; cf. ON. upsar-dropi of same meaning; the Flem. oosdrupy according to Kilian, meant simply ‘eaves’.] The dripping of water from the eaves of a house; the space of ground which is liable to receive the rain-water thrown off by the eaves of a building. Chiefly used with reference to the ancient custom or law which prohibited a proprietor from building at a less distance than two feet from the boundary of his land, lest he should injure his neighbour’s land by ‘eavesdrop.’ 868 Kentish Charter in Brit. Museum Fac-Sim. ii. plate xxxviii, An folcees folcryht to lefsenne rumaes butan twigen fyt to yfaes drypae. 1837 Carlyle Fr. Rev. (1872) III. i. ii. 15 The lean demigod.. had.. to wait under eavesdrops. 1880 Muirhead Gaius Digest 590 Rights of light, prospect, gutter, and eaves-drop.

eavesdrop (’iivzdrop), v. Also 7 eave-drop. [f. prec.; or perhaps back-formation from eaves¬ dropper.] intr. To stand within the‘eavesdrop’ of a house in order to listen to secrets; hence, to listen secretly to private conversation. Also trans. To listen secretly to (conversation); formerly also, to listen within the‘eavesdrop’ of (a house); to listen to the secrets of (a person). 1606 Sir G. Goosecappev. i. in Bullen O. PL (1884) III. 82 We will be bold to evesdroppe. 1611 S. W. Baker in Coryat Crudities Panegyr. Verses, That evesdrops a word. 1611 Cotgr. s.v. Escoute, Estre aux escoutes.. to eaue-drop, to prie into men’s actions or courses. 1619 Dalton Countr. Just. Ixxv. (1630) 189 Against such as by night shall evesdrop mens houses. 1632 Shirley Hyde Park i. ii. It is not civil to eavesdrop him. 1820 Scott Abbot xxi, Art thou already eaves-dropping? i860 Emerson Cond. Life v. BehaviourVIks. (Bohn)II. 386 We mustnot peep and eaves¬ drop at palace-doors. 1872 Howells Wedd. Journ. 176 What we eavesdropped so shamefully in the hotel parlor.

eavesdropper ('iivzdrDp9(r)).

For forms see EAVES, [f. EAVESDROP V. (or perhaps sb.) + -er.] a. In English Law: see quot. 1641. h,gen. One who listens secretly to conversation. 1487 Nottingham Borough Rec. HI. 10 Juratores .. dicunt .. quod Henricus Rowley.. est communis evys-dropper et vagator in noctibus. ^1515 Modus tenedi Cur. Baron. (Pynson) Avb, Euesdroppers vnder mennes walles or wyndowes.. to bere tales. 1561 Awdelay Fro/. Vocab. 15 Esen Droppers. 1584 R. Scot Discov. Witcher, ii. viii. 24 There must be some eves-dropers with pen and inke behind the wall. 1641 Termes de la Ley 153 Evesdroppers are such as stand under wals or windowes.. to heare news. 1748 Richardson Clarissa (1811) II. xii. 72 Like a thief, or evesdropper, he is forced to dodge about in hopes of a letter. 1851 W. W. Collins Ramb. by Railways . (1852) 290 The expertest eaves-droppers, who had listened at the door, brought away no information.

Hence 'eavesdropping vbl. sb. and ppl. a. 1601 Yarington Two Lament. Traj. iv. vi. in Bullen O. PI. IV, Your close eaves-dropping pollicies Have hindred him of greater benefits. 1641 Milton Animadv. (1851) 191 To stand to the courtesy of a night-walking cudgeller for eaves dropping. 1672-3 Roxb. Ballads vi. (1887) 440 Where they need fear No.. eves-dropping ear. 1775 Sheridan Rivals III. iii, A beggarly, strolling, eavesdropping ensign. 1850 Clough Dipsychus ii. iii. 46 An eaves-dropping menial. 1853 Wharton Pa. Digest 473 Eavesdropping consists in privily listening.

t'eavesing. Obs. Forms; i oefsung, efesung, 5 evesung, 4-6 evyss-, evys-, evesyng, -ing, 6 eusing, eavesinge. See also easing sb.^ [repr. OE. efesung, vbl. sb. f. efes-ian, evese u.; in sense 2 directly f. eaves.] 11. The action of trimming the edges of anything; clipping, polling, shearing. Also concr. What is cut off; the clippings of hair. Obs. £z8oo Corpus Gloss. 474 Circinatio, oefsung. rioso Ags. Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 364 Circinnatio, efesung. a 1225 Ancr. R. 398 Absalomes schene white, pet ase oft ase me euesede him me solde his euesunge vor two hundred sides.

2. The eaves of a house or stack; formerly also used for ‘roof, and hence transf. for ‘dwelling’. o€adai\

ecclesyastyke, 6-7 -iastique, 7 -tick(e, -tik, 7ecclesiastic. [ad. (through Fr. and L.) Gr. cK/cAycrtaoTtfcdj, ultimately f. eicjcAyma church.] A. adj. (Now rare-, see ecclesiastical.) 1. Of or pertaining to the church; concerned with the affairs of the church; opposed to civil or secular.

Pathol, [f, Gr. see prec.] ‘Of the nature or appearance of an ecchymosis’ {Syd. Soc. Lex.).

1857 Bullock Cazeaux’ Midtvif. 67 The surface is.. covered.. sometimes with ecchymotic spots.

'eccle, V. dial. Also eckle. [app, var. of ettle.] intr. To aim or intend. 1721-1800 in Bailey. 1847-78 Halliw., intend; to design. North.

Eckle, to aim; to

'eccle-grass. (See quot.) 1806 P. Neill Tour Orkney (Jam.) Pinguicula vulgaris, or common butter-wort—in Orkney is known by the name of Ecclegrass.

Eccles ('ek(3)lz). [Name of a town in Lancashire.] Eccles cake, a kind of fancy cake. 1872 Young Englishwoman Nov. 620/1 Can you tell me how to make Bride Cake and Eccles’ Cakes? 1881 E. Skuse Confect. Hand~Bk. (ed. 3) 155 Eccles Cake. Roll out a sheet of paste.. about a quarter of an inch thick, then roll out another sheet same size,.. spread on the first sheet some Banbury meat.. then cover it with the second sheet. 1889 Manch. Sch. Board Cookery Classes 38 Eccles Cakes. 2 oz. brown sugar, i oz. butter, J lb. currants, i oz. candied peel, a little grated nutmeg and lemon rind. 1908 J. Kirkland Mod. Baker III. 354 Eccles cakes are made in nearly the same manner and with the same ingredients as Banburys, only the usual shape is round. 1957 Encycl. Brit. VII. 881/1 Eccles cakes, made of pastry with currants, have a wide reputation.

Ilecclesia (e'kliizra, -sis). Hist. [med.L., a. Gr. eiocAycria, f. ex/cAijTos called OUt, f. CKKaXeiv to call out.] A Greek word for a regularly convoked assembly; chiefly applied to the general assembly of Athenian citizens. On the introduction of Christianity it became the regular word for church, q.v. IS77 tr. Bullinger's Decades (1592) 79 Ecclesia, which worde wee vse for the Church, i^roperly an assembly. 1820 T. Mitchell Aristoph. I. 227 The ecclesia consisted of all such as were freemen of Athens. 1849 Grote Hist. Greece (1862) ii. Ixiv. V. 533 That misguided vote, both of the Senate and of the Ekklesia.

e'cclesial, a.

[a. OF. ecclesial, f. L. ecclesia; see prec.] Of or pertaining to the church; = ECCLESIASTICAL. Freq. in Milton. 1649 Milton Eikon. iii. (1851) 443 It is not the part of a King..to meddle with Ecclesial Government. 1961 B. R. Sects & Society iii. xii. 250 The significant charismatic element at work at the ecclesial level. 1966 J. D. Crichton in Studia Patristica (Intemat. Conf. Patr. Stud.) VIII. 208 The pleas for liturgical reform.. achieved an ecclesial dimension. Wilson

ecclesialogy, bad form of ecclesiology.

eccho, obs. var. echo.

ecclesiarch (e'kli:zia:k). [f. Gr.

ecchondroma (ekon'drauma). Path. [mod.L.,

e'cclesiarchy.

1890 in Billings Med. Diet. 1897 Allbutt's Syst. Med. IV. 826 Ecchondromas are usually firmly attached, hard, sessile growths. 1929 Wakeley & Buxton Surg. Path. xv. 124 Chondroma.. may burst through the shaft and become pedunculated (ecchondroma). 1954 G, P. Wright Introd. Path. (ed. 2) xxix. 537 Chondromas arise most frequently in bony structures, and are termed enchondromas or ecchondromas according to their internal or external situation.

c 1386 Chaucer Wyfs Prol. 651 Thanne wolde he, vp-on his Bible seke That ilke prouerbe, of Ecclesiaste Where he comandeth, and forbedeth faste Man shal nat suflfre his wyf go roule aboute. 1873 Contemp. Rev. XXII. 536 The happiness that allures me, says the Ecclesiast, is a mockery.

(Properly the Gr. title is the designation of Solomon considered as the author of the book, and is occas. so used by Eng. writers, though in the text of the book the Eng. versions render the corresponding Heb. word as ‘The Preacher’.) a 1300 Cursor M. 8464 [Of Salamon] pe first boke Man it clepes ecclesiastes. 1382 Wyclif Eccles. Prol. note, Here gynneth the prologe in the boc of Ecclesiastes. 1579 W. Fulke Heskins' Pari. 9 Salomon in his Ecclesiastes pleaseth not M. Heskins. 1641 Hinder. Bruen Ded. i [Salomon] was both an Ecclesiastes, and a King.

eccheness, variant of echeness, Obs.

f. Gr. Ik out + CHONDROMA.] A chondroma growing outwards from the surface of a bone or cartilage.

of

1. ‘The Preacher’, i.e. Solomon considered as the author of the Book of Ecclesiastes. In first quot. applied to the author of Ecclesiasticus, the reference being to xxxiii. 19.

eKKXrjola church + -apxos ruler.] A ruler of the church. Hence

Decl. ^ F. HI. Ixvi. 671 The great ecclesiarch poorly excuses his submission to the emperor. 1878 E. Jenkins Haverholme 92 He..was..a sort of lay ecclesiarch in the county. Ibid. 167 Emancipation of Christianity from tradition and ecclesiarchy. 1781

Gibbon

Ecclesiast (e'klkzisest). [(? a Fr. ecclesiaste), ad. (through L.) Gr. e/ocAiiCTiaaT^s one who takes part in an ecclesia (= sense 3 below); used by the LXX. to render Heb. qdheleth one who addresses a public assembly.]

1483 Caxton Cato Gj b, The benefyees and the thynges ecclesyastyke. 1588 A. King Canisius' Catech. 42 b, Jesus Christ.. commandit thais thingis quhilk perteins to obedience to be geuin to the Apostolique and Ecclesiastique commandimentis. 1678 Cudworth Intel! Syst. i. §iv. xiii. 213 Some ecclesiastick writers.. impute a Trinity of gods to Marcion. 1695 Kennett Par. Antiq. vii. 30 The disposition of the Ecclesiastick state depending always on the revolutions of the civil government. 1766 Cole in Ellis Orig. Lett. II. 510 IV. 487 To unloose all ties both civil and ecclesiastic. 1856 Emerson Eng. Traits x. Wealth Wks. (Bohn) II. 73 Whatever is excellent..in civil, rural, or ecclesiastic architecture.

fb. Of language {esp. Gr. or L.), words, or senses of words: Characteristic of ecclesiastical writers; opposed to classical or secular. Obs. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. i. vii. 31 This singularity of the Ecclesiastique use of the word \credo'\ hath raised many dissenters. Apr. 459/3 In different ecologies territorial systems will vary or even be absent altogether.

2. Used attrib. (and absol.) with reference to ecological issues such as industrial pollution considered in a political context; spec, applied to various political movements (esp. in western Europe) which represent the environmental or ‘green’ interest,

ECONOMIC

S8

ECOCLIMATE

United States. 1904 C. L. Laurie Flowering Plants 8 Ecological classification of plants. 1909 Webster, Ecologically. 1909 E. Warming Oecol. Plants p. v, 1 have given my views on oecological classification in a more comprehensive and detailed manner. 1926 Spectator 25 Sept. 492/1 Part of the distinctively modem progress in palaeontology has just been this ecological outlook. 1930 C. Elton Anim. Ecol. & Evolution 7 Evolution.. is not at all a popular subject among animal ecologists to-day. 1935 Times 6 Mar. 10/3 We know that in some cases ecologically related trees can well gain the freedom of another country. 1936 H. G. Wells Anat. Frustration ix. 86, I assume the world community.. subject to general ecological laws. 1955 M. Gluckman Custom & Conflict in Africa i. 7 The ecological needs for this friendship and peace lessen as the distance grows greater. 1959 A. Hardy Fish S' Fisheries xvi. 302 The work of the marine ecologists is only in its infancy.

teco'nomacy. Obs. rare. In 7 oeconomacy. [f. L. aconom-us (ad. Gr. oiKovo/ios steward) -I-ACY.] The position or office of being ‘spiritual oeconomus’ or controller of ecclesiastical affairs. 1651 C. Cartwright Cert. Relig. 1. 45 That Objection of Protestants against the oeconomacy of the Bishop of Rome.

econometric (iikonsu'metnk), a. and sb. Econ. [f. econo(my + METRIC a.^ 3.] A. adj. Of, or relating to, or characterized by, the application of mathematics to economic data or theories. 1933 (title) Econometrics: Journal of the Econometric Society, vol. I. 1956 R. F. Harrod in A. Pryce-Jones New Outl. Mod. Knowl. 490 Trade Cycle study appeared an especially good field for the use of econometric methods. 1959 Economist 28 Feb. 809/2 The econometric model.. represents the actual workings of the economy by a system of mathematical equations.

B. sb. (pi.) The branch of economics concerned with the application of mathematical economics to economic data by the use of statistical methods. 1933 Econometrica I. 5 (heading) The Common Sense of Econometrics. 1951 Univ. Birmingham Faculty of Commerce & Social Sci. Regs. 63 Econometrics.. deals mainly with the difficulties encountered in applying statistical technique to economic data. 1954 Times Lit. Suppl. 26 Mar., Econometrics now vies with mathematical philosophy.. as an exercise in formal logic. 1970 Daily Tel. 23 Feb. 9/7 American research economists have pioneered the science of ‘econometrics’, in which factors affecting the economy are written as mathematical symbols.

econometrician

(i:,kDn-, Econ. [f. prec. -I- -ian.] specialist in, econometrics.

i.kDnaume'tnJsn). A student of, or

*947 J- Tinbergen in S. E. Harris New Economics 219 It seems worth while to consider the many-sided contributions made to economic thought by John Maynard Keynes from the angle of the econometrician. 1956 R. F. Harrod in A. Pryce-Jones New Outl. Mod. Knowl. 490 It was the ambition of the econometricians.. to formulate economic laws in terms which could be statistically verified. 1968 Listener 18 July 68/2 It is mere playing with words to call management consultants specialists in the same sense as chemical engineers or econometricians.

economic (iika-, eka'nDtiuk), a. and sb.

For forms cf. ECONOMY, [ad. L. aeconomicus, ad. Gr. otVoi'op.ucds, f. otVovofios; see economy and -ic. The Fr. economique is of earlier date, and may have been the first source of the Eng. word.] A. adj. 1.1 a. Pertaining to the management of a household, or to the ordering of private affairs (obs.). b. Relating to private income and expenditure. 1592 Sir John Davies Immort. Soul xii. (1697) 52 Doth employ her (Deconomick Art.. her Household to preserve. 1^3 Florio Montaigne (1634) 111 In this Oeconomicke or houshold order. 1627 Drayton Agincourt 212 A man of naturall goodness.. whose courses.. serue me for Oeconomike booke. 1650 Row Hist. Kirk (1842) 193 Imploying them in oeconomick & naturall morall duties. 16^ CjALE Crt. Gentiles \. iii. i. 17 Oeconomic Poesie.. also ..Politic Poesie.. had their Original from Moses’s Oeconomics, and Politics. 1791 Cowper Odyss. xix. 408 That I in wisdom oeconomic aught Pass other women. 1031 Carlyle Sart. Res. (1858) 77 Landlords’ Bills, and other economic Documents. - Sterling i. ix. (1872) 55 His outlooks into the future, whether for his spiritual or economic fortunes, were confused.

[1963 A. Huxley (title) The politics of ecology.] 1970 Environmental Quality Mag. I. i. 30/2 Write to Granny., and tell her about your ecology activities and ideas... Wear your ecology symbol [^c. a pin] to promote a better environment. 1973 Antioch Rev. XXXII. iii. 449 Ecologists as scientists may or may not share the perspectives of the ecology movement. 1974 Rather & Gates Palace Guard i. 6 Some of the leaders wound up in jail.. still others, buckling under pressure, turned their attention to less threatening issues, like ecology. 1979 Ecology-conscious [see GREEN 56. 17]. 1980 J. F. Pilat Eco/ogiVfl/Po/ihci 73 The United Kingdom has no significant ecological parties; the Ecology party recently had only 600 members. 1985 Observer 22 Sept. 2/8 The Ecology Party changed its name to the Green Party at is annual conference in Dover. 1986 New Socialist Sept. 36/1 The strongest organised hesitation before socialism is perhaps the diverse movement variously identified as ‘ecology’ or the ‘the greens’. Hence ecological, eco'logic a., pertaining to

2. a. Relating to the science of economics; relating to the development and regulation of the material resources of a community or nation.

ecology; ecologically adv., e'cologist.

tS6i Jrnl. Soc. Arts 22 Mar. 295 (heading) The Economic History of Paraffine. 1882 W. Cunningham Growth Eng. Ind. & Comm. 5 Economic History is not so much the study of a special class of facts, as the study of all the facts of a nation’s history from a special point of view. 1882 B. D. Jackson (title) Vegetable technology; a contribution towards a bibliography of economic botany. 1914 JMcFarlane Economic Geography i Economic Geography

1893 J. S. Burdon-Sanderson in Nature 14 Sept. 465/1 Whether with the oecologist we regard the organism in relation to the world, or with the physiologist as a wonderful complex of vital energies, the two branches have this in common. 1896 Pop. Sci. Monthly May 72 These ecologic color adaptations. 1899 Natural Sci. July 11 One of the most important oecological studies which has yet appeared in the

*835 I Taylor Spir. Despot, ii. 70 The economic experiment. 1863 Fawcett Pol. Econ. i. iv. 35 Principles which will enable us to investigate economic problems. 1883 Manch. Exam. 22 Nov. 5/3 M. Leroy-Beaulieu.. one of the ablest writers on economic subjects.

b. Maintained for the sake of profit. Also, Connected with the industrial arts. (The former title of the ‘Museum of Practical Geology’ was ‘Museum of Economic Geology’.) 1854 Badham Halieut. 36 The advantages to be derived from economic fish-ponds. Mod. The many economic applications of electricity.

c. Practical or utilitarian in application or use, e.g. economic botanyy geographyy etc.

may be defined as the study of the influence exerted upon the economic activities of man by his physical environment. 1922 C. K. Leith Econ. Aspects Geol. i. i The application of geology to practical uses, resulting in the development of tl^ science generally known as economic geology. 1959 N.Z. Timber Jrnl. Apr. 52/2 Economic Forestry..is directed mainly towards marketing and utilization of forest products. d. economic man, a convenient abstraction

used by some economists for one who manages his private income and expenditure strictly and consistently in accordance with his own material interests. Cf. economical man. 1889 G. B. Shaw Fabian Essays in Socialism 25 There is no such person as the celebrated ‘economic man’. 1890 A. Marshall Princ. Econ. I. vi. 78 When the older economists Spoke of the ‘economic man* as governed by selfish, or selfregarding motives, they did not express their meaning exactly. 1929 A. Huxley Do what you Will 217 Historical materialists, who deal..with abstract ‘Economic Men. 1930 Economist 19 July 115/2 There is the danger.. that the State.. may prove to be a mechanism.. so forgetful of human personality in its concentration on the barren concept of ‘economic man’ that ordinary men, hungry for individual well-being, may revolt against it. 1965 Seldon & Pennance Everyman's Diet, Econ. 138 Economic Man, concerned with the immediate aim of obtaining the largest possible command over resources with the minimum of sacrifice. . e. economic rent, a rent that brings a fair

return on capital and current expenditure (see also quots. 1965 and 1966). 1889 G. B. Shaw Fabian Essays in Socialism 6 Here is a clear advantage of £ Soo a year to the first comer. This £500 is economic rent. 1894-in Fortn. Rev. Apr. 480 The difference between the worst acre and the best (otherwise the ‘economic rent’) can be reduced finally by equality of cultivation. 1950 G. Bren an Face of Spain v. 103 On their present wages, no working-class family can pay an economic rent. 1965 Seldon & Pennance Everyman's Diet. Econ. 142 Economic rent,.. the earnings of a factor of production in excess of the minimum sum necessary to keep it in existing use. 1966 A. Gilpin Diet. Econ. Terms (1967) 60 Ecoriomic rent, a payment to a unit of a factor of production which is in excess of the minimum amount necessary to keep that unit in its present occupation. A firm may pay a wage sufficient to retain its present staff. In attempting to increase its staff, however, the firm may find it necessary to raise wages and attract workers from other employment. The increase in wage now enjoyed by the original staff is economic rent. f. economic system, the sum of the economic

institutions and arrangements of a society. 1898 A. P. Atterbury tr. Sombart's Socialism ^ Social Movement i. 4 By a ‘social class* I understand.. men who are interested in a specific system of production and distribution. We must, in understanding any social class, go back to this economic system. 1909 M. Epstein tr. Sombart's Socialism ^ Social Movement (ed. 6) i In using the words ‘economic system’ I mean a given social order, or an economic condition of things, which is characterized by one or more prominent economic principles. 1929 W. SoMBART in Econ. Hist. Rev. II. 13 The general conception which I employ in order to distinguish, describe and correlate economic phenomena is that of the economic system. Ibid. 14 By an economic system I understand a mode of satisfying and making provision for material wants, which can be comprehended as a unit, wherein each constituent element of the economic process displays some given characteristic. 1937 R. L. Hall (title) The economic system in a socialist state. 1951 R. Firth Elem. Soc. Org. iv. 127 The role of the anthropologist here is rather that of a watch¬ dog—to see that no one takes away the reality of the economic systems of primitive peoples by default. g. economic war(fare), the use of economic

measures as a means of bringing pressure to bear on another country, or in retaliation for such measures taken against the user. 1916 G. L. Dickinson (title) Economic war after the war. 1939 W. S. Churchill in War Illustr. 2 Dec. 374/3 Nazi

Germany is all the time under the grip of our economic warfare failing back in oil and other essential war supplies. 1949 E. Pound Pisan Cantos Ixxviii. 64 And the economic war has begun. h. economic growth, the growth per head of

the population in the production of goods and services over a stated period of time; the rate of expansion of the national income. Cf. growth' I c. 1940 C. G. Clark Conditions of Economic Progress x. 337 (heading) The morphology of economic grovrth. 1948 Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. aCII. 229/2 The economic growth of the United States can thus be defined. 1953 J. Viner Internat. Trade Gf Econ. Devel. vi. 103 It is not necessary to look for other factors.. to explain pervasive poverty and slow economic growth. 1965 Times 17 Feb. 19/6 Economic growth is no longer regarded as the cure-all for the nation’s ills.

t3. Thrifty, careful, saving, sparing. Obs. 1755 H. Walpole Mem. Geo. II, II. 96 We should be economic. 1801 Mar. Edgeworth Belinda vi. {1832) I. 112,

I never saw any one so economic of her smiles. •|■4. economic rat: a transl. of Mus aeconomicus,

a name given by Linnteus to a burrowing rodent found in Siberia and Kamtchatka (now called Arvicola oeconomus). Obs. 1802 Bingley Anim. Biog. (1813) I. 378 The migrations of the Economic Rats, are not less extraordinary.

5. Pertaining to ‘economy’ in religious teaching, or to ‘economy of truth’. Cf. economy

6. [1815 J. C. Hobhouse Substance of some Letters (1816) I. II That species of writing called by Voltaire, the oeconomic style, or an expedient falsification of facts.] 1851 Robertson Serm. Ser. iv. vi. (1863) I. 34 His economic management of Truth. I use this word though it may seem pedantic.

ECONOMICAL 6. Pertaining to a dispensation, or method of the Divine government. Cf. economy s b. 1817 G. S. Faber Eight Dissertations (1845) I. 31 Jacob gives to this agent the.. economic title of The Angel.

B. sb. 11. The art or science of managing a house; housekeeping. Obs. *393 Gower Conf. III. 141 That othir point, which to practique Belongith, is economique. 1609 C. Butler Fern. Mon. V. (1623) K iv, As well in Musick as Oeconomick there must sometime be Discords.

2. pi. (after L. oeconomica, Gr. rd oiKovofiiKo.). fa. The science or art of managing a household; a treatise on that subject. Obs. 1586 CoGAN Haven Health (1636) 16 Aristotle..in his (Economikes.. biddeth us to rise before day. a 1619 Fotherby Atheom. ii. xiv. §2 (1622) 356 Moral! Philosophic .. hath three parts; Ecclesiastickes, Oeconomickes, and Politickes. [1621 Bk. Discip. Ch. Scot. 43 Ethica, Oeconomica & Politica.] 1665 Glanvill Seeps. Set. xix. 123 The more practical ones of Politicks and CEconomicks. 1770 Lanchorne Plutarch (1879) II. 586/2 Economics, so far as they regard only inanimate things, serve only the low purposes of gain; but where they regard human beings they rise higher.

b. The art of regulating income and expenditure; also, pecuniary position. 1851 Carlyle Sterling i. iv. (1872) 27 The family economics getting yearly more propitious and flourishing. Ibid. II. vi. 140 The Original Regulations.. a very solid lucid piece of economics.

c. The science relating to the production and distribution of material wealth; sometimes used as equivalent to political economy, but more frequently with reference to practical and specific applications. Sometimes qualified by an adj. prefixed, as in rural econotnics. Also, the condition of a country with regard to material prosperity. 1792 A. Young Trav. France 176 He.. engaged to go with me.. to Tour D’Aigues to wait on The baron.. whose essays are among the most valuable on rural (Economics. 1839 Carlyle Chartism iv. (1858) 17 The oppression has gone far farther than into the economics of Ireland. 1841-4 Emerson Ess. Ser. i. vii. (1876) 181 Chemistry, natural history, and economics. 1844 Disraeli Coningsby iii. iii. 100 Those moral attributes.. are independent of economics. 1863 Mary Howitt tr. F. Bremer's Greece I. v. 138 The improvement of Greece in economics. 1881 P. Geddes in Nature XXIV. 526 Those sections..were devoted to., physical economics.

t3. One who understands the art of housekeeping. Obs. 1656 Trapp Comm. Eph. i. 10 God is the best economic; his house is exactly ordered for matter of good husbandry.

t4. Eccl. Hist. An administrator of the revenues of a vacant benefice [= med.L. oeconomus]. Obs. 1616 N. Brent Hist. Count. Trent (1676) 611 There being a suit for a benefice, an Oiconomick may be created. Ibid. 735 The Episcopal See being void, the Chapter shall elect one or two economicks.

economical (iika’nomikal, e-), a. ECONOMY.

Also

6

oiconomical.

ECONOMIZING

59

Forms; see [f. as prec. +

-AL*.] 1. a.

Pertaining to a household or its management; resembling what prevails in a household, arch. *579 G. Harvey Lett.-bk (1884) 61 The other ceconomical matter you wotte of. 1586 T. B. La Primaud. Fr. Acad. I. 493 Oeconomicall science, that is.. the art of ruling a house well. 1612 T. Taylor Comm. Titus i, 6 Those priuate vertues.. concerne his economical! administration. 1680 Sir R. Filmer Patriarcha ii. §2 Adam had only economical power, but not political, 1748 Hartley Observ. Man i. iv. §1. 425 (Economical Convenience first determined the Ratio’s of Doors, Windows, etc, b. Pertaining to pecuniary position. 1825-45 Carlyle Schiller App. (ed. 2) 270 My economical circumstances render it impossible for me to travel much.

2. a. Pertaining to, or concerned with, the development of material resources; relating to political economy. Cf. economy 3. 1781 Gibbon Decl. Sf F. II. xxxi. 173 The economical writers of antiquity.. recommend the former method. 1790 Burke Fr. Rev. 117 Commerce.. and manufacture, the gods of our ceconomical politicians, are themselves perhaps but creatures. 1878 Morley Condorcet 43 Why did not France sink under her economical disorders? b. = ECONOMIC 2 b. 1792 A. Young Trav. France 210 He had the direction .. of the ceconomical garden. 1822 Imison Sc. & Art II. 28 Many very important applications of this principle have been made by Count Rumford to (Economical purposes. 1856 Emerson Eng. Traits v. 99 Bakewell created. . breeds in which every thing is omitted but what is economical.

3. a. Characterized by, or tending to economy; of persons; saving, thrifty; opposed to wasteful. Cf. ECONOMY 4. 1780 Burke Sp. on (Economical Reform 17 An (Economical constitution is a necessary basis for an (Economical administration. 1837 Thirlwall Greece IV. xxxii. 228 The more economical application of the public revenue. 1851 Carpenter Man. Phys. (ed. 2) 259 The use of animal flesh .. as a principal article of diet.. is very far from being economical. 1878 Jevons Prim. Pol. Econ. 89 He will not work in an economical way. 1880 L. Stephen Pope iv. 92 Illustrative of his economical habits.

man

4. a. A student of, or writer upon, economics or political economy.

1858 H. C. Carey Princ. Social Sci. I. i. 29 We have the politico-economical man, on one hand influenced solely by the thirst for wealth, and on the other.. under the control of the sexual passion. 1880 Bagehot Econ. Studies ii. 83 The nature of the ‘man’ who first occupied new countries did not ‘conform’ to the standard of economical man; the being of reality was not the being of the hypothesis. The first men.. nearly approached in nature to the present savage man... They could not make any of the articles which we now call ‘wealth’.

1804 Earl Lauderd. Publ. Wealth (1819) 354 To the economists commerce ought to have appeared a direct means of increasing wealth. 1827 Whateley Logic (1836) 393 The great defect of.. our own economists in general, is the want of definitions. 1866 Rogers Agric. & Prices I. Pref., Those facts which form the special study of the economist.

b. economical (economic a. 2d).

man

=

economic

4. = ECONOMIC 5. 1833 J. H. Newman Arians 80 Careful ever to maintain substantial truth in our use of the economical method. 1864 - Apol. 386 She observes no half-measures, no economical reserve.

5. a. Pertaining to a dispensation; cf. economy S b. b. Pertaining to an organization; cf. ECONOMY 8. 1577 tr. Bullinger's Decades 6^ i The Trinity.. doth defende the Oiconomical state, that is, the mistery of the dispensation. 1646 Burd. Issachar in Phenix (1708) II. 265 This Sanhedrim is Christ’s Vicegerent in his oeconomical Kingdom. 1670 Maynwaring Vita Sacra iii. 40 The Oeconomical harmony is disturbed, a 1726 W. Reeve Serm. (1729) 171 When the.. Son of God had served the prophetic and priestly parts of his ceconomical charge. 1817 G. S. Faber Eight Dissertations {1S45) I. 37 The economical office of the Word.. is to declare the Father to his creatures.

economically (iiks'nnmikali), adv. [f. prec. + -LY^.] In an economical manner. 1. With reference to, or from the point of view of, economic science. 1856 Olmsted Slave States 172 The best examples of the application of science, economically to agriculture, can .. be found in Virginia. 1868 Rogers Pol. Econ. v. (ed. 3) 49 Economically considered, the existence of mankind is conditioned by some sort of saving.

2. In a thrifty or saving, as opposed to a wasteful, manner. 1812 Examiner 28 Sept. 620/1 Those resources the kingdom should economically apply. 1844 H. H. Wilson Brit. India (1845-8) III. 549 The object might be attained .. more economically, by the appointment of a LieutenantGovernor. 1879 Cassell's Techn. Educ. IV. 415/2 Labour can be more.. economically carried out.

3. Theol. According to the method or subject to the conditions of the divine economy. 1696 Lorimer Goodwin's Disc. vii. 71 The Sin of Man.. disabled the Law of Works that it could not give that Eternal Life which after the Fall it promised only (Economically. 1817 G. S. Faber Eight Dissertations (1845) I. 36 God the Father.. economically declares his high behests through the medium of the Word. 1864 J. H. Newman Apol. 67 The system which is of less importance is economically or sacramentally connected with the more momentous system.

economism (fi'kDnamizfajm). [f. Fr. economisme, f. econom(ie economy + -isme -ism.] A belief in the primacy of economic causes or factors (see also quots. 1949, 1967). 1919 W. R. Inge Outspoken Essays i. 23 Ruskin.. saw.. the danger to which spiritual values were exposed at the hands of the dominant economism. 1940 Mind XLIX. 423 Marx’s economism—his emphasis on the economic background as being the ultimate basis of any sort of development—is exaggerated. 1948 J. L. Adams tr. Tillich's Protestant Era (1951) p. xxxiii, Religious socialism was always intereste(l in human life as a whole and never in its economic basis exclusively. In this it was sharply distinguished from economic materialism, as well as from all forms of ‘economism’. 1949 I. Deutscher Stalin ii. 31 The first strikes.. stimulated a new trend called ‘Economism’. This peculiar label was used by Russian socialists to describe what the French called Syndicalism, that is non¬ political Trade Unionism. 1967 Times 19 Jan. 7/2 The past week has seen the coining [in China] of a new derogatory term, ‘economism’, which was linked today with the parallel errors of better wages and conditions.

economist (I'konamist, £-). [f. Gr. olKovopuo? (see economy) + -1ST. Cf, Fr. economiste.] fl. One who manages a household; a housekeeper. Obs. or arch. 1586 T. B. La Primaud. Fr. Acad. i. (1594) 100 A prudent man.. may first become a good oeconomist, that is, a governor & father of a familie. C1645 Howell Lett. (1650) I. 99 Mr. Penry..will prove a good husband, and a great (Economist. 1765 Wilkes Corr. (1805) II. 219, I am got into lodgings of my own, and will endeavour to be as good an (Economist as my villainous nature will let me. 1857 Ruskin Pol. Econ. Art 11 The perfect economist or mistress of a household.

2. A manager in general; one who attends to the sparing and effective use of anything, esp. of money. Const, of. 1710 Shaftesb. Charac. iii. §1. (1737) H- 372 O wise Oeconomist.. whom all the Elements and Powers of Nature serve! 1711 Steele Spect. No. 64 lf2 He is a good Oeconomist in his extravagance. 1725 Bradley Fam. Diet. II. s.v. Lime. Every good Oeconomist will purchase as., cheap as he can. 1824 J. Johnson Typogr. I. 553 He appears to have been but an indifferent (Economist. 1041 D’Israeli Amen. Lit. (1867) 47 [He] was such a rigid economist of time, that every hour was allotted to its separate work.

3. C)ne who practises or advocates saving. 1758 Herald ii. 199 No. 27 He is an (Economist in his expences. 1771 H. Mackenzie Man Feel, xxxvi. (1803) 72 His aunt was an economist. 1796 Morse Amer. Geog. II. 420 An Italian.. must be a rigid economist. 1868 Freeman Norm. Conq. (1876) II. vii. 115 Economists who pressed for the reduction of the public expenditure.

b. More fully, political economist. 1825 Miss Mitford in L’EstrangeL»/e II. x. 197 He [Mr. Monck] is a great Grecian and a great political economist. 1855 Macaulay Hist. Eng. IV. 326 David Hume.. one of the most profound political economists of his time.

c. One of the school of ‘Economistes’ (who flourished) in France in the i8th c. 1776 Adam Smith W.N. iv. ix, A.. considerable sect, distinguished in the French republic of letters by the name of‘The Economists’. 1869 Buckle Civilis. II. vii. 328 Soon after 1755 the economists effected a schism between the nation and the government. 1878 Morley Condorcet 33 As a thinker he is roughly classed as an Economist.

d. One who practises or advocates economism. 1949 I. Deutscher Stalin ii. 31 The ‘Economists’ wanted to confine their activities to supporting workers’ claims for higher wages and better conditions of work, without bothering about politics. 1955 H. Hodgkinson Doubletalk 46 An Economist is one who accepts a Marxist analysis of society and believes in the inevitable rise of socialism, but maintains that ‘the unaided evolution of inevitable economic changes can bring about the desired revolution without theoretical guidance’.

economization (i.konami'zeijan).

[f. next + -ATION.] The action or process of economizing (force, material, etc.).

1866 Even. Standard 13 July 3 The economisation of the elements of electricity. 1885 Manch. Exam. 26 May 4/5 A great economisation of the commercial processes.

economize (I'konsmaiz), v.

[f. Gr. oiVovo/n-oy (see economy) + -ize.] t l.intr. To act as the governor of a household. 1648 Milton Tenure Kings (1650) 41 The power..to .. (Economize in the Land which God hath given them, as Masters of Families in their Houses.

t2. trans. Obs.

To arrange, constitute, organize.

1691 Beverley Thous. Years Kingd. Christ 12 So shall the Divine Person.. Oeconomize.. the Lustre of its Glory. Ibid. 18 The Throne of God.. is so Oeconomiz’d as to be distinct.

3. To use sparingly; to effect a saving in. 1820 W. Irving Sketch Bk. I. 122 He is calculating how he shall economize time. 1847 Emerson Repr. Men vi. Napol. Wks. (Bohn) I. 371 He never economized his ammunition but.. rained a torrent of iron.. to annihilate all defence.

b. To procure the funds for anything by economy or saving. Somewhat rare. 1849-50 Alison Hist. Europe I. iii. §82. 341 Her., charities.. were economised from her own personal revenue.

4. intr. To practise economy; to spend money more sparingly than before. 1790 Burke Fr. Rev. Wks. V. 219 CEconomising on principles of justice and mercy. 1843 Mrs. Carlyle Lett. xl. (1883) I. 217 Light is one of the things I do not like to economise in. 1845 M'^Culloch Taxation i. iii. (1852) 95 When wages fall.. the poor.. are obliged to economise.

5. trans. To turn to account, turn to the best account; to apply to industrial purposes, 1832 Ht. Martineau Life in Wilds ix. 117 It must be for man’s advantage to economize this power. 1857 Ruskin Pol. Econ. Art i. (1868) 6 How this labour may..be., economized, so as to produce the richest results. 1863 A. Ramsay Phys. Geol, (1878) 606 Who knows..what motive powers may.. be economised other than those that result horn the direct application of heat. 1872 Yeats Techn. Hist. Comm. 366 [Machinery’s] object is to economise force supplied from without.

Hence e'eonomized ppl. a. 187s Whitney Life Lang. vi. 106 These are already economized alterations of something still more primitive.

economizer (i'kDn3,maiza(r)). [f. prec. + -er^] One who or that which economizes. 1. One who makes money go a long way; one who effects saving in expenditure. 1840 Dickens Old C. Shop (1867) 281 Sarah is as good an economiser as any going. 1886 Pall Mall Budget 7 Jan. 4/2 He was a most rigid economizer who spent a halfpenny in tar, but when the ship foundered his economy was not much appreciated even by himself.

2. One who practises ‘economy of truth’. *874 Morley Compromise (1886) 86 The modern economiser keeps back his opinions or dissembles the grounds of them.

3. Mech. An appliance of any kind intended to effect a saving, esp. of heat or fuel. Also attrib. 18.. Chambers' Encycl. s.v. Caloric Engine. [Economy of fuel] is effected by a ‘regenerator,’ or more properly, ‘economizer’. 1884 Health Exhib. Catal. 64/2 Fire Economiser for ordinary grates. 1885 Manch. Exam. 3 Jan. 85/1 A boiler in the economiser house exploded.

economizing (I’kDns.maizii]), vbl. sb. [f. as prec. + -ING^.] The action or process: a. of turning to account for industrial purposes; b. of using with reserve and to the best effect, 1879 Cassell's Techn. Educ. IV. 214/2 The appliances for the economising of water. 1881 Athenaeum 17 Sept. 364/2 Work, which a slight economizing of his boundless materials might.. expedite.

economy (I'konami, e-). Forms: 6 econ-, yconomie, 7 oeconomie, (7, 8 economy), 7-9 oeconomy, 7- economy, [ad. L. oEconomia, ad. Gr. oiKovofiia, f. oi/covd/tios one who manages a household (usu. spec, a steward), f. of/co-j house + -vofios, f. to manage, control. The Gr. oiKovofjios was adopted in classical Lat. as aeconomus, but seems to have been re-introduced into med.L. from contemporary Gr. (in an ecclesiastical sense) with the phonetic spelling yconomus, whence the early Fr. and Eng. yconomie as forms of this word. In Christian Latin the accepted transl. of otKovo^ia was dispensatio (cf. L. d^spensator = Gr. oiKovofios steward); hence in certain Theol. senses economy and dispensation are used convertibly.]

1. Management of a house; management generally. fl. a. The art or science of managing a household, esp. with regard to household expenses. Obs. exc. in phrase domestic economy. C1530 Pol. Rel. & L. Poems (1866) 29 The Doctrynal Princyplis and Proverbys Yconomie, or Howsolde keepyng. [1580 North Plutarch 303 A part whereof is Oeconomia, commonly called House-rule.] 1673 Marvell Reh. Transp. II. 255 You have contrary to.. good oeconomy made a snowhouse in your upper Roome.

b. The manner in which a household, or a person’s private expenditure, is ordered, arch. 1710 Steele Tatler No. 50 IP3 His Equipage and Oeconomy had something in them .. sumptuous, a 1723 Mrs. Centlivre Artifice iv. (D.) He ought to be very rich, whose oeconomy is so profuse. 1727 Pope Th. Var. Subj. in Swift's Wks. 1755 II. I. 229 Three great ministers, who could exactly compute.. the accompts of a kingdom, but were wholly ignorant of their own oeconomy. 1788 Priestley Lect. Hist. v. xlix. 372 Impertinence.. to watch over the oeconomy of private people. 1825-45 Carlyle Schiller ii. (ed. 2) 70 If you could find me any person that would undertake my small economy.

t c. concr. A society ordered after the manner of a family. Obs. 1751 Wesley Wks. (1872) II. 249 At Holbeck we. .had an economy of young men.

fd. The rules which control a person’s mode of living; regimen, diet. Obs. rare. 1735 Barber in Swift's Lett. (1768) IV. 85 The oeconomy you are under must necessarily preserve your life many years.

2. a. In a wider sense: The administration of the concerns and resources of any community or establishment with a view to orderly conduct and productiveness; the art or science of such administration. Frequently specialized by the use of adjectives, as Domestic, Naval, Rural, etc. So ^charitable economy [in Fr. economic charitable']: the management of charitable institutions. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. ii. xxiii. 124 Special Administration .. at home, for the Oeconomy of a Common-wealth. 1691 T. H[ale], Acc. New Invent. 117 Of Naval Oeconomy or Husbandry. 1730 A. Gordon MqffeTs Amphith. 344 ’Twould have been bad Oeconomy to make such an use of them [Cushions]. 1772 Pennant Tours Scotl. (1774) 194 Rural aeconomy is but at a low ebb here. 1778 Robertson Hist. Amer. I. iv. 320 The functions in domestic oeconomy are many, which fall to the share of women. i8oi Mrs. Trimmer (title)^ Oeconomy of Charity, or an address to Ladies adapted to the present state of charitable institutions. 1863 P. Barry (title), Dockyard Economy and Naval Power. 1866 Rogers Agric. Prices I. xix. 455 Articles.. employed in the. .economy of agricultural operations.

b. esp. finances.

Management of money, or of the

1741 Betterton in Oldys Eng. Stage II. 7 It was not the only erroneous Instance of his Oeconomy. 1796 Burke Let. Noble Ld. Wks. VIII. 23 A system of ceconomy which would make a random expence, .not easily practicable.

3. political economy [transl. Fr. economie politique]: originally the art or practical science of managing the resources of a nation so as to increase its material prosperity; in more recent use, the theoretical science dealing with the laws that regulate the production and distribution of wealth. 1767 Sir J. Stewart (title), An Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy. 1776 Adam Smith W.N. iv. Introd. II. 3 Political (Economy.. proposes two distinct objects.. to provide a plentiful revenue or subsistence for the people.. and .. to supply the state.. with a revenue sufficient for the publick services. 1825 M^^Culloch Pol. Econ. i. §1. i Political Economy is the science of the laws which regulate the production, distribution, and consumption of those articles or products which have exchangeable value, and are either necessary, useful, or agreeable to man. a 1830 Sir J. Sinclair Corr. (1831) II. 125 The French have long distinguished themselves by their knowledge of political economy. 1868 Rogers Pol. Econ. i. (ed. 3) 2 The subject of a treatise on political economy is, the services which men render to each other; but those services only on which a price can be put.

4. Careful management of resources, so as to make them go as far as possible. a. with reference to money and material wealth: Frugality, thrift, saving. Sometimes euphemistically for: Parsimony, niggardliness. 1670 Cotton Espernon i. ii. 62 Men have.. been very liberal in their censure of the Duke’s Oeconomy. a 1674

ECOPHENE

6o

ECONOMY

Hist. Reb. x. (1704) HI. 88 Nor was this Oeconomy well liked even in France. 1762-71 H. Walpole Vertue's Anecd. Paint. (1786) I. 162 The luxury of Britain did not teach him [Holbein] more oeconomy than he had practised in his own country. 1770 Jas. Harris in Priv. Lett. I St Ld. Malmesbury I. 196 There can be no independence without economy. 1863 Froude Hist. Eng. VII. 5 The economy with which [Q.] Maiy had commenced her reign had been sacrificed to superstition. b. concr. An instance or a means of saving or

b. of an individual body or mind. Sometimes concr. (like ‘system’) for the body as an organized whole.

thrift; a saving,

c. of the material creation or its subdivisions, as in phrases, animal, vegetable economy, economy of nature.

Clarendon

1788 T. Jefferson Writ. (1859) II. 389 The suppression of the packets is one of the economies in contemplation. 1868 Rogers Pol. Econ. xiii. (1876) 10 Improved breeds of horses, cattle..are really economies. 1876 Times 4 Oct., [The Railway Company] has only been saved from utter bankruptcy by economies.

c. with reference to immaterial things, as time, personal ability, labour, etc. 1862 Darwin Fertil. Orchids vi. 275 The economy shown by nature in her resources is striking. 1875 Hamerton Intell. Life iii. vii. 107 To read a language that has been very imperfectly mastere547 Boorde Brev. Health ccviii. 71 b. That reason may knowe the truth from the falshod and so econverse.

ecophene (’iikaufim).

Ecology, [f. eco- as in ECOLOGY + phen(otype + -e.] (See quots.) 1922 G. Turesson in Hereditas HI. 346 The reactiontypes of the ecotypes called forth by the modificatory influences of extreme habitat factors may appropriately be termed ecophenes. Ibid. 347 The term ecophene is proposed to cover each of the reaction-types of the ecotypes arising through the modificatory influences of the combinations of extreme habitat factors given in nature. 1949 Darlington & Mather Elem. Genetics 389 Ecophene, the range of phenotypes produced by one genotype within the limits of habitat under which it is found in nature. 1957 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 177/2 Ecophenes are illustrated by climatic modifications at the tree line, by shade types of plants that

ECORCHfi normally range through a variety of light conditions, and by temperature influences on growth at different latitudes. 1968 R. Daubenmire Plant Communities i. 33 Whether these variations represent ecotypes or ecophenes, the habitat type is the best indicator of the extent of each type of variance.

Il^corch6(ekorje). Painting znd Sculpture. [Fr., pa. pple. of ecoTcher to flay.] A subject so treated as to expose the muscular system. 1854 Thackeray Newcomes Ixxviii, If you will have the kindness to look by the ecorche there, you will see that little packet which I have left for you. 1862 Chamber's Encycl. III. 761/2 It is not uncommon to represent the ecorche in action, in the form of the Fighting Gladiator. 1883 J. W. Molle^ Illustr. Diet. Art Sf Archaeol. 120/2. 1091 ‘L. Malet’ Wages of Sin iv. v, Try to put the bones into this upper figure and make an ecorche of the lower one. 1963 Encycl. World Art VII, 662 One of the earliest examples is ascribed to Baccio Bandinelli and, because of its peculiar dancing movement, is usually called the ‘dancing ecorche'. fig. 1891 Hardy Group of Noble Dames 85 Lifting her eyes as bidden she regarded this human remnant, this ecorche, a second time. But the sight was too much. 1908-Dynasts III. II. iv. 376 The contorted and attenuated ecorche of the Continent appearing as in an earlier scene, but now obscure under the summer stars.

ecospecies (*i:k3U,spi:Ji:z). Ecology, [f. eco- as in ECOLOGY + SPECIES.] A Subdivision of a species of which the individual members are interfertile. 1922 G. Turesson in Hereditas III. 102 In the efforts made by the writer to arrive at an understanding of the Linnean species from an ecological point of view—of the ecospecies, as I prefer to say in the following—studies have been made of a number of plant species. Ibid. 344 The term ecospecies has been proposed.. to cover the Linnean species or genotype compounds as they are realised in nature. Ibid. 347 The Linnean species represents an ecological unit.. narrowed down to the ecological combination-limit. A genotype compound of this order is here termed an ecospecies. 1957 M. Abercrombie et al. Diet. Biol. 76 Ecospecies, group of plants comprising one or more ecotypes within a coenospecies whose members can reproduce amongst themselves without loss of fertility in offspring. Approximates to conventional ‘species’.

'ecosphere. [i.eco- as in ecology + sphere s6.] The region of space including planets whose conditions are not incompatible with the existence of living things. 1953 H. Strughold Green ^ Red Planet (1954) iv. 36 Only a small zone about 75 million miles wide—out of the 4,300 million that stretch between the sun and Pluto at its farthest point—provides a planetary environment wellsuited to the existence of life. We might call this zone the thermal ecosphere of the sun. Other stars may have such ecospheres of their own. 1965 Dole & Asimov Planets for Man iv. 109 To be habitable, a planet must be inside the ecosphere.

Ilecossaise. Also 9 ecossaise. [F. ecossaise fern, adj. ‘Scotch’. Cf. schottische.] a. (See quot.) 1863 E. Pauer Programme 27 Apr., A lively dance tune in 2/4 time. In older music the Ecossaise was in 3/4 slow time, and was sometimes used for the Andante.

b. A dance to such a tune. 1841 Mrs. Gaskell Let. (1966) 43 A very fashionable waltz step came up while we were at Heidelberg the ecossaise,—and the little girls with their empty milk pails went dancing it along the road. 1954 Grove's Diet. Mus. (ed. 5) H. 881/2 Authorities differ about the question whether the Ecossaise and the Schottisch are.. one and the same kind of dance... The modem view is that the dance has nothing to do with Scotland, but was.. originally a French dance.

ecostate (I'kostst), a. [f. e- pref.^ -f- L. costa rib + -ATE.] (See quot.) 1866 Treas. Bot., Ecostate, strongly-marked rib or costa.

ECSTASIS

61

not having a central or

'ecosystem. Ecology, [f. eco- as in ecology + SYSTEM.] (See quots.) 1935 A. G. Tansley in Ecology XVI. 299 There is constant interchange.. within each system, not only between the organisms but between the organic and the inorganic. These ecosystems, as we may call them, are of the most various kinds and sizes. They form one category of the multitudinous physical systems of the universe. Ibid. 306 The fundamental concept appropriate to the biome considered together with all the effective inorganic factors of its environment is the ecosystem, which is a particular category among the physical systems that make up the universe. 1939 - Brit. Islands iii. x. 228 A unit of vegetation .. includes not only the plants.. but the animals habitually associated with them, and also all the physical and chemical components... Such a system may be called an ecosystem. 1952 P. W. Richards Tropical Rain Forest v. 111 Certain animals.. which play an important part in the rain¬ forest ecosystem. 1963 New Scientist 28 Mar. 684/2 The unit of ecology is the ecosystem, which includes the plants and animals occurring together plus that part of their environment over which they have an influence.

ecotone ('irkautaun). Ecology, [f. eco- as in ECOLOGY + Gr. rov-os tension, tone.] A transitional area between two ecological communities. Hence 'ecotonal a. 1904 F. E. Clements in Bot. Surv. Nebraska VH. 153 Zonation in a habitat... The line that connects the points of accumulated or abrupt change in the symmetry is a stress line or ecotone... Ecotones are well marked between formations, particularly where the medium changes: they are less distinct within formations. It is obvious that an ecotone separates two different series of zones in the one case, and merely two distinct zones in the other. 1926 Tansley & Chipp Study of Vegetation iv. 53 Transitional belts between well-marked communities are called ecotones

or ‘tepion belts’. 1950 Jrn/. Ecology XXXVHI. 70 Apart from interdigitation of typical stands, ecotonal communities are to be found. 1952 P. W. Richards Tropical Rain Forest XV. 338 Within the Closed forest there is manifestly a transition or ecotone from the.. evergreen forests of the wettest areas to the.. deciduous forests bordering the savannas. 1967 Oceanogr. ^ Marine Biol. V. xi. 265 Mixing along the boundaries of two water masses may result in nature in an increase of the diversity of frontier or ecotone populations.

ecotype (‘irkaotaip). Ecology, [f. eco- as in ECOLOGY + TYPE sb.^] A subdivision of an ecospecies the members of which are the product of genotypical adaptation to a particular habitat. 1922 G. Turesson in Hereditas III. 112 The term ecotype is proposed here as ecological unit to cover the product arising as a result of the genotypical response of an ecospecies to a particular habitat. The ecotypes are then the ecological sub-units of the ecospecies. 1949 W. C. Allee et al. Princ. Animal Ecol. v. xxxiv. 674/2 The interbreeding population would indicate either a hybridization between the river and cave forms, or that the cave form is an ecotype (ecological sub-species) of the river form. 1949 Q. Jrnl. Forestry XLIII. 88 The new concept of ecotypes—races of species adapted to various environments—which the ecologists claim to distinguish although taxonomists cannot discern any constant structural differences between them. 1959 E- P- Odum Fund. Ecol. (ed. 2) i. iv. If marked ecotypes exist, the occurrence of the same series of taxa in different localities does not necessarily mean that the same conditions exist.

II ecoute (ekut). Mil. [F. ecoute (f. ecouter to listen) an excavation, in which a miner can listen for the working of the enemy’s miners.] (See quot.) 181S Hutton Phil. Sf Math. Diet. I. 282 Catacoustics,.. are ecoutes or small galleries.. in front of the glacis of a fortified place, all of which communicate with a gallery that is carried parallel to the covert-way.

II 'eephasis. [Gr. l/o^aou declaration, f. stem either of €K(j>alveiv to show forth, or of €Kdvat to tell forth. Cf. ecphrasis.] (See quot.)

associational theory is the doctrine of redintegration, or as it is sometimes called, eephory. 1958 H. B. & A. C. English Diet. Psychol. Terms 169 Eephory, the activation of a memory trace, or engram. t ec'phractic,

[ad. late Gr. to remove obstructions.] Adapted to clear away obstructions; aperient, deobstruent. Also as quasi-sb. Hence f ec'phractical a., of same meaning,

€KpaKTLK6sj

a. f.

Med.

Obs.

€Kpdaa€iv

1657 Tomlinson Renou's Disp. 30 Must be dissolved by a ..cutting Ecphracticke. Ibid. 124 Ecphractical, as it were purmng fractures. 1665 G. Advice agst. Plague 16 It is of great concernment.. to procure the bloud and spirits a free course.. by sutable purges and Ecphractick Medicines. 1775 Ash, Ecphractic, attenuating, dissolving tough humours. 1883 Syd. Soc. Lex., Ecphractic, aperient, also the same as deobstruent.

II ecphrasis (’ekfrasis). [Gr. eK^paais, f. iKtftpdCeiv, f. cK out + pdCetv to speak.] (See quot.) 1715 Kersey, Ecphrasis (in Rhet.) a plain declaration or interpretation of a thing. 1814 Edin. Rev. XXIV. 65 The same florid effeminacies of style.. in.. an ecphrasis of Libanius, are harmless.

Ilecraseur (ekrazoer). Surg. [F. ecraseur crusher, f. ecraser to crush.] A blunt chain-saw, tightened by a screw or by a rack and pinion, for removing piles, polypi, etc. (Syd. Soc. Lex.) 1859 Dubl. Hasp. Gaz. 15 Jan., On the use of the Ecraseur in the operation for Anal Fistula.

||6crevisse

(ekravis).

[Fr.]

A

freshwater

lobster. 1854 Thackeray Newcomes I. xxviii. 266 Pass me the ecrevisses [itc], they are most succulent. 1930 E. Waugh Labels viii. 188 There were heaps of rather dangerouslooking lobsters and ecrevisses. 1966 Punch 14 Sept. 384/2 We import frozen fragments of dogflsh tail and call them scampi, while not bothering to gather the ecrevisses.. in our .. chalk-streams.

1706 Phillips, Eephasis (in Rhet.) a plain declaration or interpretation of a thing. 1775 in Ash; and in mod. Diets.

t eerhythmous (e'kriGmas). [f. Gr. enpodpos out of tune, f. €K out -I- pv0p,6s rhythm; see -ous.]

Ilecphonema (ekfau'niima). Rhet. [Gr. iKu)vrjfj,a, f. eKtfiojvi-eiv to cry out.] (See quot.)

[1715 Kersey, Eerhythmus, a Pulse that observes no Method.] 1883 Syd. Soc. Lex., Eerhythmous, old term applied by Galen to the pulse, and meaning irregular or unrhythmical.

1736-1800 Bailey, Eephonema, a rhetorical figure, a breaking out of the voice, with some interjectional particle. 177s in Ash; and in mod. Diets.

II ecpho'nesis. Rhet. Also 6 eephonisis. f. as prec.] exclamatory phrase. eKtjxuvriais,

[Gr. Exclamation, an

1589 PuTTENHAM Eng. Poesie (Arb.) 221 Eephonisis, the figure of exclamation.. it vtters our minde by all such words as do shew any extreme passion. 1642 John Eaton Honeyeombe of free jfustif. 318 The Eephonesis or acclamation of Chrysostome upon this plea. 1711 J. Greenwood Eng. Gram. 226 Eephonesis, Admiration or Wonder and Exclamation.. is marked thus (!). 1715 in Kersey. 1721-1800 in Bailey. 1775 in Ash; and in mod. Diets.

Ilecphora ('ekfara). Archit. [Gr. eKtjsopd, f. iK€peiv, f. €«■ out + (fiepeiv to bear.] (See quot.) 1715 Kersey, Eephora, a jutting or bearing out in a building. 1736 in Bailey. 1775 in Ash. 1842-76 Gwilt Archit. Gloss, Eephora, a word used by Vitruvius to signify the projecture of a member or moulding of a column.

eephore ('8kf33(r)), v. Psychol. Also ek-. [ad. G. ekphorieren (R. Semon Die Mneme (ed. 3, 1912) iii. 93), f. Gr. eKtfiopexv, f. €Kopos (to be) made known (cf. fKtpfiv to carry or bring forth, produce, disclose).] trans. To evoke or revive (an emotion, a memory, or the like) by means of a stimulus. So ecphoric (ek'fonk) a., pertaining to or characterized by eephory; whence ec'phorically adv. Also eephorize ('ekfsraiz) t).; whence 'ecphorizable a.; eephory ('ekfsri) [ad. G. ekphorie (R. Semon ibid. 25)], the evocation of a disposition from a latent to a manifest state. 1917 Brit. Jrnl. Psychol. June 429 An ‘ekphored’ feeling is always a new state of feeling and never the memory image of a previous one. Ibid. 453 If we look at..a red rose and perceive it, and after a little while ekphore its memoryimage, we note immediately how unlike..this memoryimage is to the original perception. Ibid. 456 The ekphory of the memory-image of a pain. 1921 L. Simon tr. Semon's Mneme 39 Groups of influences may act ecphorically on an engram. Ibid. 73 The diurnal periodic leaf movements of plants are eephorised chronogeneously for some time after the cessation of the light-stimulus that normally liberates them. Ibid. 138 The eephory of an engram. Ibid., The ecphoric factor.. consists of the partial or entire repetition of that energetic condition which formerly acted engraphically. 1921 B. Russell Analysis of Mind iv. 84 The second mnemic principle, or ‘Law of Ekphory’. Ibid., When two stimuli occur together, one of them, occurring afterwards, may call out the reaction for the other also. We call this an ‘ekphorie influence’, and stimuli having this character are called ‘ekphorie stimuli’. 1923 B. Duffy tr. Semon's Mnemic Psychol. 155 An engram which, when evoked into life (eephorized), will produce a mnemic sensation in consciousness. Ibid. 314 Homcmhonously ecphorizable engrams. 1925 C. Fox Educat. Psychol. 10 The process by which future stimuli touch off the engrams is known as eephory. Ibid., The partial recurrence of the excitation-complex which left behind it a simultaneous engram-complex acts ecphorically on the latter. 1937 G. W. Allport Personality (1946) v. xix. 525 One variation of the

II fecrin (ekre). [Fr.] A casket for jewellery. 1854 Thackeray Newcomes 11, xxi. 203 The cigar-boxes given over to this friend, the ecrin of diamonds to that, et caetera. 1910 S. R. Crockett Dew of their Youth xxxviii, A hoop of rubies.. was placed in a lined box of morocco leather, called an ‘ecrin*.

II ecroulement. [Fr.] The fall of a mass of rock, a building, etc. Used fig.\ also spec, in Geol. 1820 H. Matthews Diary of an Invalid (1835) 288 Napoleon has so catamaranned the foundations, that more than one ecroulement has already taken place. 1839 Murchison Silurian System i. xiii. 163 The great ecroulement of rocks round Daren, Ibid. i. xxxii. 435, I found the phenomena to be similar to many ecroulemens of Alpine tracts.

II ecru (ekry, ’eikru:), a. [F. ecru raw, unbleached.] The name of a colour; the colour of unbleached linen. Also quasi-r6. 1869 Latest News 5 Sept. 7 White ecru or maize are the shades preferred. 1884 Pall Mall G. 24 Sept. 9/1 The bridesmaids.. wore dresses of pink satin and ecru muslin.

ec'stasiate, v. rare. [f. (s’)extasier,

f.

ecstasy + -ate, after F.

extasie,

early

form

of extase

ECSTASY.]

A. trans. = ecstasized, i. b. intr. and refl. To go into an ecstasy. 1823 Netv Month. Mag. VIII. 278 The singer..may extasiate his audience. 1838 J. Pardoe River Desert I. lo He extasiated on the Emperor, and shrugged his shoulders at all other crowned heads. 1889 Sat. Rev. 7 Dec. 662/2 What we admit that we cannot sincerely extasiate ourselves before or admire is M. Huysmans’s idea of style. 1923 A. Huxley Antic Hay xv. 213 The holy Teresa’s quivering and ecstasiated flank. 1957 Observer 8 Dec. 14/3 The appearance of the Chimp Father Christmas, scattering soot, is so ecstatiating [51c] that [etc.].

ecstasied (’ekstasid), ppl. a. a. Exalted Enraptured. -ED.]

in

[f. ecstasy d.

contemplation.

-h

b.

1649 Jer. Taylor Gt. Exemp. ii. iv, Seraphims and the most ecstasied order of intelligence. 1661 K. W. Conf. Charac. (i860) To Rdr. 9 Those..whose extasied souls ravished with joy of his condigne punishment, by excesse of exalted spirits did themselves injuries. 1787 tr. Klopstock's Messiah lii. 115 Thus ecstasied, sang the youthful spirits of Heaven.

Ilecstasis ('ekstasis). Also

7 extasis. [mod.L., a.

Gr. €KOraais\ see ECSTASY.] = ECSTASY sb. 2, 3. 1621 Burton Anat. Mel. ii. v. i. v. (1651) 392 Another.. like in effect to Opium, Which puts them.. into a kinde of Extasis. 1656 Ridgley Pract. Physick 109 Ecstasis is either true, as when the mind is drawn away to contemplate heavenly things, or etc. 1874 H. Reynolds John Bapt. iii. §3. 201 Vision, dream, trance, ecstasis, were common incidents in the history of the Hebrew prophets.

ECSTASIZE ecstasize (’skstasaiz), v. [f. ecstas-y + -ize. Cf. ECSTASY U.] 1. trans. To throw into an ecstasy or transport of rapturous feeling; to give pleasurable excitement to. Also refl. 1835 New Month. Mag. XLV. 469 The auditors were delighted, enraptured, ecstacized. 1853 Miss Sheppard Ch. Auchester I. 54, I should have ecstasised myself ill. 1879 G. Macdonald Sir Gibbie III. xvi. 251 Read passages from Byron .. ecstasizing the lawyer’s lady.

2. irttr. To ‘go into ecstasies’. 1854 T. GWYNNE Nanette (1864) 18 The merry old woman was ecstasizing over the size and beauty of the .. fish.

ecstasy ('ekstasi). Forms: 4-5 exstasie, -eye, 6-9 extasie, -y, ecstacy, exstacy, -ie, 6-8 exstasy, 6 extascie, 7 extase, ecs-, estasie, 8, 9 ectasy, ecstasie, 7-9 extacy, 6- ecstasy. See also ECSTASIS. [a. OF. extasie, (after words in -sie, ad. L. -sia) f. med.L. extasis, a. Gr. IjcoTacny, f. exoTastem of eiiardvai to put out of place (in phrase i^iardvai (fipevuiv ‘to drive a person out of his wits’), f. in out + lardvai to place. The mod. Eng. spelling shows direct recourse to Gr. The Fr. extase is ad. med.L. or Gr. The classical senses of tKoraats are ‘insanity’ and ‘bewilderment’; but in late Gr. the etymological meaning received another application, viz,, ‘withdrawal of the soul from the body, mystic or prophetic trance’; hence in later medical writers the word is used for trance, etc., generally. Both the classical and post-classical senses came into the mod. langs., and in the present fig. uses they seem to be blended.]

1. The state of being ‘beside oneself, thrown into a frenzy or a stupor, with anxiety, astonishment, fear, or passion. 1382 Wyclif Acts iii. lo Thei weren fulfillid with wondryng, and exstasie, that is, leesyng of mynde of resoun and lettyng of tunge. ? ou s^ll distroy I)aim &: noght edifye haim. r 1374 Chaucer Boet/t. iv. vi. 140 f>ere hat uertues han edified pe bodie of pe holy man. 1425 Old. Whittington's Alms-house in Entick London (1766) IV. 354 Inforcing himself to edifie and nourish charity.. among his felawes. 1461-83 Ord. R. Househ. 61 The Clerkys of Greneclothe.. to helpe kepe in course the Statutes.. edyfyed before-tyme. 1534 Whittynton Tullyes Offices i. (1540) 34 Solon fyrste edifyed the schole called Areopagus in Athenes. 1704 Swift T. Tui i. (1710) 28 To edify a name and reputation. 1781 Gibbon Decl. (S F. III. xlix. 95 He secretly edified the throne of his successors.

fd. To frame a notion; ‘make out’, imagine. 1645 Milton Tetrach. Wks. 1738 I. 238, I cannot edify how, or by what rule of proportion that man’s virtue calculates.

fe. intr. To take form, grow; also fig. to prosper, achieve success. Cf. 4. Obs. 01400 Cov. Myst. 252 Mannys sowle in blys now xal edyfy. 1622 Bacon Henry VII, t6o Perkins Proclamation did little edifie with the people of England. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. 147 It [the seed] then beginneth to edifie in chiefe. 01662 Heylin Laud i. 142 But all this did not edifie with the House of Commons.

3. trans. In religious use; To build up (the church, the soul) in faith and holiness; to benefit spiritually; to strengthen, support. Also absol.

11. That builds. Obs.

t edipol. Obs. rare, [miswritten for L. edepol by Pollux. (Erroneously connected with sedis temple.)] Any common asseveration. ri450 Voc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 579 Edepol, by the house of edepol. 1600 Dekker Gentle Craft Wks. 1873 I. 14 Away with your pishery pashery, your pols and your edipotls.

edisonite ('edisanait). Min. [f. name of Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor (1847-1931) + -ite'.] a name formerly given to a supposed variety of rutile. Disused. 1888 W. E. Hidden in Amer. Jrnl. Sci. 3rd Ser. XXXVI. 274, I therefore propose for it the name Edisonite, after Mr. Thomas Alva Edison. 1889 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. LVI. 354 Edisonite, a fourth form of 'Titanic Anhydride. 1944 C. Palache et al. Dana's Syst. Min. (ed. 7) I. 560 Edisonite, a supposed orthorhombic polymorph of TiOz.

edit ('edit), v. [(i) f. L. edit-us, pa. pple. of edere to put forth, f. e out + dare to put, give; (2) back-formation from editor sb.] fl. To publish, give to the world (a literary work by an earlier author, previously existing in MS.). Chiefly in pa. pple., after L. editus. Obs. 1791 Enfield tr. Brucker's Hist. Philos. II. 367 [Abelard] wrote many philosophical treatises which have never been edited.

2. a. To prepare an edition of (a literary work or works by an earlier author); so with the name of the author as obj., e.g. ‘to edit Horace, Shakspere’, etc. b. To prepare, set in order for publication (literary material which is wholly or in part the work of others). Sometimes euphemistically for: To garble, ‘cook’ (e.g. a war-correspondent’s dispatch, etc.), c. To be or act as the editor of (a newspaper or other periodical). 1793 V. Knox Lett, to Yng. Nobleman (R.), Read .. the few orations of Demosthenes, which Monteney has edited. 1835 Dickens Lett. (1880) I. 3 To write and edit a new publication. 1880 E. White Cert. Relig. 72 The progress of science and art in editing from ancient manuscripts. 1885 Harper’s Mug. Mar. 647/2 It has not been guilty of the.. folly of attempting to ‘edit’ the news.

d. To prepare a film for the cinema or recordings for broadcasting, etc. (by eliminating unwanted material, etc.); = cut v. 21 e. Also with in and out. 1917 Sci. Amer. 8 Dec. 441/3 Editing a film is perhaps the most interesting phase of laboratory work. 1933 A. Brunel Filmcraft 94, I have myself edited.. 35 mm. films with just a bench, scissors.. winder, film cement, a brush to put it on with, and a bin to unroll my film into. 1938 Encycl. Brit. Bk. of Yr. 122/1 Mobile recording vans with a new method of editing records. 1961 Encounter XVI. 49 Her [5^. Ada Leverson’s] frequent use of film scenario devices.. ‘editing in’ scenes and themes apparently unrelated to the one that, in realistic terms, she is just then evoking. 1962 A. Nisbett Technique Sound Studio 265 Pot-cut, editing a short segment of unwanted material out of a programme.. by quickly fading out and fading in again. 1969 J. Elliot Due/ iii. v. 312 Keep running... We can edit this out.

Hence 'edited ppl. a. Mod. A carefully edited work.

edit ('edit), sb. [f. the vb.] a. An act or spell of editing, esp. a recording; the action or process of editing; also, edited material, b. A feature or facility that allows for or performs editing.

1662 Sparrow tr. Behme's Theosoph. Lett. 3 He.. might thereby.. edifyingly.. quicken himself in a Christian brotherly Union. 1702 Echard Eccl. Hist. (1710) 305 Not so well or edifyingly instructed. 1876 Contemp. Rev. XXVII. 969 The sermon was edifyingly platitudinarian.

i960 Jrnl. Soc. Motion Picture & Television Engineers Mar. 164/3 Edit sync is applied to the cue track of the video¬ tape recorder. 1961 Cinemeditor Oct. 3/2 The edit point lies somewhere within the ninety frames encompassed by the four images. 1962 A. Nisbett Technique Sound Studio vii. 126 Fluffs, where the speaker has gone back on himself. Again an edit will generally improve intelligibility. 1964 AFIPS Conf. Proc. XXVI. 354/2 At completion of the edit, all subroutines within an area are sequentially assigned. 1968 N.Y. Times i July 51 New York Magazine has been running so light on ads recently that a friend of the ad director said, ‘It’s just like Channel 13, just uninterrupted good edit.’ 1970 New Yorker 7 Mar. 96 At times the movie feels like a travelogue... Luckily, the fast edit keeps the action from sagging. 1976 Gramophone Oct. 627/1 A clumsy edit at bar 18 in No. 13 is also apparent. 1984 E. P. DeGarmo et al. Materials Processes in Manuf. (ed. 6) xxxviii. 968 Features such as program edit.. are common on today’s CNC [sc. computerized numerical control] machines. 1984 Which Micro? Dec. 96 (Advt.), text mode with.. continuous screen edit. 1986 Keyboard Player Apr. 3/3 The sophisticated edit facilities allow complicated musical forms to be created.

edile, variant of .^edile.

editing ('editig), vbl. sb.

2. Tending to produce moral and spiritual improvement; instructive. In mod. use often ironical. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) i b. What so euer ye fynde therin, good and edifyenge, gyue laude and praysynge to god therfore. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. iv. xlv. 361 Their Conversation.. might.. be.. Edifying to others. 1767 Fordyce Serm. Yng. Worn. I. v. 186 How edifying to the soul is this generous sensibility! 1813 Syd. Smith Wks. (1867) I. 224 The humiliating and disgusting, but at the same time most edifying spectacle. 1872 Morley Voltaire (1886) 41 Voltaire’s spirit may be little edifying to us.

Hence 'edifyingly adv., in an instructive or improving manner; in mod. use often ironical.

1820 Mair Tyro’s Diet. (ed. lo) 2 Aedilis, an edile or officer who took care of the repair of temples and other buildings.

ediness, var. of eadiness, Obs., s.v. eadi. edingtonite ('ediotonait). Min. [f. the surname Edington (see quot. 1825) + -ite.] A greyish white translucent mineral, consisting chiefly of the silicates of alumina, baryta, etc. 1825 Haidinger in Edin. Jrnl. Sci. III. 317 It is in compliment to that gentleman [Mr. Edington, in whose collection Haidinger first saw the mineral] that the name of Edingtonite is here proposed. 1868 Dana Min. 417 Edingtonite occurs in the Kilpatrick Hills, near Glasgow, Scotland, associated with harmotome, another baryta mineral.

[f. edit v.

+

-ingL]

a. The action of the vb. edit. 1840 J. S. Mill Let. 16 Apr. in Wks. (1963) XIII. 427 There, I think, is a full account of all the world has got by my editing and reviews. 1885 Athenaeum 15 Aug. 198/1 The ‘Letters.. ’ have had the advantage of careful editing. b. = CUTTING vbl. sb. I d. 1921 A. C. Lescarboura Cinema Handbk. (1922) v. 236 With the positive films printed up..a very necessary operation in the preparation of motion picture films is the editing and cutting. 1944 S. Cole {title) Film editing. 1944 R. Manvell Film iv. 37 Editing is the art of putting the film together shot by shot from the celluloid strips themselves. 1962 A. Nisbett Technique Sound Studio vii. 117 ‘Editing’ can mean various things; cutting and rejoining a tape..; copy editing, in which selected sections.. are copied .. on to a make-up tape; mixing, where the combined output of two tapes are fed to a third recorder. 1963 Movie Apr. 32/2 A director shouldn’t use his camera and editing bench to

EDITION

EDITORIALIZE

72

impose something which he hasn’t been able to put into the action.

edition (I'dijan), sb. [a. F. edition, ad. L. editionem, f. edere to put forth, publish; see edit.] fl. The action of putting forth, or making public; publication. Obs. 1551 Recorde Pathw. Knouil. Ep. to King, Desiring your grace not so muche to beholde the simplenes of the woorke .. as to fauour the edition thereof. 1577 tr. Bullinger’s Decades (1592) ill Touching y' proclamation or first edition of the ten Commaundements. 1611 Speed Hist. Gt. Brit. IX. xix. (1632) 929 The said pretensed marriage was made.. without edition of banes. 1659 A. Loveday in R. Loveday's Lett. To Rdr., So tender was I of his honour in edition of his labours. 1663 J. Spencer Prodigies (1665) Pref., God never saw it necessary.. to correct and amend any thing in this great Volume of the Creation, since the first edition thereof.

\2. a. The action of producing, or bringing into existence; hence, birth, creation (of orders of knighthood, etc.), extraction, origin. Obs. 1599 Sandys Europae Spec. (1632) 147 The great States of Italy.. are loth to have their Pope of a Spanish edition. 1607 Chapman Bussy D'Amb. Plays 1873 II. 17 The Duke mistakes him (on my life) for some knight of the new edition. 1615 Crooke Body of Man 332 The Birth.. we define to be an Edition or bringing into the world of an infant. 1656 Earl Monm. Advt.fr. Parnass. 211 Barons of late edition. 1677 Hale Prim. Orig. Man ii. iv. 151 Consequently the World.. is of a far later Edition than Eternity, fb. Kind, species; fashion, ‘stamp’. Obs. a 1625 Fletcher Nice Val. 1. i, It kisses the forefinger still: which is the last edition. 1632 Brome North Lasse ii. iv. Wks. 1873 III. 33 A large window, one of the last Edition. 1640 J. Ley Patterne of Pietie 155 The Saints of the old edition. 1646 H. Lawrence Communion with Angels 93 His condition, his spirit and his worke were all of a lowe and humble edition.

3. concr. a. One of the differing forms in which a literary work (or a collection of works) is published, either by the author himself, or by subsequent editors, b. An impression, or issue in print, of a book, pamphlet, etc.; the whole number of copies printed from the same set of types and issued at the same time. In the case of printed works the meanings a and b are often coincident; but an ‘edition’ (sense a) of a classic or the like, with a corrected text and critical or illustrative matter, being in a sense an independent work, may go through several ‘editions’ (sense b). It is awkward to speak of, e.g. ‘the second edition of (^^ampbell’s edition of Plato’s Theastetus'; but existing usage affords no satisfactory substitute for this inconvenient mode of expression. To say ‘the second impression’ would now imply an unaltered reprint. The word is sometimes used in a narrower sense than that of the definition of b; thus a ‘large paper edition’ may be printed from the same type as, and issued simultaneously with, an ‘edition’ on small paper; but it is also usual to say ‘ 100 copies of this edition are on large paper’. [1555 Robinson tr. Morels Utop. (ed. 2) A iij b, I haue now in this seconde edition taken about it such paines.] 1570 Foxe a. & M. (ed. 2) 1885 Although sufficient relation be made before in our former edition to be seene, pag. 1277. 1607 Sir W. Vaughan Directions for Health (title page). The third Edition. 1624 Gataker Transubst. 104 Their severall Editions.. so chopped and changed. 1662 Stillingfl. Ori^. Sacr. I. vi. § i He might make use of the Edition of Causinus. 1703 De Foe True-born Eng. Expl. Pref., I have mended some faults in this Edition. 1712 Addison Spect. No. 470 ff i Upon examining the new Edition of a Classick Author. 1782 Priestley Corrupt Chr. 1. Pref. 21 There are different editions of many of the authors.. I have quoted. 1807 M. Baillie Morb. Anat. Pref. 22 In preparing this Third Edition for the press. 1838-9 Hallam Hist. Lit. I. i. iv. §63 Above 60 editions of the Orlando Furioso were published in the i6th century. 1845 Stephen Laws Eng. I. 185 [King John’s] charter was finally altered, in its last edition, by Henry the third. Mod. The latest edition of this evening’s paper.

c.fig. 1612 Donne Sec. Anniv. 309 All the vertuous Actions they expresse, Are but a new, and worse edition Of her some one thought. 1802 C. Wilmot Let. 30 Aug. in Irish Peer (1920) 83 Mr. Richard Trench.. is.. so beautiful that if I was to describe him, you’d fancy it was the Apollo Belvedere in a Second Edition. 1823 Carlyle Let. 22 Oct. in Early Lett. (1886) II. 232 A kind of theological braggadocio, an enlarged edition of the Rev. Rowland Hill. 1828 Steuart Planter's G. $i Boutcher had another plan..for removing Trees.. it is a better edition of Lord Fitzharding’s system. 1856 in Century Mag. (1887) May 95/2 We cannot hazard a second edition of imbecility. 1892 Daily News 18 Oct., The exhilarating ballet of ‘Don Juan’.. seems likely to run into many ‘editions’, as the phrase goes, before it exhausts its popularity. 1920 H. Crane Let. 24 Sept. (1965) 43 About every other person..are [5*V] enlarged editions of Lord Douglas. 1943 J. S. Huxley TV A x. 74 The slightly younger edition of the architect.

t e'dition, Obs. rare-^. [f. the sb.] trans. To make an edition of; to issue, publish. 1716 M. Davies Athen. Brit. iii. 4 The Jesuit Petavius’s Chronological Tables were edition’d. Hence f e'ditioner. Obs. rare. = editor sb. U1646 J. G[regory] Maps & Charts, Posth. (1650) 321 That necessarie Guide, added to a little, but not much augmented, by the late Editioner. 1658 W. Burton Itin. Anton. 18 You have there Bov^oviav, which the dexterity of the Editioner, or Interpreter hath turned into Bopfioriar.

1972 Oxford Times 4 Aug. 1/8 The size and editionising of The Oxford Times have had to be restricted this week. 1979 Times 20 Nov. 4/4 If I could wire up pages like Hickey to Manchester, it would give their composing room capacity to do more editionizing for the Daily Star and Daily Express in the North of England. 1982 Daily Tel. 10 Aug. 17 (Advt.), From November an editionised newspaper.. will be produced centrally.

production; and just as the editor of a magazine.. makes his corrections, so does the film editor view the assembled film on the screen and make corrections and changes. 1933 ABrunel Filmcraft 158 Editor, one who cuts, assembles, edits and titles a film. 1937 H. G. Brynhild v. 61 The brightest and best producers, directors, scenarists, cameramen, special effects men, editors. 6. Computing. A program that permits the user

Ileditio

to alter programs or to alter or rearrange data or text held in a computer.

princeps

editiones

principes

(I'dijrau

'pnnseps).

(idiji'aunuz

PI.

'pnnsipiiz).

[mod.L.] The first printed edition of a book. 1802 T. F. Dibdin Introd. Knowl. Rare & Val. Ed. 4 This editio princeps contains but nine comedies. 1815 J. Scott Visit to Paris xv. 294 The room of the Editiones principes, contains every thing to gratify the taste of the bibliographer. 1875 Encycl. Brit. III. 656/2 Azzoguidi’s editio princeps of Ovid. 1885 J. B. Lightfoot Apostolic Fathers I. 113 A misprint of the editio princeps. 1930 Times Lit. Suppl. 6 Feb. 85/4 Laid down the plan of the editio princeps. 1955 Times 9 May 13/2 He published.. an editio princeps of several minor works.

Hditola (edi'taub). Also editola.

[Proprietary name.] A machine used for editing films (see quots.). 1935 Trade Marks Jrnl. 31 July 952/2 Editola, apparatus included in Class 8 for reproducing motion picture films and sounds simultaneously. Photographic Electrical Co. Ltd., 80/2 Wardour Street, London, W. i. Manufacturers. 1939 Times 18 Nov. 10 The ‘editola’ on which the picture film and sound track are synchronized and checked. 1967 Listener 14 Sept. 326/3 The rattling chipmunk chatter of the Editola.

editor

('Edita(r)), sb.

[a.

L. editor:

see edit,

EDITION s6.] One who edits.

fl. The publisher of a book (cf. Fr. editeur). 1649 Bp. Hall Cases Consc. i. v. (1650) 33 Otherwise some Interloper may perhaps underhand fall upon the work at a lower rate, and undoe the first editor.

2. One who prepares the literary work of another person, or number of persons for publication, by selecting, revising, and arranging the material; also, one who prepares an edition of any literary work. 1712 Addison Spect. No. 470 IP i When a different Reading gives us.. a new Elegance in an Author, the Editor does very well in taking Notice of it. 1725 Pope Notes on Shaks. (J.), This nonsense got into all the editions by a mistake of the stage editors. 1748 Anson Voy. Introd., The Editors of a new variation-chart.. have.. been misled by an erroneous analogy. 1831 J. Davies Manual Nat. Med. Introd., The Editor conceives that the plan laid down here is, etc. 1863 Burton Bk. Hunter 302 The editors of club books are not mere dreary drudges.

3. a. esp. One who conducts a newspaper or periodical publication. 1803 G. Rose Diaries (i860) II. iii The Editor of the True Briton. 1823 Cobbett Rur. Rides 146 This blunder¬ headed editor of Bef/’r Messenger. 1874M0RLEY Compromise (1886) 248 The editor of the daily newspaper.

b. A person in charge of a particular section of a newspaper, e.g. of the financial news {City editor: see city 9). 1843 Knickerbocker XXII. 494 We cannot permit the young associate-editor of that print..to misrepresent us. 1894 E. L. Shuman Steps into Journalism 19 On the larger papers the work of the managing editor is divided, giving him an assistant, the managing news editor. 1936 S.P.E. Tract XLV. 188 In American newspaper offices, a member of the staff who is in charge of a single feature or department is dignified by the title of editor. This practice is being introduced into English journalism, but not without protest. 1954 Manch. Guardian Weekly 14 Oct. 7/1 ‘Say,’ said the American photographer... ‘My editor’s hopping mad for pictures.’

c. The literary manager of a publishing house, or head of one of its publishing departments, orig. U.S. 1915 Bookman XLI. 306/2 You now find erstwhile stonewall editors wax in your hands. 1930 Publishers' Weekly 5 Apr. 2096 Far more attention might well be given the West’s peculiar needs by Eastern editors. 1958 Oxford Books (catal.) 3 Oxford Progressive English .. was founded by E. C. Parnwell, while oversea editor of the Oxford University Press.

d. attrib. (appos.), as editor-author^ -managery •proprietory -publisher; also editor-in-chief, the chief editor of a publication, in a publishinghouse, etc. 1952 M. Lowry Let. Mar. (1967) 292, I had a right.. and the aim. .to achieve an editor-author relationship. 1873 J. M. Bailey Life in Danbury 287 Our highest ambition has been to be the editor-in-chief of a large New York daily, and help do up the mail. 1913 E. C. Bentley Trent's Last Case ii. 19 He was.. editor-in-chief of the Record. 1955 Times 2 July 4/3 The editor-in-chief was Mr. Humphry House, Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. 1959 Encounter July 67/1 He., is now editor-in-chief of Stanford University Press. 1959 Manch. Guardian 21 July 6/7 Sir William [Haley] had then been for one year editor-in-chief [at the B.B.C.]. 1961 ifitle) Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. Editor in Chief Philip Babcock Gove, Ph.D. 1899 Westm. Gaz. 20 May 1/3 Editor-manager of the Oxford Chronicle. 1906 Ibid. 20 Sept. 10/2 The editor-proprietor of the ‘Studio’. 1907 Ibid. 8 Nov. 12/1 The staff, from the editor-publisher downward.

4. Antiq. [L. editor ludorum.] The exhibitor (of Roman public games).

Edition de luxe: see

luxe 2.

e'ditionizing, vbl. sb. [f.

edition sb. + -ize + -ING*.] The production of several editions of a newspaper. Also e'ditionized ppl. a.

1880 L. Wallace Ben-hurv. x. (1884) 283,1 have here the notice of the editor of the games, just issued.

5. One who cuts and edits a film. 1917 Sci. Amer. 8 Dec. 441/3 The editor, usually the director himself in dramatic productions, directs the cutting and assembling of the various strips of film into the complete

1959 Jrn/. Assoc. Computing Machinery VI. 153 The input data for the program are.. converted to binary by the system input editor. 1963 Compatible Time-Sharing System (M.I.T. Computation Center) iii. 26 The user can also by appropriate commands or supervisor calls generate other disk editor control cards to be entered into the disk editing process. 1967 Communications of ACM X. 793/2 The present paper is built around a description of the editor in the Berkeley time sharing system for the SDS-930 .. which is called QED. 1976 Sci. Amer. Nov. 120/2 APL/300o’s editor has greater flexibility and power than the typical APL editor, with modes for both line editing of simple problems and complete text editing. 1980 S. Hockey Guide to Computer Applications in Humanities ii. 31 More sophisticated editors allow the user to jump about the file making corrections at random. 1986 What Micro? Apr. 6/2 A full-screen editor is now incorporated which also carries out extensive syntax checking.

Henc^ ‘editor v. trans. {rare), to edit (a work), 'editored ppl. a., provided or furnished with an editor. 'edito,res8 = editress, ‘editorless a., without an editor. 1826 Blackw. Mag. XIX. 335 Some laggardly editorless, or ten editor'd periodical. 1836 Ibid. XL. 766 Lady Blessington is registered.. editoress of half-a-score of books. 1961 Amer. Speech XXXVI. 138 The Britannica is now editored by Walter Yust.

editorial (edi'taansl), a. and sb. [f. editor sb. + -(i)al.] A. adj. a. Of or pertaining to an editor; proper to, or characteristic of, an editor. 1744 Akenside Let. in Poems (1845) 30 He has intirely dedicated himself to.. editorial criticism. 1794 Parr in Brit. Critic Feb. (T.), Lambin.. and Heyne also.. seem to have considered it as part of their editorial duty, etc. 1850 Carlyle Pamph. iv. (1872) 117 In spite of editorial prophecy. 1837 Dickens Pickw. (1847) 234/2 Bless our editorial heart.

b. Spec. Written, or ostensibly written, by the editor of a newspaper, as distinct from news items. 1802 Deb. Congress U.S. 25 Feb. (1851) 796 The editorial part of the paper.. was supposed to come from the pen of Mr. Hobby. 1816 Niles' Weekly Register y%.. Index, Editorial articles. 1849 Knickerbocker XXXIV. 9 We shall set forth in this editorial leader, that our friends may know exactly where we are. 1877 Harper's Mag. Dec. 109/1 [He] thoroughly worked an idea into an editorial leader. 1920 P. C. Bing Country Weekly 145 [They minimized] the importance of the editorial page. c. editorial we [we pron. 2], the pronoun we

used by a single person to denote himself, as in an editorial. 1841 Dickens Let. 24 Aug. (1969) II. 368 Every rottenhearted pander who. .struts it in the Editorial We once a week. i888 Kipling Phantom 'Rickshaw (1890) 137 Under fecial patronage of the editorial We. 1964 E. A. Nida Toward Sci. Transl. ix. 204 Such ‘editorial we’s’ must be shifted to ‘I’ if they are to be intelligible in some languages. 1964 R. H. Robins Gen. Ling. vii. 287 A different anomaly in relation to number in pronouns is seen in what is often called the ‘editorial we'.

B. sb. A newspaper article written by, or under the responsibility of, the editor; a ‘leader’. 1830 Collegian (Cambridge, Mass.) 44 The great green table in the centre groaning under the weight of editorials, and friendly correspondence. 1864 Spectator 539 Mr. Bennett.. thinks that ‘an editorial’ is the highest style of composition known. 1866 Mrs. Stowe Lit. Foxes 14 To set up the editorial of a morning paper. 1883 Harper's Mag. Mar. 601/1 The Daily Proteus sent Jack twenty dollars.. for two editorials. 1887 Pall Mall G. 15 Oct. 12/1 Finely worded editorials.

Hence edi'torially adv.y in an editorial manner or capacity; as an editor does, f edi'torialship = EDITORSHIP. 1818 Blackw. Mag. III. 142 You are editorially exonerated. 1826 J. Gilchrist Lecture 34 During his Editorialship he must have been a kind of Consul or Dictator in the Republic of Letters. 1883 Harper's Mag. Oct. 789/2 She wrote editorially for a London paper. 1885 Manch. Exam. 14 Apr. 8/6 The anticipations which..you ventured editorially to give expression to.

edi'torialist. [f. editorial sb. + -ist

2.]

One

who writes editorials. Also transf. 1901 N.Y. Even. Post, The syndicator.. talks to the would-be ‘editorialist’. 1941 Koestler Scum of Earth 26 It seemed impossible that the editorialist of the paper had dared to write this off his own bat. 1964 Spectator 28 Feb. 270 Its education comes from street gossip and the exhortations of radio editorialists. 1965 H. Kahn On Escalation xi. 223 An editorialist or commentator may be invited to express a strong view of the matter.

edi'torialize, v.

orig.

U.S.

Also -ise.

[f.

EDITORIAL -I- -IZE.] intr. To write editorials; to

make editorial comment; to introduce editorial comments or an editorial slant into a factual account, etc. Also trans. 1856 G. D. Brewerton War in Kansas 75 As Mrs. Partington feelingly remarked, when Ike tumbled into a barrel of soft soap: ‘Isn’t it a blessed thing to editorialize for an appreciative public?’ 1928 Nation (N.Y.) 24 Oct. 416

EDITORSHIP

EDUCATE

73

The Italian press is free.. to editorialize with the utmost braggadocio about Italy’s plans for world domination, i960 New Left Rev. May-June 3/1 ‘A clear statement that the pa^ remains committed..’—the New Statesman editorialises (5 March i960). 1961 Sunday Times 12 Nov. 48/5 The only ‘editorialising’ slip that I spotted was Bill Grundy’s remark, while anonymous and unseen squaresquatters spoke: ‘Listen to the voices of progress.’ Bernard Braden editorialises almost nonstop in The Time, The Place and the Camera. 1963 Economist 26 Oct. 353/1 That feeling that led him.. to editorialise too much.

Lamb. Horn. 17 Crist.. eadmode hine seolfne J^et he wes iboren of ure lefdi. Ibid. 89 Cristes apostles weren wuniende edmodliche on heore ibeoden on ane upflore. c 1200 Ormin 17649 Forr to berrjhen 2eddmodIi3 pt werelld J>urrh hiss are. Ibid. 19297 Full off b^pe, off millce, off are, off aBddmodle33C. olie6. Ibid. 130 Heo holdeS.. |>et heaued lowe )>uruh milde edmodnesse. Ibid. 246 pt edmodies monnes bonen purleS pe weolcne. Ibid. 278 Makie5 edmod [T. C. eadmodieS] our heorte.

Hence edi'torialized ppl. a.; edi'torializing vbl. sb., the action of the verb; also concr., editorial comment.

t edmondsonite ('edmansanait). Min. Obs. [f, name of George Edmondson (1798-1863), headmaster of Queenwood College, Hampshire

1917 L. Spencer News Writing 87 The necessity of presenting news from an unbiased standpoint,.. of avoiding ‘editorializing’. 1958 Blesh & Janis They all played Ragtime i. 34 Prissily Victorian as these editorializings are, they were the trivia of a new age. 1961 Guardian 30 Mar. 13/3 The newspapers.. rushed into print with editorialised reports of President Kennedy’s press conference. 1967 R. J. Sterling President’s Plane is Missing (1968) ii. zo Stories that were.. hard-hitting with no tinge of biased editorializing.

+ -ITEL] = Ti^ENITE 2. 1882 W. Flight in Proc. R. Soc. XXXIII. 344 Lying on the plates of meteoric iron.. were found thin metallic plates .. of a flexible mineral, which had the composition Fe5Ni2. .. 1 propose to call this compound Edmondsonite.

'editorship, [f. editor sb. + -ship.] a. The duties, functions, and office of an editor, b. The tenure of that office, c. Editorial super¬ intendence. 1782 Tyers Hist. Rhaps. on Pope 14 (T.) The editorship of Shakespeare.. Pope afterward undertook. 1812 Examiner 28 Dec. 831/1 Captain Benjafield, who was formerly Editor of the Morning Post, has been charged.. with obtaining, during that editorship, an annuity. 1813-40 W. Gifford Massinger's Wks. (1840) 447/1 If such portentous lines as these may be introduced without reason, and without authority, there is an end of all editorship. 1882 Pebody Eng. Journalism xix. 144 The Daily Telegraph, under the editorship of Mr. Edwin Arnold.

editress (‘cditris). female editor.

[f. editor sb.

+ -ess.]

A

1799 W. Taylor in Robberds Mem. I. 286 The editress.. has inserted the French letter to Anquetil du Perron. 1826 Gentl. Mag. Sept. 244/1 The fair Editress has got up this work judiciously and tastefully. 1884 Bazaar 17 Dec. 648/1 The editress of this volume.. is herself an authoress.

fe'dituate v. Obs. nonce-wd. [f. L. seditudt-, ppl. stem of seditudri, f. aeditu-us, transl. vewKopos ‘temple-keeper’ in Acts xix. 35, where the ‘town-clerk’ of Ephesus speaks of that city as ‘temple-keeper’ (A.V. ‘worshipper’) of Diana.] (See quot.) 1646 J. G[regory] Notes & Obs. x. (1684) 49 The Devotion whereof could not but move the City [Ephesus].. to affect the Dignity and Title of the NewKopos, to sdituate such a piece of Divine Office. 1732 in Coles. 1775 in Ash. 1818 in Todd; and in mod. Diets.

t'edlen. Obs. [OE. edlean, f. ed- -I- OE. lean reward; cf. OHG. itlon of same meaning.] Reward. c888 K. iElfred Boeth. iii. §4 l>xt edlean he 6u., jehete.

c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt. xi. 29 Ic eom bilwite and eadmod on heortan. CI17S Lamb. Horn. 5 pes we ahte to beon pe edmoddre. Ibid. 113 Drihten.. jeueS h^n edmeodan streinhe. C1200 Ormin 10837 jEddmod allse cullfre. ci200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 89 Ich am milde and admod on herte. c 1205 Lay. 25571 l>urh hine aSmode [c 1275 edmode] will.. let hu mi sweuen to selhen itumen. a 1225 Ancr. R. 276 3if hu wilt beon edmod, henc euer hwat he wonteS of holinesse. C1275 Lay. 23255 Woweyn was edmod.

Hence 'edmodi a. [cf. OHG. otmuatig-, see -y] = EDMOD. edmodien v. trans., to humble, edmodedpp/. a., meek. 'edmodle3c [see -lock], humility, gentleness, 'edmodliche adv. [see -LY**], humbly, meekly, 'edmodness [see -ness], gentleness, humility, meekness. c888 K. i^LFRED Boeth. xii, Crist eardaS on pxre dene eadmodnesse. /)/. a. Ohs. rare-^. [f. L. effractppl. stem of effringere, f. ex out -I- frang-ere to break + -edL] Broken oflF.

fe'ffront, v. Obs. rare, [(i) back-formation from next; (2) ad. OF. effronter to break the forehead of; see next.] 1. trans. To free from bashfulness.

1657 Tomlinson Renou's Disp. 259 Manna, is collected from its effracted boughs.

1643 Sir T. Browne Relig. Med. i. §40, I am naturally bashfull, nor hath.. age.. been able to effront.. me.

effraction (e'fraekjsn), [a. Fr. effraction, as if ad. L. *effractidn-€m, f. as prec.] Breaking open (a house); burglary. 1840 New Monthly Mag. LVIII. 277 The dwelling-place where the effraction was perpetrated. 1868 Milman St. Paul's iv. 80 A riot, with effraction and murder. 1881 J. Payne Villon's Poems Introd. 54 Such efficient instruments of effraction that no bolts or locks could resist them.

t e'ffracture. Obs. rare. [ad. L. effractura, f. as prec.] (See quot.) 1634 T. Johnson tr. Parey’s Chirurg. x. vi. (1678) 232 An Effracture [of the Skull] is when the bone falls down, and is broken by a most violent blow,

effrajable,

a. Perhaps a misprint for EFFROYABLE, which Harvey elsewhere uses. The Diets, have effraiable with this example. 1665 G. Harvey Advice agst. Plague 5 Pestilential symptoms declare nothing a proportionate efficient of their effrajable and miscreant nature. 1755 Johnson, Effraiable. So 1775 in Ash. 1782-1800 in Bailey; and in mod. Diets.

effranchise (e'framtfaiz, -ae-), v.

[corresp. formally to OF. effranchiss-, effranchir, f. es(:—L. ex-) out -f franc free; but perh. the Eng. word may be a recent formation from the same elements. Cf. affranchise, enfranchise.] To invest with franchises or privileges. 1864 in Webster; and in mod. Diets.

Hence e'ffranchisement, the action of effranchising; the state of being effranchised. 1795 tr. Mercier's Fragm. Pol. & Hist. II. 436 The subsidies they [the Romans] demanded from them [the provinces] were on the condition of effranchisement.

efFray, obs, var. affray sh. 137s Barbour Bruce v. 113 In sic effray thai baid that nycht. 1483 Caxton G. de la Tour Biij, For no gentil wymmen ought to make none effrayes in them. 1553 (ed. i) Douglas Mneis xi. xvii. 67 Acca schawis to him and all his feris The huge effray [ed. Small affray].

2. To put to confusion. 1649 G. Daniel Trinarch., Rich. 11, cclvi, Least Glocester’s Credit and Relations might Effront his storye.

t e'ffronted, ppl. a. Obs. [f. F. effronte, OF. esfronte (= It. sfrontato):—late L. *ex- {ef-) frontdtus, f. {*ex-) ef-frons, f. ex out, without ■+•/rons forehead -(- -ED. (The L./roni occurs in the sense of ‘ability to blush’, so that effrons prob. meant ‘unblushing’; cf. browless, frontless. Some, however, suppose the lit. sense to be ‘putting forth the forehead’.)] Shameless, barefaced, unblushingly insolent. 1598 E. Gilpin Skial. (1878) 41 Yet their effronted thoughts adulterate. Think the blind world holds them legitimate. 1612 J. Taylor (Water P.) Sculler Wks. in. 17/2 He.. with his effrontit shamelesse face, Seemes to command the diuell. 1614 Sir W. Alexander Doomesday ii. (R.) Th’ effronted whore prophetically showne By holy John in his mysterious scrouls. 1641 Relat. Answ. Earl Strafford 97 Others .. imputed this to his effronted boldnesse. Hence fe'ffrontedly adv., in a barefaced

manner; shamelessly. 1628 Le Grys tr. Barclay's Argenis 216 Lest my Vncle.. should the more effrontedly execute vpon mee the remainder [of his treachery]. 1680 Hickes Spir. Popery 40 To shew..how effrontedly this Antiepiscoparian speaks.

effrontery (e'frAntan). Also 8 effronterie, -ary. [ad. F. effronterie, f. effronte'. see effronted.] Shameless audacity, unblushing insolence. Also concr. 1715 M. Davies Ath. Brit. 1. Pref. 28 By Printing those Orthodox Letters he gain'd the Point of making his own Effrontaries to sell the better. 1720 Welton Suffer. Son of God I. v. 100, I express my Resentment.. by the superficial Effrontery, .of my Brows. 1751 Smollett Per. Pic. (1779) HI. Ixxx. 65 The happy inheritance of impregnable effrontery. 1814 D’Israeli Quarrels Auth. (1867) 362 Both as modest in their youth as afterwards remarkable for their effrontery. 1858 Robertson Lect. ii. 58 With blasphemy and unscrupulous effrontery. Hence f e'ffronterist [see -ist], nonce-wd, one

fe'ffrayt v. Ohs. [a. F. effraye-r: see affray.]

who displays effrontery.

1. trans. To frighten; to affect with fear; to alarm, startle.

1776 Adv. Corkscrew ii. i8 He was now become a perfect effronterist.

1375 Barbour Bruce vii. 610 Thai effrayit war suddanly. 1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. ccxiv. 201 Moche other folke were sore effrayed. 1500-20 Dunbar This. & Rose 68 And that no schouris nor blastis cawld Effray suld flouris nor fowles on the fold. 1596 Spenser F.Q. i. i. 16 Their dam upstart out of her den effraide.

t e'ffrontuous, a. Obs. rare. [irreg. f. EFFRONTED, after words like affectuous, fatuous.) Characterized by effrontery.

2. To keep off by frightening; to scare. 1588 A. King tr. Canisius' Catech. 58 Fra y'* profane noueltie.. effrayis vs y* Apostolique.. doctrine.

3. 'To feel fear of; to fear. 1485 Caxton Trevisa's Higden (1527) in. xxx. 122, I lyue in grete drede and effray myne owne wardyens.

Hence effrayed ppl. a., frightened, shaking with fear, e'ffrayedly adv., in an alarmed manner, as men do who are alarmed, e'ffraying vbl. sb., the state of being afraid; fright. All Obs. 1375 Barbour Bruce v. no The men. .full effraytly gat thair ger. Ibid. IX. 599 The Inglis.. war stonayit for effrayng. 1533 Bellenden Livy ii. (1822) 150 The senate effrayetlie convenit to this counsell, and wes mair effrayetlie consultit. 1553 Douglas JEneis ix. iii. (ed. i) 170 Wyth pikkis brekand doun Zone forteres, and now.. wyth me Assailzeant this effrayit strenth.

te'ffrenable, a. Obs. rare-^. [f. L. effren-us unbridled (f. ex out + fren-um bridle) -h -able.] Incapable of restraint, violently rebellious.

effortless ('Efatlis), a. and quasi-adn. [f. effort sb. + -less.] Making no effort. 1. Abstaining from effort, passive, tame.

1621 Bolton Stat. Irel. 313 (an. ii Eliz.) The saide traytor having by this effrenable meanes growen to great power.

1801 Southey Thalaba iv. xix, Idly to remain Were yielding effortless. 1880 H. James Madonna 37 You have lost time in effortless contemplation.

t'effrenate. a.

Obs. [ad. L. effrendt-us, f. effrendre, f. ex out + fren-um bridle. Cf. F.

01734 North Exam. iii. vii. 543 That a Government should appear so weak as to suffer such an effrontuous proceeding to run on to this height. Hence e'ffrontuously, adv. 01734 North Lives II. 127 To hear his decrees most brutishly and effrontuously arraigned. -Exam. i. i. 23.

fe'ffroyable, a. Obs. rare. [a. F. effroyable, f. effroi fright.] Frightful. 1689 G. Harvey Curing Dis. by Expect, iv. 23 The first.. upon the sight of such an effroyable symptom.. might mistake it for an Apoplexy.

fe'ffude, V. Obs. [incorr. ad. L. effundere (see EFFUND V.), the perfect stem effud- being taken

instead of the pres, stem.] trans. To pour out. 1634 Sir T, Herbert Trav. 7 This hidious cataract., effudes it selfe altogether.. into the ocean. 1657 Tomlinson Renou’s Disp. 79 Whereby part of it will be effuded.

effulge (e'fAlds), v. poet, (but now mainly in humorously pedantic use), [ad. L. effulg-ere, f. ex out -1- fulgere to shine.] 1. intr. To shine forth brilliantly. 1735 Thomson Liberty v. 361 As on pure winter’s eve. Gradual the stars effulge. 1744 Akenside Pleas. Imag. 1. 479 Like rays effulging from the parent sun. 1865 Alex. Smith Summ. Skye 1. 38 Each effulging like Phoebus.

h.flg.

1828 J. Wilson in Blackw. Mag. XXIV. 277 He effulges with the sun in velveteen jacket and breeches. 1852 D. MoiR Contadina i, The eloquence of purest truth effulges in thy smile.

2. trans. To flash forth,

lit. and fig.

1729 Savage Wanderer v. 20 The topaz charms the sight, Like these, effulging yellow streams of light. 1729 Thomson Britannia, His eyes effulging a peculiar fire.

effulgence (e'fAld39ns). The quality of being radiance, lit. and fig.

[f. next: see -ence,] effulgent, splendid

1667 Milton P.L. hi. 388 On thee Impresst the effulgence of his Glorie abides. 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1862) I. xxi. 135 In the first half of its visible course, it emitted a prodigious effulgence. 1821 Craig Lect. Drawing ii. 103 The splendour of rich colour is to be found only in the effulgence of light.

effulgent (e'fAld33nt), a. [ad. L. effulgent-eniy f. as prec.] Shining forth brilliantly; sending forth intense light; resplendent, radiant. Hence e'ffulgently adv. 1738 Glover Leonidas ii. 89 Whose spacious orb collects th’ effulgent beams. 1852 Mrs. Jameson Leg. Madonna (1857) 178 He is upborne by an effulgent cloud, i860 Tyndall Glac. 1. §27. 218 The fiery light of the sinking sun .. mottled the mountains with effulgent spaces. fig. 1744 Akenside Pleas. Jmag. i. 330 Venus..stood Effulgent on the pearly car. 1831 Brewster Newton (1855) II. xxiv. 358 Others.. resist the effulgent evidence which sustains the strongholds of our faith. 1868 J. T. Nettleship Ess. Browning vi. 219 Its beauty might be more effulgent by reason of the.. dulness of the rest.

te.ffulmi'nation.

Obs.

EFFUSIVE

88

EFFULGENCE

rare-^.

[f.

ef-

+

FULMINATION.] The launching of thunderbolts;

concr. a thunderbolt launched, fig. 01670 Hacket Abp. Williams i. (1692) 32 The Popes., attempting to send out effulminations against Christian kings in all countries.

t e.ffuma'bility. nonce-wd. Ohs. [f. L. effumdre + -bility: see effume and -ity.] Capability of being converted into vapour. 1680 Boyle Scept. Chem. iv. 271 Paracelsus.. seems to define Mercury by Volatility, or (if I may coyne such a Word) Effumability.

t effu'mation. rare. [a. OF. effumatioriy as if ad. L. *effumdtidn~em, f. effumdre: see next.] The action of converting into ‘fumes’ or vapour; concr. a vapour emitted. 1666 G. Harvey Morb. Angl. iv. 47 Swelling ebullition, whence afterwards those hot effumations.. arise. 1684 tr. Bonet's Merc. Compit. xiv. 494 Instruments fit for Effumation and Vaporation.

te'ffume, v. Obs. rare—^. [ad. F, effumer, f. L. effumdrCy f. ex out + fum~us smoke.] trans. To puff out (smoke). 1599 B. JONSON Ev. Man out Hum. iii. i, I can make this dog take as many whiffes as I list, and he shall retain, or effume them, at my pleasure.

effund (e'fAnd), v. [ad. L. effund-ere^ f. ex out + fund^ere to pour.] trans. To pour out {lit. and fig.); to shed (blood); to pour out the contents of (a vessel). Pallad. on Husb. iv. 107 Oyldregges salt effunde uppon the roote [of olives]. 01500 Cuckow & Night. Lenvoye, Suspires which I effunde in silence! 1550 Bale Image Both Ch. ii. I ij b (T.), After this went forth the seconde angel.. effundinge his vial upon the sea. 1578 Banister Hist. Man v. 70 The Arterie being from that deriued, which is effunded into the liuer. 1647 H. More Poems 51 If he his life effund To utmost death. 1719 D’Urfey Pills (1872) III. 322 Much Blood they effund. 1776 tr. Da Costa's Conchol. 60 Several [kinds of shells].. effund this purple juice. 1866 J. Rose tr. Ovid's Fasti ii. 146 Now doth the Idaean boy appear Effunding.. nectar rare. C1420

t effu'scation. Obs. rare-^. [as if ad. L. *effuscation-em, f. ex out + fuscd-re to darken.] The action of making obscure; a beclouding. 1624 Donne Devotions Wks. 1839 III. 497 These eclipses, sudden Effuscations and darkening of his Senses.

fe'ffuse, sb. Obs. rare. [f. the vb.] A pouring out, effusion. •593 Shaks. j Hen. VI, ii. vi. 28 Much effuse of blood doth make me faint. 1631 Heywood Maid of W. II. II. Wks. 1874 II. 369 Such a small effuse of blood.

effuse (e'fjuis), a. [ad. L. effus-us, pa. pple. of effundere to pour: see effund.] 1. Poured out freely; chiefly transf. and fig. wide-spreading, overflowing, extravagant. Obs. or arch.

unrestrained,

c 1530 H. Rhodes Bk. Nurture in Babees Bk. (1868) 105 If lyke a chylde, it [laughing] is effuse and wanton. 1650 Bulwer Anthropomet. viii. (1653) 141 A Nation.. whose Eares are dilated to so effuse a magnitude, that they cover the rest of their bodies with them. 1655 Bp. Richardson On O. Test. 321 (T.) Wherever the body is, yet the heart of fools is in effuse mirth. 1742 Young Nt. Th. ix. 1086 No wanton waste amidst effuse expence.

2. a. Bot. Of an inflorescence: Spreading loosely, especially on one side. b. Conch. Having the lips separated by a groove. 1842 Johnston in Proc. Berw. Nat. Club II. 31 Bulla Pectinata, aperture ampullaceous, effuse above. 1870 Hooker Stud. Flora 388 luncus glaucus.. cymes effuse.

effuse (e'fjuiz), v.

[f. L. effus- ppl. stem of eff under e: see effund.] 1. trans. To pour forth or out (a liquid); fto shed (blood); in pass, to be extravasated. Also refl. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 253 That moost precyous blode effused & shedde. I59r Shaks. j Hen. VI, v. iv. 52 Maiden-blood thus rigorously effus’d Will cry for Vengeance. 1682 Disc. Addr. or Presentm. agst. Association 7 The Cup out of which they were to effuse Wine.. in Honour of the Gods.. broke into pieces. 1725 Pope Odyss. xix. 633 My pitying eye.. effus’d a plenteous stream. 1759 Da Costa in Phil. Trans. LI. 33 The marble finely powdered, and aqua fortis effused over it, the marble particles were nigh destroyed. 1804 Abernethy Surg. Observ. 174 A little blood was supposed to be effused upon the dura mater. 1835-6 Todd Cycl. Anat. I. 229/1 Lymph is effused from the wound in the vessel. 1859 Hawthorne Fr. & It. Jrnls. II. 287 The same gentle shower.. had been effusing itself all the morning.

2. transf. a. To pour out, shed, send forth (air, heat, light, odours, etc.)1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. vi. xx. (1495) 208 In somer kynde heete drawyth oute.. and is effusyd.. and departed and is lesse in the body wythin. 1758 Johnson Idler No. 3 IP4 The sun, by shining too long, will effuse all its light. 1821 New Monthly Mag. I. 291 The scented pulvilio, which the untwisted hairs reproachfully effused. 1847 J. Wilson Chr. North (1857) I. 259 From his disc..is effused now a gentle crimson light.

h.poet. nonce-uses of pa. pple. By Thomson, of the horse; Rushing unchecked (cf. L. effusis habenis and effused ppl. a.). By Cowper, of a crowd: Poured forth. 1727 Thomson Summer 509 The horse.. o’er the field effus’d Darts on the gloomy flood. 1791 Cowper Odyss. viii. 632 From the horse effused the Greeks Left their capacious ambush.

S,fig.

Also absol.

1633 T. Adams Exp. 2 Peter ii. i, God must infuse, before we effuse. 1652 Benlowes Theoph. i. xcv. Good words effus’d Thou dost me give. C1750 Shenstone Elegy i. 22 ’Twas his fond heart effus’d the melting theme. 1813 H. & J. Smith Rej. Addr. 58 Professions lavishly effused and parsimoniously verified. 1830 Galt Laurie T. iii. viii. (1849) 110 A palpable tranquillity had been effused abroad.

t4. Phys. To throw off (a branch). 1578 Banister Hist. Man vii. 96 After that these Arteries haue effused forth these braunches to the palate.. they rise vp into the Scull.

effused (e’fjuizd), ppl. a. [f. effuse v. + -ed.] 1. Poured out, shed; also (of blood, etc. within the system) extravasated. 1621 G. Sandys Ovid's Met. iii. (1626) 59 Thy Mother, and her sisters shall imbrue Their furious hands in thy effused bloud. 1845 G. Day tr. Simon's Anim. Chem. I. 315 Blood-corpuscles being found in the effused fluid.

2. Stretched at full length, with limbs relaxed, [cf. L. effusus.] 1870 Swinburne Ess. & Stud. (1875) 323 The goddess languid and effused like a broad-blown flower.

Hence e'ffusedly adv. rare~^, overflowing manner, unrestrainedly.

in

an

1594 2nd Report Faustus in Thoms’ Prose Rom. HI. 331 Therewith laughing effusedly vanished away.

effusion

(e'Quisan). Also 4 effuscion, 5-6 effucion. [ad. (directly or through Fr. effusion, 14th c. in Littre) L. effusion-em, n. of action f. effund-ere: see effund.] 1. A pouring out, a spilling (of liquid); fshedding (of tears). effusion of blood: bloodshed, slaughter; also in general sense, the pouring out of blood by a wound, etc. (and see I e). C14.. Tundale's Vis., Circumcision 8 Cryst in his manhode Sched his blode by effusyon. c 1440 Gesta Rom. x\. 164 (Harl. MS.) In holy writte Effucion of bloode is not elles but trespas in synnyng. 1526 Tindale Hebr. ix. 22 With out effusion of bloud is no remission. 1595 Shaks. John v. ii. 49 This effusion of such manly drops.. Startles mine eyes. 1603 Holland Plutarch's Morals 1295 The effusions and funerall libaments. 1660 Jer. Taylor Worthy Commun. i. §4. 76 By breaking bread and effusion of wine. 1660 Jer. Taylor Duct. Dubit. ii. iii. 19 For the danger of effusion of the holy wine, they in some places chose that expedient. 1767 Gooch Treat. Wounds 1. 162 The effusion of blood .. may bring the patient’s life into danger. 1850 Merivale Rom. Emp. (1865) I. i. 9 Every new conquest required a fresh effusion from her veins. 1867 Sir J. Herschel Fam. Lect. Sc. 43 The effusion of lava. concr. 1603 Shaks. Meas. for M. iii. i. 30 Thine owne bowels, .the meere effusion of thy proper loines. 1734 tr. Rollin's Anc. Hist. (1827) VII. xvii. iv. 149 Shed a constant effusion of wine. T1 Used for affusion. 1687 G. Towerson Baptism 54 To baptize by a bare Effusion, or sprinkling of water. 1726 Ayliffe Parerg. 103 Baptism.. may be performed.. by Effusion or Sprinkling. fb. effusion of spirits (see animal spirits):

supposed to be the cause of fainting. Obs. 1651 Sir H. Wotton in Ellis Orig. Lett. i. 340 HI. 255 note, On a sudden effusion of spirits, he sunk under the table. 1656 Ridgley Pract. Physic 15 A wound of the brain, and from thence an effusion or troubling of the spirits.

there may be from divers other Bodies. 1667 Milton P.L. VI. 766 From about him fierce Effusion rowld Of smoak.

d. Physics. (See quot.) 1850 T. Graham Chem. (ed. 2) 1. 78 Effusion of gases.. by which I express their passage into a vacuum by a small aperture in a thin plate.

e. Pathol. The escape of any fluid out of its natural vessel, and its lodgment elsewhere; ‘the separation of fluid from the vessels in a morbid state of the parts’ {Syd. Soc. Lex.). 1732 Arbuthnot Rules of Diet 364 The Effusions.. of any .. Blood upon the Ventricles of the Brain. 1813 J. Thomson Lect. Inflam. 122 'The effect of inflammation termed effusion. 1856 Kane Arct. Expl. 1. xix. 232 "The immovability of my limbs was due to dropsical effusion.

2. transf. and jig. fa. Of persons: Dispersion, rout. Also poet, of things: Confused downfall. ? a 1400 Chester PI. (Shaks. Soc.) 92 Codes people were put to effuscion. 1725 Pope Odyss. xxii. 99 In mix’d effusion roll, Th’ untasted viands.

tb. ‘ Bounteous donation’ (J.). Obs. 1514 Pace in Fiddes Wolsey II. 203 He doithe seke nothynge but favors, and procurithe the same bi effusion off mony. 1614 Raleigh Hist. World iv. v. §3 Antigonus sped so well by large effusion of his treasure. 1654 Hammond Fundamentals 68 The great force that the gospel.. had .. upon men’s souls, melting them into that liberal effusion of alithat they had.

c. A ‘pouring’ forth of any influence or agency; often of the Holy Ghost. 1550 Crowley Inform. & Petit. 324 You shall not be forgotten in the effucion of thys plage. 1658 Baxter Saving Faith §4. 27 The Promise of Infusion and Effusion [/ will pour out my Spirit to you], 1741 tr. Cicero's Nat. Gods i. 28 The World, with an universal Effusion of its [Reason’s] Spirit, is God. 1879 Farrar St. Paul (1883) 66 The fulfilment of Christ’s promise in the effusion of His Spirit.

3. fig. A pouring forth, unrestrained utterance (of words, sounds, etc.); frank and eager expression (of emotions). 1659 Hammond On Ps. Pref. 4 It was a new hymne of Christ’s effusion. 1778 Robertson Hist. Amer. 1. ii. 108 The effusion of joy was general, c 1812 Jane Austen Sense & Sens., An involuntary confidence, an irrepressible effusion to a soothing friend. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. II. 606 William talked to them [Dykvelt and Witsen] with.. an effusion of heart, which seldom appeared in his conversations with Englishmen. 1870 Swinburne Ess. & Stud. (1875) 266 The other’s [song].. warmer in effusion of sound.

b. abstr. Effusiveness, demeanour. [So in Fr.]

(Video) Daily use English with Adi and Mamma _ 1 Minute English Speaking 45 | Kanchan English #Shorts

enthusiastic

1878 H. S. Wilson Alp. Ascents ii. 61 Talking cheerily, I dine with effusion.

4. concr. Applied to a literary composition, to a speech (formerly also to any work of art), considered as an ‘outpouring’ of the author’s feelings, genius, etc. Now often contemptuous. 1779 Johnson L.P., Pope Wks. IV. 71 Queen Caroline had declared her intention to visit him [Pope]. This may have been only a careless effusion. ci8ii Fuseli Lect. Art. V. (1848) 462 The effusions of Lanfranco and Pietro da Cortona. 1826 Scott Woodst. i. Here ended this wild effusion. 1839 Thirlwall Greece \. 247 The extemporaneous effusions.. of a Phemius and a Demodocus. 1873 H. Rogers Orig. Bible viii. (1875) 346 That book.. was the effusion of one master mind.

Hence e'ffusionist, a writer of ‘effusions’. 1842 Fraser's Mag. XXVI. 449 All great novelists .. were men of genius and learning. The popular monthly effusionists nowadays are neither.

effusive (e'fjursiv), a. (and sb.) [f. L. effus- (see EFFUSE a.) + -IVE as if ad. L. effusivus.] 11. a. That proceeds from a pouring out. Obs. 1725 Pope Odyss. xxii. 490 The floor Wash’d with th’ effusive wave. 1791 E. Darwin Bot. Gard. i. iii. 1781 With fine films.. Of oil effusive lull the waves to sleep.

b. Geol. [G. (H. Rosenbusch Mikrosk. Physiographie d. Massigen Gesteine (ed. 2, 1887) 6).] Of an igneous rock: poured out on the earth’s surface in a state of fusion and afterwards solidified; so effusive period, the period in which effusive rocks were formed. Also sb., an effusive rock. 1S88 F. H. Hatch in J. J. H. Teall Brit. Petrogr. 429 Effusive, a term lately used abroad for those rocks which have been poured out at the surface, the word eruptive now being generally used for the whole group of massive rocks. 1895 A. Harker Petrol. 128 The two periods of consolidation were styled by Rosenbusch the ‘intratelluric’ and the ‘effusive’. 1897 G. P. Merrill Treat. Rocks 11. i. 60 To divide the eruptive rocks into two general groups: first, the intrusive or plutonic rocks; and second, the effusive or volcanic rocks. 1903 Amer. Jrnl. Sci. XVI. 121 An origin contemporaneous with that of the Rossland effusives. 1903 A. Geikie Text-bk. Geol. (ed. 4) 197 The effusive or volcanic rocks (Erguss-gesteine). 1905 J. Geikie Struct. & Field Geol. 206 Effusive rocks.. are of two types, crystalline and fragmental. 1915 W. Lindgren in W. N. Rice et al. Probl. Amer. Geol. v. 273 Basalt is probably the most widely spread of the Tertiary effusives. 1939 A. Johannsen Descr. Petrogr. (ed. 2) 1. i. 5 The effusive or extrusive rocks (vulcanites of Scheerer) are those which were poured out upon the surface of the earth; for example, our modem lavas... In this group are also included certain other rocks which, strictly speaking, are not extrusives, namely, the pyroclastics.

fc. A copious emission of smoke, ‘effluvia’ (see effluvium), etc. Also concr. Obs.

2. Of emotions, affections, etc.: Overflowing, irrepressible; in mod. use, demonstratively expressed.

? 1477 Norton Ord. Alch. in Ashm. vii. (1652) 104 Magnetia is Fier of Effusion. 1664 Power Exp. Philos, i. 58 Besides the Magnetical One of the Earth, several Effusions

1662 H. More Enthus. Tri., Scholia (1712) 52 The innocence of his private Life, and his most effusive Charity and Humanity. 1863 Geo. Eliot Romola in Cornh. Mag.

EFFUTIATION VII. 304 Tito could only be saved from alienation by..a recovery of her effusive tenderness.

3. That expresses feeling demonstratively. 1863 Mrs. Oliphant Salem Ch. xxi. 12 A ve^ effusive hymn .. an utterance of unmitigated thanksgiving. 1879 M'^Carthy Own Times I. 358 Peel.. was not effusive; he did not pour out his emotions.

4. That has the function of giving outlet to emotion, rare. 1855 Bain Senses & Int. in. iv. §27 (1864) 622 The purely eflFusive arts, such as music or the dance.

Hence e'ffusively adv., in an effusive manner, e'ffusiveness, the quality of being effusive. 1870 Daily News 22 July 3 You came upon damsels.. who giggled and talked effusively by the wayside. 1877 H. Page De Quincy I. iii. 46 The enthusiastic effusiveness of these lines. 1880 Mrs. Forrester Roy & Viola I. 40 Netta embraced her effusively. 1879 Farrar St. Paul (1883) 529 None of the tender effusiveness and earnest praise which we have been hearing.

effuti'ation. nonce-wd. [f. L. effutt-re to prate + -ATiON.] Twaddle, balderdash. 1823 J. Lacy [G. Darley] in Land. Mag. VIII. 648 The plotlessness, still-life, puling effutiation. .of modern plays.

Efik (’efik), $b. and a. [Native name.] A. sb. a. A southern Nigerian language of the Benue-Congo family, b. (A member of) a people of southern Nigeria, closely related to the Ibibio. B. adj\ Of or pertaining to the Efik or their language. 1849 H. M. Waddell (title) Vocabulary of the Efik or Old Calabar language. 1862 H. Goldie Diet. Efik Lang. p. xi, In the language cultivated by this mission, the Efik, the following works have been produced. 1876 Encycl. Brit. IV. 649/2 It was not till the early part of the i8th century that the Efik, owing to civil war with their kindred the Ibibio, migrated from the neighbourhood of the Niger to the shores of the Old Calabar. 1883 [see Kwa]. 1888 Proc. R. Geogr. Soc. X. 633 The Efik people.. are dotted here and there among the Bantu tribes, beyond the Rio del Rey. 1932 Africa V. 504 An examination of Efik, a river-dialect of Ibibio, reveals.. the fact that from English has been taken a considerable number of words. 1934 Webster, Efik... 2 One of a Negro people of Nigeria. 1950 D. Jones Phoneme viii. 32 In the Efik language of Nigeria there exists an i (similar to the English vowel in eat) and an a (similar to the sound of a in along). 1963 G. I. Jones Trading States of Oil Rivers iii. 36 Dapper.. tells us nothing about the Efiks or why they should be called Old Calabar. 1976 [see Edo]. 1984 Washington Post 19 Nov. C6/2, 30 candidates from 21 to 60 years in age were.. cast by Deal in a revival of his ‘EfikIbibio Suite’.

fefisc, V. Obs. rare~'. [Corruptly ad. Fr. offusqu-er = obfuscate.] trans. To obfuscate, dim. 1656 Sheph. Kal. viii, Wrath efisceth and leeseth [Fr. ofusque et pert] the eye of reason.

EGAD

89

teft, a. Obs. rare-'. In 6 superl. eftest. [? A blunder ascribed to Dogberry; but it is not clear what word is alluded to.] ? Ready, convenient. 1599 Shaks. Much Ado iv. ii. 38 Yea, marry, that’s the eftest way.

teft (eft), adv. Obs. or arch. Also 3-5 efte, (3 heft, Orm. efft). [OE. eft = OS., OFris. eft, ON. eptir, eftir, eft:—OTeut. *aftiz adv. compar. deg., f. stem aft: see aft. Cf. OE. Ipng, compar. deg. of lang, long adv.^ 1. A second time, again; back. C825 Vesp. Psalter lxx[i]. 20 Of neolnisse eor6an eft 6u alaedes mec. c 1000 ^Elfric Gen. viii. 10 Noe .. asende ut eft culfran. c 1200 Ormin 16638 Hu ma33 aid mann ben borenn efft. £^1205 Lay. 15081 Nu was Vortigerne aeft [CI275 heft] king, a 1300 Cursor M. 24403 He cried ans and eft. 1330 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 105 Ontille Inglond eft he turned ouer J>e se. c 1386 Chaucer Man Lawes T. 694 Eft were his lettres stolen everichon. C1420 Pallad. on Hush. xii. 267 Again the goode [chestnuts] under gravel be do, and tried efte and thries preve hem so. 1589 Puttenham Eng. Poesie (Arb.) 160 Many a word yfalne shall eft arise. 1607 Walkington Opt. Glass 145 Hee.. vanished eft away.

b. eft and eft: again and again, eft... eft: first ... then. 1393 Langl. P. pi. C. xvi. 145 3if hym eft and eft euere at his neede. c 1420 Pallad. on Husb. i. 416 And as it drieth, efte and efte it dight. 1583 Golding Calvin on Deut. clxxviii. 1108 Eft at one side and eft a tother.

2. Indicating sequence or transition discourse: Again, moreover, likewise.

in

CIOOO Ags. Gosp. Matt, xviii. 19 Eft [C950 Lindisf. eft sona] iceowseeje. c iiys Lamb. Horn. 107 Ne eft he ne mei on his welan.. modegian. 1340 Ayenb. 133 Yet eft |?er is a stape huerinne is J>e uolle of perfection of )?ise uirtue. 1432-50 tr. Higden (1865) I. 327 Meny ny3tes in pt somer .. pe sonne go)? nou3t doun.. and eft as many dayes in pe wynter.. the sonne arise)? nou3t. 1533 Act 25 Hen. VIII, c. 13 § 12 It is efte declared by this presente acte, that, etc. 1651 Gataker Ridley in Fuller Abel Rediv. 195 It pleasing God eft.. to imprint in the face.. a living portraiture of those endowments.

3. Afterwards. O.E. Chron. an. 685 (Parker MS.) J>one [sc. Mul] mon eft on Cent forbaernde. C1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 85 Sume men leden erest iuel lifiode, and turnen eft to god. C1325 E.E. Allit. P. A. 332 He hit schal efte with tenez tyne. 1430 Lydg. Chron. Troy i. vii. First with right make our selfe strong; And efte our force manly for to shewe. Of knyghtes chose taken out a fewe. 1528 More Heresyes iv. Wks. 269/2 Dauid fell.. fyrst in aduoutrie & eft in manslaughter, a 1559 Cavill in Mir. Mag. (1563) B 2 b. Whom fortune brought to boote and efte to bale. b. with never^ if ever. c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 49 He ualleS in to helle pine per neuer eft ne cume6 of bote, c 1230 Hali Meid. 11 Beo ha eanes fulliche forcoruen ne spruteC ha neauer eft. c 1314 Guy Warw. (A.) 2776 3if )?ou haue euer eft nede to me. C1325 Seven Sag. (P.) 302 Hys hert scholde to-breke, Ne schold he never eft more speke. 1513 Douglas .^neis ii. xii. [xi.] 99 Neuir syne with ene saw I hir eft. 4. Comb, eft-sithe v. (in 2 eftsiSian) to return;

eft-sith, -sithes adv., another time, once more;

lefreet ('efri:t). Another form of afreet. 1841 Lane Arab. Nts. I. 8 Come down, and fear not this Efreet. 1862 Fairholt Up Nile 133 The lady.. asserted that the father was an efreet or evil spirit.

eft (eft), sb.' Forms: i efeta, -e, 2-4 euete, 2-7 evete, 4 auete, 4-6 ewt(e, (5 eefte, 6 ewft, euit), 6-8 euet, (8 eff, 9 dial, elfet, evvet), 7- eft. See also NEWT. [OE. efeta, of unknown origin. The form NEWT (a newt corruptly for an ewt) is more frequent in literary use, and in some dialects has superseded the older form.] A small lizard or lizard-like animal. Now (like newt) chiefly applied to the Greater WaterNewt {Triton cristatus) and to the Smooth Newt (Lophinus punctatus), of the order Salamandridse. ciooo iElfric Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 122 Lacerta uel stilio, efete. aiioo Voc. ibid. 321 Lacerta, efeta. aI200 Moral Ode 273 in Cott. Horn. 177 ireor beS naddren and snaken, eueten and frude. CI300 K. Alls. 6126 Evetis, and snakes, and paddokes brode. 1388 Wyclif Prov. xxx. 28 An euete enforsith with hondis, and dwelleth in the housis of kingis. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. xii. xxix. (Tollem. MS.), Venimouse bestes and auetes [1535 lisardes]. C1400 Maundev. V. 61 In that Abbeye ne entrethe not no Flye ne Todes ne Ewtes. 1480 Caxton Descr. Brit. 48 Eeftes that doon none harme. 1572 Bossewell Armorie il. 52 b, [The Cameleon] beyng like to y' Ewte in the bodye. 1580 Lyly Euphues (Arb.) 315 All things that breede in the mudde are not Euets. 1613 W. Browne Brit. Past. 1. ii. May never euet, nor the toade. Within thy banks make their abode. 1679 Plot Staffordsh. (1686) 251 Animals somewhat like Evets or Newts. 1750 W. Ellis Mod. Husbandman ill. ii. 79 (E.D.S.) Eff, an eft. 1763 Churchill Proph. Earn. Poems I. 112 In quest of food. Efts strove in vain to crawl. 1800 Hurdis Favorite Vill. 153 Wriggles the viper and the basking eft. 187s Parish Sussex Gloss., Effet, a newt or eft. 1876 A. B. Buckley Short Hist. Nat. Sc. xxiv. 201 Aquatic salamanders, which resemble our newts or efts. 1878 Besant & Rice Celia’s Arbour I. xiv. 195 We used to hunt as boys for.. the little evvet, the alligator of Great Britain.

teft, sb.^ Obs. rare. [Of obscure origin; cf. OE. aefest, aefst, malice, which freq. occurs in connexion with m'9.] ? Malice. c 1325 Metr. Horn. 35 Jowes havis eft and nithe At me for the ferlikes that I kithe. Ibid. 125 Eft and nythe and felonny.

also, from time to time, often (cf. oftesithes).

Also eftsoon(s. CI175 Lamb. Horn. 119 J?et ure saule moten eft-siSian to a 1300 Cursor M. 1901 Noe..sent pe dofe eftsith. e hsr ne weaxe aemettan sejru jenim. a 1225 Ancr. R. 66 KumeS )?e coue .. & reueS hire hire eiren. c 1300 K. Alis. 568 A faukon.. An ay he laide.. That feol the kyng Phelip nygh. 1377 Langl. P. PI. B. XI. 343 Many other briddes Hudden.. her egges.. In mareys. 1382 Wyclif Isa. lix. 5 The eiren of edderes thei to-breeken. C1440 Gesta Rom. xxviii. 106 (Harl. MS.) Ano|>ere birde.. laborithe.. to infecte hir nest or hir eyren. i486 Bk. St. Albans A ij a, To speke of hawkis fro an eeg to thei be habull to be takene. 1535 Coverdale xxxix. 13 The Estrich.. when he hath layed his egges vpon the grounde, he bredeth them in the dust. 1601 Shaks. Jul. C. II. i. 32 Thinke him as a Serpents egge. 1657 S. Purchas Pol. Flying-Ins. 48 Improperly that is an egg out of the whole whereof a living creature is bred, as the eggs of Spiders, Ants, Flies. 1747 Gould Eng. Ants 32 A Queen.. in a Box .. will in a few Days deposit some Eggs, unless she had laid before you took her. 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1776) II. 339 The numerous brood of [turtles’] eggs are..buried in the warm sands of the shore. 1851 Carpenter Man. Phys. 95 The eggs of the Slug, when dried up by the sun or by artificial heat.. are found not to have lost their fertility.

b. Spec. An egg of a domestic fowl as an article of food. 805-31 Chart. Oswulf in Sweet O.E. Texts 444 gif hit 6onne festendacE sie, selle mon uneje caesu and fisces and butran and aejera. ciooo Sax. Leechd. II. 103 Smire mid *5es seolcan. c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Luke xi. 12 jif he bit aej [c 1160 Hatton aij] sejst pu rtecS he him scorpionem. 1297 RGlouc. Chron. (Rolls) 8334 Vor aney tueie ssillinges wel vawc J>o hii bojte. C1300 K. Alis. 4719 Men to heom threowe drit and donge, With foule ayren. c 1400 Maundev. V. 49 Thidre bryngen Wommen.. here Eyren of Hennes, of Gees & of Dokes. C1400 Rowland & O. 222 The lawes of Cristyante ne are noghte worthe ane aye. c 1420 Pallad. on Husb. I. 582 Wol thou..eyron grete thai legge? 1490 Caxton Eneydos Prol., What sholde a man in thyse dayes now wryte, egges or eyren, certaynly it is harde to playse every man. 1530 Proper Dyaloge g So is it not worthe a rotten aye. 1596 Shaks. j Hen. IV, ii. i. 64 They are vp already, and call for Egges and Butter. 1614 W. B. Philosopher's Banquet (ed. 2) 52 Goose-egges are loathing. 1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals ii. ii. 148 Constrain’d to. .keep Lent with Bisket and hard Eggs only. 1732 Arbuthnot Rules of Diet 255 Eggs are perhaps the.. most nourishing.. of all animal Food. 1850 Mrs. Stowe Uncle Tom's C. xv. 137 Give them to this fellow; he’ll put them down as if they were eggs, now. 1879 Farrar St. Paul (1883) 46 Was it.. worth.. discussion .. whether an egg laid on a festival might or might not be eaten?

2. fig. a. That which contains the germ of anything; generally in a bad sense. Also in phrase, to crush in the egg.

EGG 1645 Tombes Anthropol. 8 This was the egge out of which their contentions were hatched. 1649 G. Daniel Trinarch. Hen. IVy cccxlviii, Soe Power of Warre From the first Egge of Libertie, out-Creepes A fatall Serpent. 1689 Apol. Fail. Walker's Acc. 91 The Rebellion.. had not been either prevented or crush’d in the Egg.

b. Applied contemptuously to a young person. 1605 Shaks. Macb. iv. ii. 83 What you Egge? Yong fi^ of Treachery. 1835 E. Elliott Taurassdes iv. iv. Wks. III. 272 Who would suspect a boy? Who hir’d thee? Egg!

3. a. Applied to anything that resembles an egg in shape or appearance. So f to turn up the eggs (i.e. the whites) of one's eyes. 1589 PUTTENHAM Eng. Poeste (Arb.) 105 The egge or figure ouall. 1635 A. Stafford Fern. Glory (1869) 89 The eggs of their eies are at their highest elevation, a 1637 B. JoNSON (R.) A puritan poacht, That used to turn up the eggs of his eyes, a 1691 Boyle (J.) There was taken a great glassbubble wih a long neck, such as chemists are wont to call a philosophical egg.

b. In full egg coal: see quots. orig. U.S. 1855 Santa Barbara (Calif.) Gaz. 22 Nov. 1/5 The attempt to make omelets out of ‘egg’ coal has been abandoned. 1880 Bradstreet's 2 Oct. 5/4 The sizes used are ‘lump’, ‘steamboat’, ‘broken’, and ‘pea’; while for family use the sizes are ‘egg’, ‘stove’ and ‘nut’. 1881 Raymond Mining Gloss. Egg-Coaly Pennsylvania. 1900 Coal & Metal Miners' Pocketbk. (ed. 6) 434 Egg passes over 2" mesh, and through 2|" mesh. Ibid. 585 Egg coal, anthracite coal that will pass through a 2\' square mesh and over a 2" square mesh. 1924 A. T. Shurick Coal Industry 144 The broken coal.. is again screened into egg, stove, and nut coal. 1970 F. McKenna Gloss. Railtvaymen's Talk 35 Eggs, ovoid briquettes, made of coal dust and cement dust, used during coal shortage. c. Cricket. = duck’s egg b. 1861 Bell's Life 25 Aug. (Suppl.) 2/1 Dowson ‘laid an egg’; R. D. Walker made 10 in an hour and a quarter. 1898 K. S. Ranjitsinhji With Stoddart's Team in Australia x. 195 Gregory..was yorked first ball... Iredale also secured an ‘egg’.

d. A bomb, a mine, slang. 1917 War Illustr. 13 Jan. 524/2 That seaplane.. having some explosive ‘eggs’ to drop. 1918 E. M. Roberts Flying Fighter 335 Eggs, bombs weighing twenty pounds and upward Mled with high explosives and ‘laid’ in Hunland. 1929 F. C. Bowen Sea Slang 44 Eggs, submarine mines, a war-time phrase. 1939 War Illustr. 9 Dec. 399/1 The Germans are thought to be using relays of U-boats. Even the smallest of these can carry up to a dozen ‘eggs’... A fast surface layer can put down more than 200 mines ‘at a sitting’. 1947 Auden Age of Anxiety (1948) i. 18 But we laid our eggs Neatly in their nest.

4. a. Phrases: a bad egg (colloq.): a person or a scheme that disappoints expectation. Similarly good egg (slang): (a) an excellent person or object; (Jb) an exclamation of enthusiastic approbation; also with other preceding adjs., esp. tough. \egg and bird: in youth and maturity, from beginning to end, first and last. to break the egg in anybody’s pocket: to spoil his plan, t to take eggs for money: to be put off with something worthless, to haoe eggs on the spit: to have business in hand, to tread upon eggs: to walk warily, as on delicate ground, f {to be) with egg: (to be) ready to lay; also fig. f to come in with five eggs: to break in fussily with an idle story; more fully, ^iuc eggs a penny, and four of them culdle. to have (get, etc.) egg on one’s face: to be made to look foolish; to be embarrassed or humiliated by the turn of events. 1542 Udall Erasm. Apoph. 272 Persones comyng in with their fine egges, how that Sylla had geuen ouer his office of Dictature. 1551 Robinson tr. More’s Utop. (Arb.) 56 An other commeth in with his flue egges. 1598 B. JoNSON Ev. Man in Hum. in. iii, I have eggs on the spit; I cannot go yet, sir. 1611 Shaks. Wint. T. i. ii. 161 Mine honest Friend Will you take Egges for Money? 1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals ii. i. 130 Contented to take Eggs (as it were) for their money. 1711 Vind. Sacheverell Aiiij, I have been such a profligate Liver, Egg, and Bird. 1733 P. Drake Grotto (title-page), Apollo’s.. Grotto makes them [Witts] all with egg. 01734 North Exam. 324 This very circumstance.. broke the egg ..in the Pockets of the Whigs. 01734 - Ld. Guilford (1808) I. 245 (D.) This gave him occasion .. to find if any slip had been made (for he all along trod upon eggs). 1747 Gould Eng. Ants 57 Very like that of a Female Bee, Wasp, or Queen Ant, when not with Egg. 1855 'P. Paxton’ Capt. Priest 319 In the language of his class, the Perfect Bird generally turns out to be ‘a bad egg’. 1864 Athenaeum 559/1 ‘A bad egg’,.. a fellow who had not proved to be as good as his promise. 1884 Black J'ud. Shaks. xiii. in Harper's Mag. May 954/2, I have other eggs on the spit. 1903 Kipling Traffics & Discoveries (1904) 138 'Us’ll find they ships!’ .. ‘Good egg!’ quoth Moorshed. 1910 Galsworthy Justice I, A real bad egg. 1914 C. Mackenzie Sinister St. II. iii. x. 711 It doesn’t look a hundred quid to a tanner on his blue. Bad luck. He’s a very good egg. Ibid. xii. 739 Oxford was divided into Bad Men and Good Eggs. 19*5 DBarnett Lett. 56 We are going to do this regularly, and I think it is a very good egg. 1915 Wodehouse Something Fresh x. §3 'She isn’t going to sue me for breach?’ ‘She never had any intention of doing so.’ The Hon. Frederick sank back on the pillows. ‘Good egg!’ he said with fervour. 1920 Galsworthy In Chancery i. xii. too He was a rotten egg. 1929 S. Aumonier f/ps Sf Downs 418 Hullo, Pan! Good egg! 1930 E. H. La VINE Third Degree (1931) iii. 30 Occasionally, a really tough egg is trained to be a killer. 1938 Wodehouse Summer Moonshine i. 18 She’s a tough egg. 1964 Saturday Night (Toronto) July 17/1 The move left many critics with egg on their faces. 1972 Times 19 Feb. 7/1 There is something reassuringly changeless about the capacity of the highest military authorities for getting egg on their faces. 1977 Times Educ. Suppl. 21 Oct. 11/2 The most immediate need is to decide why the physical measurements of the ages of the East African rocks appear to suggest such different

91 patterns of hominid evolution from that provided by the evolution of the wild pig. In the process, many people will be discovered to have egg on their faces. 1983 ‘J. le Carre’ Little Drummer Girl x. 186 I’m just stuck there, am I, with egg on my face. 1984 Listener 15 Mar. 16/3 ‘Canadian Far East Trade Corporation’, ‘H and H Enterprises’ and ‘CMI Investments’ led the trustee to conclude that the CIA must have ‘egg on its face’ for associating with a swindler. 1985" Times 3 Jan. 13/1 BAT.. succeeded in constantly getting egg on its face.

b. In many proverbial phrases of obvious meaning; also, as sure as eggs is eggs; hence, as safe as eggs (in same sense), teach your grandmother to suck eggs: said to those who presume to offer advice to others who are more experienced, to have all your eggs in one basket: to risk all one’s property on a single venture; also to put (-^venture) all one’s eggs in one basket, etc. 1592 Shaks. Rom. Jful. iii. i. 26 Thy head is as full of quarrels, as an egge is full of meat. 1606 Bryskett Civ. Life 5 Critiques that spend their eyes to find a haire vpon an egge. 1620 Shelton Quix. III. vii, The Hen lays as well upon one Egg as many, a 1610 Babington Wks. (1622) 51 To be wonne with the egg and lost with the shell, is a great inconstancie. 1611 Shaks. Wint. T. i. ii. 130 We are Almost as like as Egges. 1638 Chillingw. Proi. i. ii. § 160. 117 They are as like your own, as an egge to an egge. a 1632 G. Herbert J^ocu/a Prud. (1640) 291 He that steals an egg, will steal an ox. 1666 G. Torriano Second Alphabet of Proverbial Phrases 125/2 To put all ones Eggs in a Paniard, viz. to hazard all in one bottom. 1699 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew, As sure as Eggs be Eggs. 1707 J. Stevens tr. Quevedo's Com. Wks. (1709) 348 You would have me teach my Grandame to suck Eggs. 1710 S. Palmer Proverbs cxxiii. 344 {heading) A Mouse that has but one Hole, is soon Catch’d: or. Don’t venture all your Eggs in One Basket. 1777 Sheridan Trip. Scarb. iii. iv. As full of good-nature as an egg’s full of meat. 1857 Hughes Tom Brown ii. vi, I shall come out bottom of the form as sure as eggs is eggs. 1871 M. Collins Mrq. Sf Merch. Ill.iv. 114 We’ve got the Derby and Legerthis next year as safe as eggs. 1874 Whyte Melville Uncle John III. xxvii. 140 ‘Annie, my own darling, may I carry your basket all my life?’ ‘If you’ll put all your eggs in it, yes,’ answered Annie boldly. 1925 D. H. Lawrence Refl. Death Porcupine 179 It is a pity that we have insisted on putting all our eggs in one basket: calling love the basket, and ourselves the eggs. 1955 Times 3 May 3/6 An area which had all its eggs in one basket. 1969 Times 5 Nov. 23/3 The earl is evidently feeling a little uncomfortable that all his family eggs are in one basket.

c. old egg: a familiar form of address — old chap, old fellow, old sport. 1919 Punch 5 Mar. 190/2 Cheerio, old egg. 1927 ‘A. Patrick Engaged ix. §3 ‘You’d be arrested., and spoil the whole show,’ replied Patrick tersely. ‘Sorry, old egg, sorry!’ Armstrong’

II. Comb.

5. In Plant-names: eggs and bacony eggs and butter, eggs and collops', popular names for several plants, esp. Linaria vulgaris, the Field Snap-dragon or Toad-flax. 1878 Britten & Holl. Plant-n. Eggs and Bacon. From the two shades of yellow in the flower, i Linaria vulgaris. Mill.; 2 Lotus corniculatus. Eggs and Butter, Linaria vulgaris. Mill. Eggs and Collops, Linaria vulgaris, Mill.; 2 Ranunculus acris, L. 6. General comb.: a. attributive, as egg-ball,

-basket, -coloration, -mass, -pie, -savice, -season, -spoon, -stage, -stall, -state, -tongs, -yelk or -yolk. 1869 Beeton's Househ. Management 201 *Egg-balls for Soups and Made Dishes. 1773 J. W^edgwood Let. 21 Nov. 156 *Egg Baskets; Egg Cups, with covers and without. 1867 G. W. Harris Sut Lovingood 132 He wer histin aig-baskets. 1911 J. A. Thomson Biol. Seasons ii. 177 A stereotyped kind of *egg-coloration. 1869 Beeton's Househ. Management 858 Silver or plated ‘egg-dishes are now very much used. 1889 M. E. Bamford Up Down Brooks 45 The bright-yellow ‘egg-mass. 1921 Brit. Museum Return 119 An exceedingly fine egg-mass of Natica sp. from Scotia Bay, South Orkneys. 1956 Nature 10 Mar. 489/2 Fifteen days after sowing, second-generation larvae were hatching within the egg-masses. ic..‘‘egg-strings’, produced by the continuous division of a cell, lie free in the capsular cavity. ^1865 Ld. Brougham in Circ. Sc. I. Introd. Disc. 22 A bird called the Toucan, or ‘Egg-sucker, which chiefly feeds on the eggs found in..nests. 1899 C. J. Herringham Bk. of Art of Cennino Cennini 207 For Pacheco ‘egg-tempera meant the whole egg with fig-milk. 1922 R. Fry Let. 12 Apr. (1972) II. 525 [Picasso]’s doing wonderful little pictures of nudes.. in egg tempera, like some highly finished miniatures by Giulio Romano or Sebastiano del Piombo. 1974 EncycL Brit. Micropaedia IX. 877/2 The earliest European forerunners of a controlled egg-tempera medium are found among the religious paintings of the Byzantine era. 1884 ‘Egg-timer [see EGG sb. 6b]. 1909 Cent. Diet. Suppl., Egg-timer, an apparatus for the automatic cooking of eggs. It consists of a vessel containing boiling water and a series of.. baskets... When the time has elapsed the basket automatically rises out of the water. 1962 TV Times 28 Dec. 6/2 An egg-timer, I repeated with the assurance of a man who knew which way the sand trickled. 1893 A. Newton Diet. Birds 36 The

‘‘egg-tooth’.. is developed in the embryos of all birds as a small whitish protuberance or conglomeration of salts of calcareous matter, deposited in the middle layers of the epidermis of the tip of the upper bill. 1959 Biology XXX. 87 In viviparous reptiles the eggshell is reduced to a thin, soft membrane or lost entirely, and the egg-tooth, which assists the young of oviparous forms to break out of their eggs, is sometimes rudimentary, i960 M. Burton Wild Animals 145 The young grass snakes.. make their way out of the egg by tearing several rents in it with a special eggtooth projecting from the front of the jaws. 1826 Kirby & Spence EntomoL IV. xlii. 148 The ovaries, or *egg-tubes as they are sometimes called. 1895 Sharp in Cambr. Nat. Hist. V. 137 The number of egg-tubes varies greatly in different Insects. 1843 Embleton in Proc. Berw. Nat._ Club II. No. II. 51 E. Sph®ra.-Common *Egg Urchin. E. miliaris.-Purple-tipped Egg Urchin. 1909 Cent. Diet. Suppl., ‘Egg-whip. 1910 Daily Chron. 23 Apr. jls Beat with an egg whip until smooth and glossy. 1868 M. Jewry Warne's Model Cookery 36/1 ‘Egg whisk, for beating eggs. 1882 [see whisk sb.^ 3]. 1924 Week-end Bk. 261 A large jug, and an egg-whisk.. efficiently replace the [cocktail] shaker. 1659 H. H. Burnel Plutus Cijb, A Bawd, a scolding ‘Eggwife.

egg (eg), vy [a. ON. eggja (Da. egge), = edge

1. trans. To incite, encourage, urge on; to provokq, tempt. Cf. edge Const, unto (an action, enterprise, etc.). Ohs. exc. as in 2. ri200 Trin Coll. Horn. 195 Alse deuel him to eggede. c 1230 Hali Meid. 3, & eggeC Jje to brudlac. 1330 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 278 J^e clergi of Scotland egged per kyng Jon. C1350 Will. Palerne 1130 He sent enuiously to )?emperour and egged him swij^e bi a certayne day bataile to a bide. c 1386 Chaucer Pers. T. jf 894 bei pzX eggen or consenten to pt sinne bien partiners ofpe sinne. C1440 Promp. Parv. 136 Eggyn, or entycyn to doon well or yvele [P. eggen, or styre to gode or yll], incito, provoco. 1508 Barclay Shyp of Folys 141 b. He shall haue frendes and felawys at honde. To egge him forwarde vnto vnhappynes. 1513 Douglas .^neis v. viii. 17 Thai foyne at vthir, and eggis to bargane. 1563-87 Foxe a. M. (1596) 299/1 Especiallie being egged.. by his brethren taking it to stomach. ^1593 H. Smith Wks. (1866-7) I- 379 ^ man which sharpens his enemy with taunts, when he would egg him to fight. 1598 Grenewey Tacitus' Ann. i. xi. (1622) 21 The like occasion egged him to the like cruelty against Semp. Gracchus. 1665 Manley Grotius' Low-C. Warrs 93 Their suspicions egged them to cruelty.

2. with on. Const, /o, etc. 1566 Drant Horace' Sat. v. Db, He egge them on to speake some thyng, whiche spoken may repent them. 1594 Carew Huarte's Exam. Wits iv. (1596) 45 Sibils and Bacchants.. men think are egged on by some diuine inspiration. 1642 H. More Song of Soul i. iii. xxxii. That foregoing light That egs us on ’cording to what we have liven. 1691 Wood Ath. Oxon. II. 328 Mathew Hazard [was] a main Incendiary in the Rebellion, violently egged on by his wife. 1705 Stanhope Paraphr. II. 257 Thus they egg Men on to old Age.. till they learn too late. 1747 Carte Hist. Eng. I. 21 Everything conspired to., egg them on to the undertaking. 1852 Thackeray Esmond ii. x. (1876) 207 Schemers and flatterers would egg him on.

egg (eg), v.'^ [f. the sb.] trans. a. In comb, to egg and crumb: to cover with yolk of egg and crumbs, b. To pelt with (rotten) eggs. c. intr. To collect (wild fowls’) eggs. 1833 Marryat P. Simple i, ‘They be all hegged and crumbed.’ 1857 Baltimore Sun i Aug. (Bartlett) The abolition editor of the Newport News, was egged out of Alexandria.. on Monday. 1864 Mrs. H. Wood Trev. Hold III. ix. 131 To see a sweetbread egged and crumbed. 1883 Harper's Mag. Oct. 806/1 An Iowa poet has been egged by the populace. 1887 E. C. Dawson Bp. Hannington viii. 106 They.. fished, egged.. and explored to their heart’s content.

egg-beater. 1. An implement or appliance used for beating eggs. 1828 E. Leslie Receipts 49 Beat the eggs in a broad shallow pan with a wooden-egg-beater or whisk. 1884 Health Exhib. Catal. 110/2 Patent Egg Beaters.

2. = HELICOPTER (see also quot. 1946). slang.

U.S.

1937 Atlantic Monthly Jan. 26/1 Pilots of airplanes contemptuously termed autogiros ‘egg beaters’, and the whole idea appeared to be a colossal flop. 1946 Amer. Speech XXL 310/1 Egg-beater, a twin-engine training plane, so termed because of the small size of the engines. 1948 Canadian Alpine Jrnl. June 178 One of those strange contraptions known as a helicopter or ‘egg-beater’. 1962 L. Deighton iperess File xxiv. 156 [Amer. loq.] ‘Egg beaters.’ The two helicopters came in.

egg-box. A box in which eggs are packed. Also attrib. and transf. (= egg-crate). 1854 Dickens Hard T. i. iv. 20 That was the cot of my infancy; an old egg-box. 1937 Discovery May 134/2 The men [jc. egg-stealers] .. were equipped with egg-boxes, coils of rope, climbing irons. 1952 Archit. Rev. CXI. 17/2 ‘Eggbox’ screens may be designed across roof openings to obscure views of the sky for all normal angles of vision.

egg-crate. A crate in which eggs are packed; also transf. and attrib., esp. in egg-crate ceiling, etc., denoting a construction which diffuses light. •943 Netvsteeek 16 Aug. 54 The rickety ‘egg crate’ plane was shunned by all but true pioneers and thrill seekers. 1949 Archit. Rev. CVI. 307 The upper gallery at this point has an ‘egg-crate’ ceiling of steel sheeting to preserve a human scale. 1959 Engineering 13 Feb. 198/3 To meet the need for improved lamp screening appearance, translucent opal plastics egg-crate louvres are made.

EGG-CUP egg-cup (‘EgkAp). A cup-shaped vessel to hold an egg. Also transf. Hence 'eggcupful (usually egg-cupful), as much as will fill an egg-cup. 1773 [see egg-basket {egg sb. 6 a)]. 1837 Dickens Pickw. xvi. 160 There’s nothin’ so refreshin’ as sleep, Sir, as the servant-girl said afore she drank the egg-cup-full o’ laudanum. 1848 H. R. Forster Stowe Catal. 117, 6 eggcups. 1870 F. Wilson Ch. Lindisf. 108 The font.. is of an egg-cup form. 1871 City-Road Mag. I. 263 We drank all but boiling coffee at half a piastre an egg-cupful. 1905 H. G. Wells Kipps i. v. 88 An egg-cupful of brandy. 1936 G. PoLLETT Song for Sixpence x. 82 But the oak-trees shower their ‘egg-cups’ everywhere. 1962 E. O’Brien Lonely Girl xix. 237 Egg-cupfuls of Joanna’s home-made Advocaat. 1969 E. H. Pinto Treen 73/2 The early Victorian revolving egg cup stand.. is of mahogany, with ebony egg cups.

egge, obs. var. of edge sb. and egged (egd), ppl. a. [f. egg sb. -h -ed.] Mixed with egg. 1835 T. Hook G. Gurney (1850) I. v. 107 Directions about egged-wine.

t'egger, sb.^ Obs. Also 6 eggar. [f. egg + -ER.] One who urges on or incites; an instigator. Also egger on. 1598 Barret Theor. Warres iv. i. 120, I wish the ill yeare to his Eggars and setters on. 1605 Answ. Supposed Discov. Romish Doctr. 37 The eggers and instruments of all those slaughters. 1693 W. Robertson Phraseol. Gen. 524 An egger on, impulsor.

egger ('Eg3(r)), sb.^ [f. egg v.^ -t- -er.] One who collects (wild fowls’) eggs. 1834 Audubon Ornith. Biogr. II. 370 Turtles.. deposit their eggs in the burning sand, and clouds of sea-fowl arrive every spring for the same purpose. These are followed by persons called ‘Eggers’. 1849 D. J. Browne Amer. Poultry Yd. (1855) 310 A class of persons called ‘eggers’, who follow .. the avocation of procuring the eggs of wild birds. 1875 Bp. Hannington in Dawson Life (1887) viii. 109 And to the eggers of this isle The emu’s egg she shows. 1908 Daily Chron. 16 Apr. 3/7 Driven out of Cornwall by the ‘Eggers’ a few pairs for a time managed to breed.. in South Wales.

egger ('Eg3(r)), sb.^ Also eggar. [app. f. Eca sb. + -er; see quot. 1720.] A collector's name for various species of moths, esp. the Oak Eggermoth (Bombyx quercus). ?i705 B. Wilkes Bowles New Collection Engl. Moths Plate I, The Great Egger Moth. lyao Albin Nat. Hist. Insects, Descr. PI. xviii. It spun itself.. a britle brown Case b, in form of an Egg, like Caterpillar a in the next plate; for which reason they are called by some the great and small Egger. 1775 M. Harris Eng. Lepid. 21. 1859 W. Coleman Woodlands (1862) 89 The caterpillar of that fine large insect, the Oak Egger-moth, is said to feed on the leaves of the Heath. 1869 E. Newman Nat. Hist. Brit. Moths 41 The Pale Oak Eggar (Trichiura cratsegi); the Small Eggar (Eriogaster lanestris); the Oak Eggar {Bombyx quercus)’, the Grass Eggar {Bombyx trifolii). 1884 Pall Mall G. 12 Aug. 3/2 An oakegger has been seen in Hyde Park,

eggery (’Egan), [f. egg sb. + -ery.] A collection of eggs; an establishment for producing eggs. Eggery, a nest of eggs. 1910 Daily Chron. 21 Mar. 4/7 A Western Canadian paper declares that next to the discovery of a gold-mine the most profitable investment is the ‘importation of a batch of well-disposed hens and the establishment of an up-to-date eggery’. 1938 Reader's Digest Mar. 93/1 An Arndt eggery consisting of four sections. 1846 Worcester,

'egg-head, egghead, colloq. (orig. U.S.). [f. EGG sb. -IHEAD sb.] An intellectual, a ‘highbrow’. Also attrib. So eggheadish a.; eggheadery, eggheadism. 1907 O. Johnson in Sat. Even. Post 16 Nov. 9/1 His genius lived in the nicknames of the Egghead,.. Morning Glory, [etc.]. C1918 C. Sandburg Let. (deposited in Toledo-Lucas County Public Library, Toledo, Ohio), Dear N. D... ‘Egg heads’ is the slang here for editorial writers. 1952 Cleveland (Ohio) Plain Dealer 27 Sept. 10/3 A good many intelligent people.. obviously admired Stevenson. ‘Sure,’ was the reply, ‘all the egg heads love Stevenson.’ 1952 N. Y. Times 19 Oct. E1/7 Writers of letters to editors tend to be in the intellectual or ‘egg-head’ category where Stevenson sentiment is strong. 1953 R. Chandler Long Good-Bye xlvii. 289, I told him I didn’t think it would do Springer any harm. ‘Only with the eggheads.’ 1954 Daily Tel. 23 Mar., Mr. Stevenson.. said..‘Eggheads of the world, unite—you have nothing to lose but your yolks.’ ‘Eggheads’ is a derogatory description for intellectuals in America. 1955 Sci. Amer. Apr. 2/3, I fear that, while publicly unspoken, anti-intellectualism and suspicion of ‘eggheads’ may have been a factor. 1956 N. Y. Times Mag. 9 Sept. 68/3 People said it was ‘eggheadism’ or ‘moderation’. 1957 Listener 2 May 'jzsiz A former American ambassador to India and one of the Democratic Party’s leading egg¬ heads. i960 Ibid. 13 Oct. 627/1 This autumn six British firms are trying out one special kind of paper-back—the ‘egghead’ or quality or highbrow paper-back. 1962 Punch 30 May 827/1 The theatre (alas for would-be eggheadery) is nowadays scarcely noticed at all. 1963 Times 25 Feb, (Canada Suppl.) p. xiv/4 Often excessively eggheadish in their choice of material, these little dramatic islands have still proved [etc.]. 1963 New Society 26 Sept. 4/1 There is a reaction against eggheadery in America. 1965 Spectator 22 Jan. 98/1 Not all American egg-heads are equally self satisfied about the standard of their own criticism.

'egg-headed, a. [cf. headed a. i c.] With a head shaped like an egg; also transf. (see prec.). So egg-'headedness. W. Deeping Second Youth iv. 37 A little egg-headed pedant. 1938 Time 27 June 31/1 That man was starchy, sixfoot-six Sir John Charles Walsham Reith, a dour, egg¬ 1919

EGLANTINE

93

headed, ascetical Aberdonian. 1957 H. Croome Forgotten Place xiii. 163 Howard’s own Old Intellectual tie had always been so conspicuous and Howard’s views.. so uncompromisingly egg-headed. 1959 V. Packard Status Seekers (i960) xv. 216 The four factors thus far cited— money, ancestry, distance of home from center of the city, and eggheadedness. 1965 Economist 10 July 154/1 More eggheaded discussion of these matters brings in the concepts of ‘social rates of discount’ and a ‘shadow price’ for capital. Ibid. 25 Sept. 1226/1 The Department of Economic Affairs was at pains.. to underplay economic eggheadedness.

eggwg ('egiB), vbl. sb.^ [f,

egg v.^ + -ingL] An

Lirging forward, incitement, instigation. egging forward or on.

Also

c 1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 197 pat heued pat lob helede wi8 he deules eginge was his rihte bileue. a 1300 Cursor M. 7206 His [Samson’s] wijf wald noght fin Thoru egging of his wiherwin. 01400 Octouian 688 Selle hem noght For no eggenges. 1521 Old City Acc. Bk. Archseol. XLIII, A fyne lost by John Stone for eggyng of an other mannes apprentice from his maistre xxd. 1564 Haward Eutropius vii. 63 Antonius began a greate ciuill warre through the.. egging forward of his wife Cleopatra. 1598 R. Bernard tr. Terence's Hecyra ii. i, They have married by your egging on. a 1659 Cleveland Wks. (1687) 370 How curst an egging.. do these unwily Dances bring. 1875 A. R. Hope Schoolboy Fr. 90 He needed very little egging on, to talk nonsense.

by-dish (like Eg-shelles in a Saucer) what worthily may breed offence, a 1618 Raleigh Prerog. Pari. 57 Without the Kings acceptation, both the publicke and priuate aduices be but as emptie Egg-shels. 1799 Hatchett in Phil. Trans. LXXXIX. 328 The carbonate of lime exceeds in quantity the phosphate.. in the egg shells of birds. 1859 Todd Cycl. Anat. V. 63/1 The pores of the egg-shell may be easily stopped by any.. oily matter. 1859 Tennyson Enid 1213 He .. babbled.. How Enid never.. cared a broken egg-shell for her lord.

b. attrib., chiefly similative. egg-shell china: a porcelain ware of extreme thinness and delicacy. 1835 Willis Pencillings II. xlv. 52 We.. stepping into an egg-shell caique, crossed the Golden Horn, i860 Emerson Cond. Life vii. Wks. (Bohn) II. 424 We come out of our egg¬ shell existence. 1861 C. P. Hodgson Resid. Japan yi Fragile and sweetly pretty little egg-shell porcelain cups. 1887 Times ii Aug. 13/2 The egg-shell sides of the Mercury.

c. Used attrib. or as adj. as a term of colour or of a paint finish intermediate between flat and glossy, e.g. eggshell enamel, finish, glaze. (See also quot. 1929).

('Egl9(r)). dial. [f. egg sb., ? pedlar or higgler.An egg-dealer and poulterer.

1894 F. B. Gardner Painters' Encycl. 119 Egg-shell gloss, a term frequently used by painters. 1898 Westm. Gaz. 3 June 8/3 A costume of egg-shell blue cheque silk. 1908 Daily Chron. 12 Mar. 3/3 The sun is reflected by its front of dull white terra-cotta stone with egg-shell glaze. 1909 Westm. Gaz. 27 Apr. 5/2 People argue of paints, and enamels, and varnishes, and..whether the true ‘egg-shell gloss’ has been obtained or not. 1909 Chambers's Jrnl. 25 Sept. 684/1 That beautiful, characteristic, velvety, egg-shell enamel is highly artistic. 1925 Arts & Decoration Mar. 82/2 The egg-shell finish of the freshly laid egg.. is the dull finish the decorators now prefer. 1929 A. E. Owen-Jones Retail Stationer's Handbk. 193 Eggshell Finish, a finish imparted to notepapers by omitting the calendering; the surface is dull, and is covered with pin-point pores. 1936 C. Day Lewis Friendly Tree vii. 96 A sky of egg-shell blue. 1943 W. Wilcox in 55 Short Stories from N. Yorker (1949) 139 She was wearing dark blue.. and a neat little eggshell blouse. 1953 Gloss. Paint Terms {B.S.I.) 27 The following stages in increasing order of gloss are normally recognized: —Flat (or matt)... Eggshell flat. Eggshell gloss. 1955 E. Bowen World of Love V. 88 Electric candelabra.. round all the eggshell walls. 1958 Woman 22 Feb 2/1 Gloss, matt, flat, eggshell paints go over themselves or each other.

1791 Census {Mertoun) in Stat. Acc. Sc. (1795) XIV. 589 Weavers 4, Clothier i, Egglers 2. 1869 Daily News 6 Jan., But his chief profession is that of an ‘eggler,’ that is, he used to buy eggs and forward them in large quantities to England. i88o Daily News 11 Nov. 6/6 They do not even eat the eggs, but sell them to an ‘eggler’. 1881 Supp. Oxford Gloss., Eggler, a poulterer.

1460-70 Bk. Quintessence 29 An eye-schelle ful of good brennynge water. 1579 Langham Gard. Health (1633) 73 Drink an egshelfull of the iuice of Betony. 1746 Berkeley Sec. Let. Tar-water §14 An egg-shell full of tar. 1758 J. S. Le Dran's Observ. Surg. (1771) 247, I found about an EggShell full of purulent Serosity.

eggless (’Eglis), a. [f.

egg-white,

'eg^ng, vbl. sb.^ [f. egg v.^ + -ingL] 1. The action of collecting (wild fowls*) eggs; also attrib. 1883; G.C. Davies Norfolk Broads 11. 15 The unholy trade of egging and bird-destroying. i886 E. C. Dawson Bp. Hannington viii. (1887) 107 They had arrived in the height of the egging season.

2. The laying or production of eggs, as in egging season, time. 1905 Westm. Gaz. 4 May 4/1 Among the risks which attend the breeding of game birds, frost at the ‘egging’ time is not the least serious. 1909 Ibid. 14 May 5/1 This is the ‘egging’ season, and outlying nests of pheasants and partridges may be disturbed.

eggler

egg sb. + -less.] Without

eggs. 1904 H. G. Wells Food 0/Godsi. iv. 92 The two surviving hens., spent their remaining years in eggless celebrity. 1909 Daily Chron. 2 Feb. 4/7 The recipe for an eggless omelette. 1915 Evening News 20 Jan. 7 Eggless and Less Egg Cookery. 1967 A. Wilson No Laughing Matter ii. 73 Sukey..was trying out a new eggless recipe.

Hence eggshell-ful, as a measure of quantity.

[white 56. i.] The white of an egg, the albumen. Also attrib., esp. in egg-white injury, a disease caused by eating an excess of raw egg-white.

'eggling, vbl. sb. Sc. [f. egg sb. after eggler.] The business of an eggler.

1898 Jrnl. Physiology XXIII. 130 Fresh egg-white is thoroughly whipped into a froth. 1916 E. Pound Lustra 52 Green arsenic smeared on an egg-white cloth. 1936 Discovery Dec. 388/2 A preparation from egg-white, which reduces the clotting time of blood, provides new hope for haemophiliacs. 1937 H. T. Parsons et al. in Biochemical Jrnl. XXXI. I. 425 {heading) Egg white injury and protective factor. 1959 Chambers's Encycl. XL 260/1 Albumins and globulins, .are frequently found together as in. .milk and egg white. Ibid. XIV. 350/2 Biotin is a.. factor.. identified with the so-called vitamin H.. or anti-egg-white-injury factor.

1881 J. Younger Autobiog. ix. 90 Try the eggling or cadgering.

eggy ('egi),

egglet ('sglet). nonce-wd. [f. egg sb. 4-

-let.] A

small egg. 1883 Cornh. Mag., On being 'Pilled*, The sight of those addled egglets [pills] lying in their cardboard nest.

t 'eggment. Obs. [f. egg v. + -ment; an early example of the addition of -ment to an Eng. vb.] Incitement, instigation. CI340 Cursor M. 25733 (Fairf.) We synne )>orou egment of l?er pre. 01386 Chaucer Man of Lawes T. 744 Thurgh wommannes eggement Mankynde was lorn. 01440 Promp. Parv. 136 Egment, or sterynge, incitamentum.

egg-nog(g ('eg-'nog). Also {rarely) egg-noggy. [f. EGG -I- NOG Strong ale.] A drink in which the white and yolk of eggs are stirred up with hot beer, cider, wine, or spirits. 1825 Bro. Jonathan I. 256 The egg-nog.. had gone about rather freely. 1844 Mrs. Houston Voy. TexasW. 179 Followed by the production of a tumbler of egg-noggy. 1853 Kane Grinnell Exp. xlvi. (1856) 428 And made an egg-nogg of eider eggs. 1872 Cohen Dis. Throat 91, I would rely chiefly on egg-nog, beef essence, and quinine.

'egg-plant. A popular name for the Solanum

a.* [f. egg -I- -y.] a. Full of eggs, abounding in eggs. Also spec., as in quot. 1901. b. Marked with stains of egg. 1709 Rambl. Fuddle-Caps 7 So Eggy withal, that a man would have Sworn, He had just in the Pill’ry been taking a Turn. 1901 Farm, Field & Fireside 13 Dec. 357/3 If it has laid eggs, or is within a short time of laying, it is also detected. These birds are called ‘eggy’. 1924 Blackw. Mag. Feb. 249/2 Abdul brought his most welcome offering an eggy rice pudding. 1929 E. Bowen Last September iii. xix. 238 The sponge cake..was moist and eggy. 1951 J. B. Priestley Festival at Farbridge ii. ii. 263 You might push that eggy plate away then with your foot.

eggy (‘egi), a.’* colloq.

and dial. [f. egg v.^ + -y*.]

Annoyed, irritated. 1935 J- T. Farrell Juflfgmeni Day vi. 131 That’s why I feel so eggy. They probably saved this afternoon to give us the works. 1966 F. Shaw et al. Lern Yerself Scouse 73 Don get eggy.

e3athe, obs. form of hath.

esculentum, originally given to the white-fruited variety, but afterwards extended to that which bears the purple fruit or Aubergine.

eghe, obs. form of

eye.

e3e, obs. f. of awe,

eye.

1767 J. Abercrombie Ev. Man own Gard. (1803) 102 The choicest kinds [of tender annuals] are the double balsams.. ice-plant, egg-plant, etc. 1794 Martyn Rousseau's Bot. xvi. 202 When this [its fruit] is white it has the name of EggPlant. 1847 Mrs. Sherwood Life xv. 273 Soup made of a glutinous vegetable, and the egg-plant roasted before the fire. 1861 Delamer Kitch. Gard. 125 There is the purplefruited egg-plant, and the white-fruited egg-plant.

egir, obs. form of eager, a.

eggritte,

1870 J. D. Hooker Student's Flora 21 Matthiola incana.. pod eglandular.

obs. form of egret.

'egg-shell. Also eggshell, [f.

egg sb. + shell.] a. The shell or external calcareous covering of an egg; often as a type of worthlessness or of fragility. c 1300 K. Alis 577 He fondith to creope.. Ageyn into the ay-schelle. 1471 Ripley Compl. Alch. viii. in Ashm. (1652) 171 Fro Eggshells calcynyd. 1562 J. Heywood Prov. ^ Eplgr^ (1867) 36, I gat not so muche.. As.. a poore egshell. 1599 H. Buttes Diet's Dry Din. To Rdr., I haue put into a

egistment, var. of agistment. 1681 J. W. Syst. Agric. 325, Egistments, cattle taken in to graze or be fed by the week or month.

eglandular (i'glaendjul3(r)), a. Bot. [f.

e- pref.^

+ GLANDULAR.] That has no glands.

eglandulose (I'glaendjubus), a. Bot. [f.

e- pref.^

+ GLANDULOSE.] = prec. 1878 Hulme Wild Flowers 1. Summary 15 Leaves pinnate, eglandulose, slightly hairy.

eglantine^

('eglantain, -tin). Forms: 4-6 eglentine, (6 eggletyne), 7- eglantine, [a. F. eglantine (= Pr. aiglentina), f. OF. aiglent of

EGLANTINE same meaning, prob. repr. prickly, f. acu-s needle + viru-lentus, lucu-lentus\ prickle.] 1. The Sweet-briar; also

Lat. type *aculentus -lentus suffix, as in cf. aculeus sting, attrib.

C1400 Maundev. ii. 14 There he was crouned with Eglantier [ti.r. Eglentine]. 1551 Turner Herbal i. Nvja, The eglentine is much like the common brere but the leues are swete and pleasant to smel to. 1590 Shaks. Mids. N. II. i. 152 Quite ouer-cannoped with.. Eglantine. 1688 R. Holme Armoury n. 62/2 The Eglantine Rose is the Sweet brier Rose. 01763 Shenstone Odes (1765) 122 Nor spare the sweet-leaft eglantine. 1820 Keats Isabella xxiv, Ere the hot sun count His dewy rosary on the eglantine. 1882 Miss Braddon Mount-Royal H. iv. 82 Hedges filled with honey¬ suckle and eglantine.

H 2. By Milton honeysuckle.

possibly

taken

for;

The

1632 Milton U Allegro 48 Through the sweetbriar or the vine, Or the twisted eglantine.

'eglantine^ (See quot.) 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1862) I. vi. Stone of the hardness and grain of marble.

31 Eglantine, a

eglatere (8gl3'tia(r)). Obs. exc. poet. Forms: 5 eglantere, 4-5 eglenter, -ier. [a. OF. esglantier, aiglantier (mod.F. eglantier), f. aiglant (see EGLANTINE^) + -ier, as in ros-ier rose-tree, etc.] = EGLANTINE^ £11387 Sinon. Barthol. (Anecd. Oxon.) 12 Bedegar est nodus ros$ albze silvestris, vulgari nomine, eglenter. 1459 Test. Ebor. (1855) II. 226 Ij gilt peces with ij coverkills with treiles of eglenters. a 1500 Mower & Leafviii, The hegge.. With sicamour was set and eglatere. Ibid, xii, I.. Thought suddenly I felt so swete an air Of the Eglantere. 1830 Tennyson Dirge 23 The woodbine and eglatere Drip sweeter dews than traitor’s tear.

egle,

obs. form of eagle.

fe'gleche, a. Obs. [app. repr. or f. OE. agldca, agleecea, sb., cruel person, fierce warrior, f. agldc misery, sharp conflict; of uncertain origin.] ? Valiant. a 1250 Prov. JElfred in O.E. Misc. 102 Knyhtes egleche. a 1300 Magdalena in Saints' Lives (1887) 462 Sleije men and egleche.. Lustniez noupe to mi speche. c 1300 in R. Glouc. (Rolls) Append. XX. 125 fie lefdi [the empress Matilda] was egleche.

eglenter,

obs. form of eglatere.

eglestonite ('Eg(a)lzt9nait). Min. [f. name of Thomas Egleston, an American mineralogist (1832-1900) T -iTEh] A native oxychloride of mercury, occurring in brownish-yellow isometric crystals. 1903 A. J. Moses in Amer. Jrnl. Sci. 4th Ser. XVI. 258 The eglestonite crystals are usually easily recognized. 1912 Brit. Museum Return 196 Eglestonite and calomel from Palo Alto, California. 1933 Amer. Mineralogist XVIH. 7 Descending acid solutions altered the cinnabar, producing the secondary quicksilver minerals, metacinnabar, calomel, and eglestonite. 1968 Embrey & Phemester tr. Rostov's Mineralogy 204 Eglestonite is isostructural with garnet.

eglogue,

EGO-IDEAL

94

obs. form of eclogue.

t eglomerate (I'glnmareit), v. Obs.~^ [as if f. L. *eglomerdt- ppl. stem of *eglomerd-re, f. e out + glomerdre to wind or gather into a ball; f. glomus, -er-is clew, or ball.] trans. and intr. 1656 Blount Glossogr., Eglomerace [sic], to unwinde. 1775 Ash, Eglomerate, to unwind itself. In mod. Diets.

II eglomise (egbmize), a.

and sb. [Fr., f. name of Glomy, a Parisian picture-framer of the i8th cent. So It. agglomizzato, G. eglomisiert.) Applied to glass painted on the back, and used by Glomy for frames. 1877 Lady C. ScHREiBERjrn/i. (1911) II. 19 His Eglomise Glass is also lent on view. 1897 A. Hartshorne Old Eng. Glasses 343 To the last quarter of the eighteenth century belong also those florid painted panels—.‘eglomises’— inserted in the bottoms. 1912 Catal. Wks. Artjf. E. Taylor sold at Christie's Lot 85 A portable altar of eglomise and silver-gilt. The base is further enriched with two eglomise plaques. 1967 Times 21 Feb. 21/7 (Advt.), A Louis XVI gold and verre eglomise snuff-box by Joseph-Etienne Blerzy, Paris, 1798.

eglotte,

obs. var. of aglet. 1570 Levins Manip. 176 An Eglotte, bracteolum.

'egma. A

‘stage rustic’s’ blunder for enigma. 1588 Shaks. L.L.L. hi. i. 73 No egma, no riddle, no lenuoy.

ego ('sgsu, 'i:g3u). Orig. Metaph. [L. ego I.] 1. That which is symbolized by the pronoun I; the conscious thinking subject, as opposed to the non-ego or object. Also humorously^ for ‘self. [1789 Cowper Letter 6 June, To thee both Ego and all that Ego does is interesting.] 1824 Galt Rothelan II. 201 He plainly regarded Ego as one of the most captivating of the human race. 1829 Edin. Rev. L. 200 In every act of consciousness we distinguish a self or ego. 1847 Lewes Hist. Philos. (1867) II. 514 The Ego is essentially an Activity; consequently free. 1870 Gladstone Prim. Homer (1878) 142 The harmonious laws of his mind are everywhere visibly at work—but the ego—the mere personality—is nowhere to be traced. 1871 Tyndall Fragm. Sc. (ed. 6) II. iv. 51 While the Non-ego shifts, the Ego remains the same.

2. In speech: I, the speaker. Hence 'ego v. trans., to say ‘ego’ when claiming an object, in response to ‘quis?’. Schoolboy slang. 1913 C. Mackenzie Sinister Street I. i. vit. 103 He was often first with the claimant ‘ego’, when someone shouted ‘quis?’ over a broken pocket-knife found. 1959 I. & P. Opie Lore & Lang. Schoolck. viii. 134 In private schools a child who wishes to dispose of something.. calling out ‘ Quis?’ and the boy or girl who first replies ‘Ego’ receives the object and may say (to the horror of the classicist) ‘I egoed it’.

3. Self-esteem, egotism, self-importance. Some examples are influenced by sense 4. 1891 Kipling Light that Failed v. 59 I’ve made a discovery. Torp, there’s too much Ego in my Cosmos. 1907 Daily Chron. 13 Feb. 7/4 By ‘exaggerated ego’,.. he meant a disproportionate idea of the importance of oneself and a belief that one was clothed with powers, capacities, and ability far above the normal or above those actually possessed. 1952 S. Kauffmann Philanderer (1953) vi. 97 The quarrels—which had begun between him and his wife simply because his ego could not possibly be satiated even when fortune was good—increased terribly now. 1962 J. D. Salinger Franny & Zooey 166 You keep talking about ego. My God, it would take Christ himself to decide what’s ego and what isn’t.

4. Psychol. That part of the mind which is most conscious of self; spec, in the work of Freud that part which, acted upon by both the id and the super-ego (ego-ideal), mediates with the environment. 1894 Brain XVII. 130 By reason of the clouding over of the ego produced in one case by hypnotism, in another by nervous shock, an idea once installed.. will further develop and acquire sufficient force for objective realisation. 1910 H. W. Chase (tr. Freud) in Amer. Jml. Psychol. XXL 193 The incompatibility of the idea in question with the ‘ego’ of the patient was the motive of the repression. 1922 [see egoideal]. 1927 J. Riviere tr. Freud’s Ego Sf Id v. 83 Like the dweller in a borderland that it is, the ego tries to mediate between the world and the id, to make the id comply with the world’s demands and, by means of muscular activity, to accommodate the world to the id’s desires. 1943 Psychol. Rev. L. 454 In a semi-doze we lose all sense of our egos though we may be conscious enough of impersonal items. 1943 H. Read Education through Art vi. 197 The super-ego is the direct representative of the unconscious, of the id, and hence the possibility, indeed, the inevitability of a conflict with the ego, a conflict between what is perceptual and real and what is imaginative and ideal.

5. attrib. and Comb, (senses 3 and 4), as egoattitude, -complex, -consciousness, -instinct, -satisfaction-, ego-altruistic, -bound, -less, (also egolessness), adjs.; ego-hood, individuality, personality; ego-identity Psychol., the sense of one’s identity or self gained from the results of self-perception and external perceptions of oneself; ego-trip, an activity, period of time, etc., devoted entirely to indulging in one’s own interests or in self-expression; also as v. intr., to indulge in an ‘ego-trip’ (chiefly as pr. pple.)-, hence ego-tripper; ego-tripping vbl. sb. and ppl. a. 185s H. Spencer Princ. Psychol. II. viii. vii. 595 The egoaltruistic sentiments .. sentiments which while implying seif-gratification, also imply gratification in others. 1937 Brit. Jrnl. Psychol, Jan. 265 When the object is encountered in a new environment with a different Ego-attitude, then the communication takes place between object-process and object-trace. 1929 D. H. Lawrence Pansies 67 As a plant becomes pot-bound Man becomes ego-bound Enclosed in his own limited mental consciousness. 1916 C. E. Long tr. Jung's Coll. Papers Analyt. Psychol, i. 80 They are disturbances which only belong to the superficial, and none reaches so deep as to attack the strong-knit foundation of the ego-complex. 1922 Brit. Jrnl. Psychol. Oct. 115 Jung then goes on to describe the ‘ego complex’ (Ichkomplex) which in the normal mind is the dominant psychic instance. 1926 W. McDougall Introd. Soc. Psychol, (ed. 20) Suppl. iv. 404 The Freudians have recognised the importance of this role [ic. self-regard] in all that they have written of the function of the ‘ego-complex’, and the ‘ego instincts’ in inhibiting, controlling, conflicting with, and repressing the sexual tendencies. 1917 Glueck & Lind tr. Adler's Neurotic Constitution (1921) ii. 21 Consciousness of guilt and conscience are fictitious guiding principles of caution, like religiosity and subserve the craving for security. Their object is to prevent a lowering of the ego-consciousness when the irritated aggressiveness impels immoderately to selfish deeds. 1963 Auden Dyer's Hand 96 An egoconsciousness which paints himself painting himself. 1873 Brit. Q. Rev. LVII. 79 We must face.. the reality of our own ego-hood. 1906 S. S. Laurie Synthetica II. 241 This is his return to God, from Whom his negating Egohood for a time separates him. 1951 E. H. Erikson Childhood & Society iii. vii. 228 The sense of ego identity, then, is the accrued confidence that the inner sameness and continuity are matched by the sameness and continuity of one’s meaning for others, as evidenced in the tangible promise of a ‘career’. 1964 M. Argyle Psychol. Social Probl. x. 129 A very important kind of cognitive learning is that in which a person comes to look at himself in a different way—his self¬ perception or ‘ego-identity’ is changed. 1977 A. Giddens Stud, in Social Gf Polit. Theory ix. 311 Frustration generated by disjunction between ego-ideal and ego provides the basis for aggression turned against the ‘inadequate’ ego-identity. 1917 C. R. Payne tr. Hirschmann's Freuds Theories of Neuroses x. 241 Freud is perfectly clear on the point of the decisive role played in life and also in the neurosis by the egotistic or ego instincts alongside of the sexual instinct. 1922 C. J. M. Hubback tr. Freud's Beyond Pleasure Principle iii. 54 Our discussion so far results in the establishing of a sharp antithesis between the ‘ego-instincts’ and the sexual instincts, the former impelling towards death and the latter towards the preservation of life. 1937 Sunday Times 12 Dec. 5/2 Those subconscious ego-less depths of it [sr. the consciousness]

from which.. only the greatest things in art can come. 1972 T. Ravenscroft Spear of Destiny xxii. 297 The egoless zombie. 1984 Byte May 420/3 What I suggest is.. working toward the ‘egoless programming’ model. 1972 Chogyam Trungpa Mudra 60 From the action one develops the transcendental knowledge of egolessness. 1982 Financial Timesi^ Mar. 19/3 You hold sway, if you do, by egolessness. X954 J. A. C. Brown Soc. Psychol. Industry vii. 189 Work becomes an avenue for securing ego satisfactions. 1969 It 13-28 June 11/2 They’re using the music as a vehicle for character and personality building. I don’t think they’re half as much a musical ego-trip as people imagine. 197® Observer 20 Sept. 26/1 His was no musical ego-trip, no money-grubbing Tin-Pan Alley beano feast. I97® Melody Maker 12 Sept. 29 Ego tripper... That’s me, folks! 1970 New York 16 Nov. 6/2 Father ego-tripping on his children’s academic and other achievements. 1^2 Atlantic Monthly Oct. 80 What is overlooked in the inevitable discussion of the alleged ego-tripping in Mailer’s writing is that these more ‘modest’ selves are often at work in the sounds and turns of his sentences. 1972 N. Y. Times Bk. Rev. 12 Nov. 63 Tate’s poems are not.. bardic, political, populist, confessional, ego-tripping, hash-inspired or full of fine sentiments and derivative techniques. 1977 Time 7 Mar. 2/3 Sadly for Ireland, O’Brien is but one of the ego-tripping ministers in the present coalition government. 19M D. Lodge Small World iv. iii. 308 All that travelling away from home and duty, staying in swanky hotels, ego-tripping, partying, generally overindulging.

egocentric (egau'sEntnk), a. [f. ego + centre sb., ziter geocentric, heliocentric.^ Centred in the ego; in vague or popular use: self-centred, egoistic. 1900 in Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. iSgy-S 831 An earlier ethnocentric system bom of the primeval egocentric cosmos of inchoate thinking. 1901 J. M. Baldwin Diet. Philos. & Psychol. II. 194/2 For the ego-centric point of view is substituted the homocentric. 1919 in B. H. Streeter Spirit iii. 97 The instincts, the radical fault in most of which is their selfish and egocentric character. 1926 igth Cent. July 83 The girl of to-day absorbs a freedom-loving and egocentric conception of life. X943 H. Read Education through Art v. 140 When an attempt is made, not merely to express egocentric sensation.. but also to represent an external object as it presents itself to the sensations of the artist.. then some control is exercised by other than tactual and somatic sensations. 1953 R. Niebuhr Christian Realism & Political Problems (1954) i. 22 It might be noted that, without a sense of the universality of an egocentric corruption, the passion for a universal humanity quickly degenerates. 1964 M. Critchley Developmental Dyslexia xii. 70 The age at which a child.. turns from an autistic, egocentric individual, to a societal, ethnocentric being.

b. Philos. egocentric predicament, the supposed impossibility of knowing anything outside one’s own mind. 1910 R. B. Perry in Jrnl. Philos. VII. 5 {title) The EgoCentric Predicament. Ibid., I shall seek to discover whether a certain circumstance, which has never been disputed, does or does not constitute evidence for a theory that has been much disputed. The circumstance I shall call the ego-centric predicament, and the theory, ontological idealism. 1917 A. S. Pringle-Pattison Idea of God x. 192 This is what an American Realist, in a phrase worthy of Kant, in its fullflavoured technicality, has dubbed ‘the ego-centric predicament’. The Ego is..the pre-supposition of all its knowledge.

Also as sb., one who is self-centred. So .egocen'tricity, ego'centrism, the state or quality of being egocentric; self-centredness; ego'centrically adv. 1903 Amer. Jrnl. Psychol. July-Oct. 100 Ziehen limits the hysterical constitution to emotional instability, egocentricity, craving for attention. 1918 E. Jones Psycho¬ analysis (ed. 2) 632 Its ruthless and absolute egocentricity. 1926 M. Warden tr. Piaget's Lang. & Thought of Child v. 238 All ego-centrism is designed by its structure to stand half-way between autistic thought which is ‘undirected’.. and ‘ directed’ intelligence. Ego-centrism is therefore obedient to the seifs good pleasure and not to the dictates of impersonal logic. 1928 Brit. Weekly 22 Mar. 593/2 In this book the first personal pronoun occurs with a frequent and monotonous ego-centricity. 1932 D. H. Lawrence Last Poems 179 The hordes of the ego-centric, the robots. 1934 MmdXLIII. 87 Egocentrism, in so far as it means confusion of the ego and the external world, and egocentrism in so far as it means lack of co-operation, constitutes one and the same phenomenon. 1943 H. Read Education through Art viii. 276 Then by stages the player grows out of his egocentrism, observes other players, gradually begins to co¬ operate with others, and finally in conjunction with a group arrives at a reciprocal agreement embodying definite rules. 1957 Times Lit. Suppl. 25 Oct. 637/1 The.. complete ruthlessness and egocentricity of the very young female person. £21963 L. MacNeice Astro! (1964) iii. 86 Gemini is the patron not only of intellectuals but of egocentrics. 1969 Daily Te! 5 May 19/2 They hang on every word of the actorly actor, just as the actors themselves are egocentrically absorbed by anything but the truth. 1970 Ibid. 13 Mar. 17 Behind their sham chivalry, I contend, lurk some nasty tendencies to sadism, egocentricity, rebellion and neurosis. 1981 Word igSo XXXI. 122 Parametric structuring is applied to Tolkien’s representation of the specific effects of uncontrolled and egocentrically wielded power.

egoical

(e'gauiksl), a. [f. ego + -ical.] pertaining to egotism.

ego-ideal ('egauai.diial).

Of or

Psychol, [f. ego + IDEAL sb.-, tr. G. Ichideal.) a. That part of the mind which, in Freudian theory, is evolved from the ego as it becomes aware of parental and social standards, and imposes upon it concepts of ideal behaviour with which it should conform, b. = superego, c. In vague or popular

EGO-INVOLVEMENT

EGOTISTICAL

95

use: a conception of oneself as one would like to be.

considers ‘intellect’ ‘egoism*, and ‘mind’ as quite distinct from each other.

II. ii, I know those enthusiastic egomaniac gentry. Punch 30 Oct. 640/2 And cats, egomaniacs.

1922 J. Strachey tr. Freud's Group Psychol, vii. 69 We have been driven to the hypothesis that some such faculty develops in our ego which may cut itself off from the rest of the ego and come into conflict with it. We have called it the ‘ego ideal’, and by way of functions we have ascribed to it self-observation, the moral conscience, the censorship of dreams, and the chief influence in repression. 1943 H. Read Education through Art vi. 176 A spearhead.. passes through the pre-conscious and conscious levels of the ego, and emerges above everything as the ego-ideal or super-ego. *949 J- 1- M. Stewart Character ^ Motive in Shakes. 109 If we regard the Othello-figure on the stage as.. Othello’s ego-ideal or self-exemplar, then Bradley is really right in point of dramatic feeling. 1951 E. C. Tolman in Parsons & Shils Toward Gen. Theory oj Action iii. iii. 311 The egoideal consists of acquired positive values and valences for those types of behavior in which one should engage. 1952 W. Sprott Social Psychol, ix. 185 The recipients of praise are their [5c. children’s] models and bit by bit what has conveniently been called an ‘ego-ideal’ is elaborated. 1964 Gould & Kolb Diet. Soc. Sci. 593/2 The repressing force derives from cultural standards which have been incorporated by the individual to serve as his ‘ego-ideal’ or ‘super-ego’.

egoist ('eg-, ’iigauist). [f. as prec. + -ist.] 1. (See quot.)

H'egomen. rare-'', [ad. Gr. rjyovixcvos, pr. pple. of Tiyicadai to lead.] A monastic functionary in the Greek Church.

'ego-in'volvement.

Psychol. [f. ego + INVOLVEMENT.] The process or fact of the ego being identified with various aims, attitudes, values, etc., so that behaviour defending and furthering these is strongly reinforced, and affects one’s self-esteem. Hence 'ego-in'volved a., having one’s self-esteem dependent on something external. 1936 M. Sherif Psychol. Soc. Norms ix. 179 As the social values.. include positive values.. the ego involvement does not appear only as a checking or inhibiting factor, but also as a positive indicator of certain lines of action and striving. 1940 Abnormal & Soc. Psychol. XXXV. 500 One might expect different levels of aspiration for a given task in egoinvolved subjects who have.. experienced different amounts of success or failure with that task. 1955 T'* H. Pear Eng. Social Differences i. 15 In studying social stratification, it is necessary to free oneself.. from ego-involvement. 1963 Daily Tel. 14 Feb. 11/5 Some enjoy it even though its barbs threaten their own ego-involved concepts.

egoism (‘eg-, 'i:g3Uiz(3)m). [ad. F. egotsme, ad. mod.L. egoismusy f. L. ego I: see -ism.

Cf.

EGOMISM.]

1. Metaph. The belief, on the part of an individual, that there is no proof that anything exists but his own mind; chiefly applied to philosophical systems supposed by their adversaries logically to imply this conclusion. [1722 C. M. Pfaff {title)y De Egoismo, nova philosophica hseresi.] 1785 Reid Int. Powers ii. x. 285, I am left alone in that forlorn state of egoism. 1803 Edin. Rev. I. 279 The egoism of Berkeley and Hume is largely incorporated in his system.

2. Ethics. The theory which regards selfinterest as the foundation of morality. Also, in practical sense: Regard to one*s own interest, as the supreme guiding principle of action; systematic selfishness. (In recent use opposed to altruism.) 1800 Hist. Europe in Ann. Reg. 234/1 Affection.. was lost in selfishness or according to their new word Egoism. 1825 T. Jefferson Autobiog. Wks. 1859 I. 103 A contrast of his egoism (for he was beneficed on them) with the generous abandonment of rights by the other members of the Assembly. 1840 Gladstone Ch. Princ. 463 Egoism.. is sure to prevail whenever the pressure of high Christian motives is removed. 1850 Carlyle Latter-day Pamph. i. 9 The mature man, hardened into sceptical egoism, knows no monition but that of his own frigid cautions, i860 Mill Repr. Govt. (1865) 19/2 Religion in this shape is quite consistent with the most selfish and contracted egoism. 1873 H. Spencer Stud. Social, viii. 198 The promptings of egoism are duly restrained by regard for others.

b. (See quot.) 1882 Haeckel in Nature XXVI. 540 The natural instinct of self-preservation, Egoism.

c. pi. Selfish aims or purposes; instances of selfishness. *795 "T- Jefferson Writ. Wks. 1859 IV. 115 It must be so extensive as that local egoisms may never reach its greater part. 1843 Carlyle Past & Pr. (1858) 90 Hearsays, egoisms, purblind dilettantisms. 1870 J. Stirling Mill on Trades Un. in Recess Stud. viii. 309 The internecine strife of anarchical egoisms.

3. In matters of opinion:

a. The habit of looking upon all questions chiefly in their relations to oneself, b. Excessive exaltation of one’s own opinion; self-opinionatedness. 1840 Gladstone Ch. Princ. 134 He is deprived of every shadow of a plea to impute fanaticism or any form of egoism. 1852 Robertson Lect. 169 That egoism of man.. can .. read in the planets only prophecies of himself. 1870 Lowell Among my Bks. Ser. i. (1873) 177 Every narrow provincialism whether of egoism or tradition. 4. = EGOTISM I. 1807 T. Jefferson Writ. (1830) IV. 69 Pardon me these egoisms. 1870 Gladstone Prim. Horn. (1878) 148 Never once.. does Odusseus indulge in the slightest egoism. 1870 Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. xxxiv. 4 Note the egoism of this verse and of those preceding it.

5. Hindu Philosophy. Used as transl. of Skr. abhimdna, by consciousness*.

some

rendered

‘self-

1862 F. Hall Hindu Philos. Syst. 45 The organ of egoism. 1878 Cowell Aphorisms of Sandila no The San-khya

*785 Reid Int. Powers 640 A sect..called Egoists, who maintained that we have no evidence of the existence of anything but ourselves, i860 Mansel Proleg. Logica App. 313 It would not add one tittle to the evidence of the fact.. in the eyes of anyone but an Egoist.

2. One who makes regard to his own interest the guiding principle of his conduct. 1879 Sat. Rev. 15 Nov., He is.. thoroughly selfish, an ‘egoist,’ as Mr. Meredith, adopting current slang, writes the word which used to be ‘egotist*.

3. One who talks much about himself; EGOTIST. Also quasi-fltfy.

=

1794 Ld. Auckland Corr. (1862) III. 217 My next letter shall be less egoist. 1831 Lytton Godolph. xix. (1877) 102, I will turn egoist, and tell you my adventures.

egoistic (eg-, iigsu’istik), a. [f. prec. + -ic.] 1. Pertaining to, or of the nature of, metaphysical or ethical egoism. ei haue of pe worldis wisdam, are Egipciens. 1658 Cleveland Rustic Ramp. Wks. (1687) 422 All without the Fold of the Godly were i^gyptians. 1828 Blacktv. Mag. XXIV. 323 The., abhorrence of the ^Egyptians for these barbarous Iconoclasts. Mod. The manners of the ancient Egyptians.

2. = GIPSY. 1514 Fitzherb. Just. Peas 98 b, It is ordayned agaynste people callynge themselves Egypcyans, that no such persons be suffred to come within this realme. 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. 179 For the better triall of.. maisterfull beggers, fen3eit foolis, counterfit Egyptians. 1697 View of Penal Laws 310 If any Transports into England or Wales, any lewd People, calling themselves Egyptians, they forfeit 40/. 1749 Fielding Tom Jones xii, A company of Egyptians, or as they are vulgarly called, gipsies.

3. pi. In late igth-c. use = Egyptian stocks: securities issued by the Egyptian government. 4. The Hamitic language of Egypt. 1556 A. Vele in R. Robynson tr. More's Utopia (ed. 2) Printer to Reader, It is a tongue to vs muche straunger then the Indian, the Persian,.. the Arabicke, the Egyptian, the Macedonian. 1646 J. Gregory Notes Obs. (1650) To Rdr., This Booke of ours., may be read in.. Coptick or i^^gyptian. 1842 Visitor or Monthly Instructor 409/1 It ain’t Greek at all: except, perhaps a few words. What ain’t Greek is Egyptian; and what ain’t Egyptian is Greek. 1857 S. Birch in J. G. Wilkinson Egyptians 182 Enlightened rulers prided themselves in speaking foreign tongues... Cleopatra spoke seven, Egyptian among the number. 1875 W. D. Whitney Life Lang. 254 In this [rc. ‘Hamitic’] family, the Egyptian occupies the same commanding position as the Chinese. 1877 Encycl. Brit. VII. 721/2 The inscribed and written character of Egyptian was the hieroglyphic, i960 S. Potter Lang, in Mod. World viii. 112 It is customary to divide the history of Egyptian into three periods; Old or hieroglyphic, Middle or hieratic, and New or demotic.

5. a. A mother-of-pearl shell from Egypt, b. An Egyptian cigarette.

EICOS-

97 1885 Encycl. Brit. XVIII. The Arabs still obtain from this district [rc. Jiddah and Koseir] a quantity of mother-of-pearl shells, which are shipped from Alexandria, and come into the market as ‘E^ptians’. 1892 Whitehall Rev. 22 Oct. 8/1 She could tell Russians from Egyptians, and sometimes took a mild Havannah with her B and S in the smoking-room. 1905 Westm. Gaz. 28 Oct. 10/2 A box of Egyptians. 1965 P. Robinson Pakistani Agent viii. 107, I only smoke Egyptians, thank you.

Hence E'gyptianize v. (a) intr.y to act like an Egyptian; to adopt Egyptian practices; {b) trans.j to make like an Egyptian or the Egyptians; (c) to develop a country or district according to the methods adopted in Egypt; in later use, see quot. 1958; E'gyptianized/>/>/. a. E'gyptianism, Egyptian characteristics, inclination to Egyptian customs. 1664 H. More MyrZ.vi. 17 It was.. wickedness.. to ./Egyptianize in the adoration of the God of Israel. 1827 G. S. Faber Expiat. Sacrif. 268 God’s condescension to the Egyptianism of the Israelites. 1847 Grote Greece ii. xx. III. 442 This dynasty [Psammetichus’s] had too little of pure Egyptianism in them to find favour with the priests. 1851 H. Torrens in Jrnl. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 9 The existence of an Egyptianised race. 1899 Westm. Gaz. 4 Aug. 9/1 Were we prepared to..begin the work of Egyptianising the Yan^se Valley? 1958 Britannica Bk. of Year 1957 519/1 Egyptianize, meaning to nationalize foreign holdings in the manner of the E^ptian government in 1956. 1959 Daily Tel. 3 Mar. 16/3 The U.A.R. government is paying to the British Government a lump sum of £27,500,000 in compensation for British private property Egyptianised, that is nationalised or compulsorily acquired. 1959 Times 24 Mar. 15/4 The 4,500 registered owners of sequestrated or Egyptianized property will wish to go to Egypt to recover their property or assess their loss. 1962 Listener i Mar. ^btjz The new ‘Egyptianized’ middle class which the regime has put into power.

E.gyptiani'zation. -IZATION.]

[f.

Egyptian

a.

+

a. The compulsory acquisition by

the Egyptian government of foreigners’ property and interests in Egypt, b. The rendering Egyptian in character or organization; the placing of a country under Egyptian officials. *957 Times 22 Feb., It is since reported that ‘verbal assurance’ has been given that the Egyptianization of Greek business interests will not occur ‘for at least five years*. 1961 Daily Tel. 29 Sept, i/i Syria, .is seething with discontent over the Egyptianisation of the country. 1962 Listener i Mar. 365/2 Then there is the gradual, but all-pervasive Egyptianization. Tens of thousands of foreigners have left Egypt. 1967 Ibid. 25 May 674/1 The expulsion of thousands of Britons.. the removal of all foreign doctors, dentists, accountants.. from professional organizations; those were all part of Nasser’s Egyptianization process.

E'gyptianizing, vbl. sb. Making Egyptian or like the Egyptians. 1921 G. A. F. Knight Nile & Jordan xv. 193 To promote the Egyptianizing of the province, Amenhotep III built at Soleb.. a gigantic temple-

E'gyptianizing, ppl. a. = Egyptizing ppl. a. 1949 W. F. Albright Archaeol. of Palestine viii. 185 A small Egyptianizing statue dating about the eighteenth century b.c.

Egypticity (i:d3ip'tisiti). [f. Egypt + -icity.] The character or quality of being Egyptian (see quot. 1895). 1888 Expositor Sept. 219 The Pentateuch—Egypticity and Authenticity. 1895 W. H. Turton Truth of Christianity X. 147 The Egypticity of the narrative. By this is meant that the part of the Pentateuch in which reference is made to Egyptian customs, seasons, and names appears to be written with correct details throughout. 1921 G. A. F. Knight Nile ^ Jordan xxviii. 384 The reference.. is thoroughly Egyptian, and testifies to the ‘Egypticity’ of the book.

'Egyptize, v. nonce-wd. [f. Egypt + -ize.] intr.

E'gyptologue. rare. next.]

[a. Fr. Egyptologue', cf. = Egyptologist.

1856 Sat. Rev. II. 419/1 The famous Egyptologue, the Vicomte de Rouge. 1859 Ibid. VIII. 401/2 Many writers on Greek mythology, to say nothing of professed Egyptologues.

Egyptology (i:d3ip’tDbd3i).

[f. as if ad. Gr. * alyxmToXoyla, f. AlyvnTos Egypt -I-Xoyla discoursing (see -logy).] The study of Egyptian antiquities, of the ancient Egyptian language and history. Hence Egyp'tologer = Egyptologist. Egypto'logical a., pertaining to, concerned with, or devoted to Egyptology. Egyp'tologist, one versed in the study of Egyptian antiquities. 1859 Gregory Egypt I. 37 The name Sesortesen.. recent Egyptologists are .. unanimous in maintaining. 1862 Sat. Rev. 8 Feb. 162 Egyptolo^, he [Sir George Lewis] says, has an historical method of its own. 1864 Piazzi Smyth Our Inher. Gt. Pyramid v. xxii. (1874) 418 By the sadly Egyptological Baron Bunsen. 1873 Geikie Gt. Ice Age ii. 14 Hieroglyphics are to the ^Egyptologist—the silent.. records of an age long passed away. 1876 Gladstone Homeric Synchr. 210 The key afforded by the researches of Egyptology. 1876 Trans. Victoria Inst. 22 The historical discoveries of the earlier Egyptologers were for a time arrayed against Revelation. 1882 Academy No. 513. 150 Mr. O. modestly disclaims all Egyptological pretensions.

egyr, obs. form of eager. egyrmonye, obs. var. of agrimony. eh (e:, ei), int.

[repr. an exclamation of instinctive origin; ME. had ey; the mod. spelling may be after Fr. eh, though it might have suggested itself independently.] 1. An ejaculation of sorrow. Cf. ah i. 1567 Triall Treas. in Hazl. Dodsley III. 281 Eh, they have used me with too much villainy.

2. An inteijectional interrogative particle; often inviting assent to the sentiment expressed. *773 Goldsm. Stoops to Conq. ii. i. Wasn’t it lucky, eh? 1816 ‘Quiz’ Grand Master vi. 132 What have I brought you here for—eh? 1859CAPERN Ball. & Songs (>% You are joking, Jesse, eh? 1867 E. Waugh Owd Blanket iii. 61 {Lane. Gloss.) Eh, iv that blanket could talk, Ailse, it could oather make folk laugh or cry! 1870 B, Brierley Bundle o' Fents i. 31 {Lane. Gloss.) ‘Eh, whatever is ther’t’ do?’ hoo shrikt eawt.

3. Used interrogatively, as a request for the repetition or explanation of something that has just been said: = What do you say? colloq. or vulgar. 1837 T. Bacon Impressions in Hindostan II. 149 Eh? What’s that, Sackville? io Tannahill Poems (1846) 12 The lad .. Was eident ay, and deftly hel’ the plough. 1816 Scott Old Mort. iv, ‘Be eident and civil to them baith.’

EIGHT

98

EICOSIHEDRON

class of people known as ‘eidetics*. 1943 R* Read Education through Art iv. 83 But generally Jaensch’s attempt to force racial distinctions.. contradicts the whole genetic theory of eidetics. 1949 Koestler Insight ^ Outlook xxvi. 361 There are people endowed with the faculty of eidetic imagery. 1970 Nature 17 Jan. 227/1 Many people may wish for a ‘photographic memory’, an ability which has been referred to by psychologists as eidetic imagery. Ibid. 227/2 Only thirty-five of the children were classified as eidetic. Ibid., The eidetics claimed that they were not simply remembering what had been in the picture. Ibid. 27 June 1268/1 Can a purely binocular pattern., be stored eidetically?

eidograph ('aidsgroif, -ae-). [f. Gr. elSo-s form + ypd$) X. 157 Okee.. broke up a pool game by climbing on the table and taking off with the eight ball.

eighte, ei3te,

obs. ff. aught, property.

eighteen (ei'tim, 'eitim), a. and sb.

Forms: i ehta-tyne, 2 ehte-tyna, 3 aeh-, ah-, ehte-, eyjtetene, 4-5 eyj-, eyghtene. Sc. auh-, auchtene, 6 eightene, 6eighteen. [OE. e(a)htatyne, -tene, corresponds to OFris. achtatine, OS. ahtotian, ahtetehan (Du. achttien), OHG. ahtozehan (MHG. ahtzehen, mod.G. achtzehn), ON. dttjdn (dtjdn, Sw. adertdn. Da. atten), Goth. *ahtautaihun-, f. OTeut. *ahtau, ahto, eight + *tehun ten; for the divergent Eng. form of the second element, see -teen.] 1. The cardinal number next after seventeen; represented by the symbols 18 or xviii. riooo Ags. Gosp. Luke xiii. 4 Swa |?a ehta-tyne [1160 Hatton ehte-tyna] ofer J?a feoll se stypel on siloa. 1205 Lay. 18014 Ohtere cnihten ahtene \c 1275 ehtetene] h^sen. 1297 R. Glouc. (1810) 407 In pe ger of grace a >>ousend & four score & ey3tetene. ^1330 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 48 jye date of Criste a thousand & mo bi auhtene. 1398 Trevisa Barth De P.R. xix. exxvi. (1495) 928 Syxe and twelue makyth eyghtene. C1425 Wyntoun Cron. (Matz), Hundyr byschapis and awchtene. ^1440 Promp. Parv. 137 Ey3tene [P. eyghtene], octodecim. 1559 Afirr. Mag., Dk. Suffolk xi. 3 For eightene monthes we dyd conclude a truce, a 1641 Suckling Fragm. Aurea (1646) 35 For your eighteen pence you sit The Lord and Judge of all fresh wit. 1777 Robertson Hist. Amer. (1783) II. 356 He appointed Sandoval to command.. eight hundred and eighteen foot soldiers. 1828 Scott F.M. Perth xxvi, About eighteen years since.. it chanced, etc.

2. a. quasi-56. = eighteen-pounder (see 3). 1833 Marryat P. Simple xvii. We took a seat upon the long eighteen.

b. sh. pi. A sheet of eighteen pages; a book in i8mo. 1683 Moxon Mech. Exerc., Printing II. 55 When a Twelves, Eighteens, etc. is wrought. 1795 Hull Advertiser 19 Dec. 4/3 A purposely manufactured wove paper, in Octodecimo or Eighteens. 1808 C. Stower Printers' Gram. 199 A plan for imposing a half sheet of eighteens. 1839 T. C. Hansard Print. ^ Type-Founding 168 Works done in sixteens, eighteens, twenty-fours, or thirty-twos. 1937 E. J. Labarre Diet. Paper 139 Eighteenmo, or eighteens, are other terms for decimo-octavo.

3. a. Comb, eighteen-headed, -hole(s (golfcourse), -tailed, adjs.;-tenner-, eighteen-knot a., (a vessel) capable of going eighteen knots in an hour; eighteen-penny a., that is worth or costs eighteen-pence; also quasi-ife.; eighteenpounder, a gun throwing a shot that weighs eighteen pounds. (Eighteen pence is often written as one word, with or without hyphen.) 1766 Sharp in Phil. Trans. LVII. 84 This has been used many years in St. Bartholomew’s hospital, instead of the old •eighteen-headed bandage. 1907 Westm. Gaz. 21 Sept. 9/1 The opening of Matlock’s new ‘eighteen-holes golf course. 1944 Mod. Lang. Notes Dec. 515, 18-hole golf course. 1884 Pall Mall G. 13 Nov. 4/2 Exposed to any hostile Power with an ‘18-knot cruiser. 1817 Cobbet Pol. Reg. 8 Feb. 168 Having an ‘eighteen-penny-piece put into his hand. 1859 Sala Tw. round Clock (1S61) 14 Simpson’s.. eighteenpenny fish ordinary. 1883 H. R. Haweis in Gentl. Mag. July 47, I proceeded to elicit from the red eighteenpenny [fiddle] all it had to give. 1876 Bancroft Hist. U.S. V. x. 443 The vessel of war suffered severely from two ‘eighteen-pounders on the Jersey shore. 1748 Smollett Rod. Rand, xxviii. (1804) 191 We dressed the wound, and applied the ‘eighteen-tailed bandage. 1888 {title) To Gibraltar and back in an ‘eighteentonner.

b. As in eighteen^ twenties, the years between 1819 and 1830. 1906 Daily Chron. 16 Oct. 4/4 A collection of poems by Frances Ridley Havergal, belonging to the eighteenseventies. 1909 Westm. Gaz. 24 Mar. 2/1 She has abundance of ‘sensibility’, as that word was understood in the eighteentwenties. 1924 Galsworthy White Monkey ii. ix, The Hotch-potch Club went back to the eighteen-sixties. 1929 S. Ertz Galaxy x. The eighteen-nineties came, with their revival of interest in literature and painting. 1929 {title) The eighteen-seventies: essays by Fellows of the Royal Society of Literature. Ed. H. G. Granville-Barker. 1930 {title) The eighteen-eighties. Ed. W. de la Mare.

EIGHTEENER eighteener (ei'ti:n3(r)). [f. eighteen + -er.] A cask holding i8 gallons. 1870 E. Peacock Ralf Skirl II. 117 He finds.. our Steven wi’ two eighteeners.

eigh'teenmo. [English reading of the symbol i8mo for octodecimo; cf. twelvemo, sixteenmo.'\ Used colloq. in the book trades for octodecimo. 1858 in SiMMONDS Diet. Trade.

eighteenth (ei'tiinB, 'eiti:n0), a. Forms (see eight) + I -tu8a, -te8a, -teo8a (Jem. neut. -8e), 3 -tej>e, -tenthe, 4 -teojje, 6 -tenth, 6- -teenth; from 6- the t of eight has been dropped, though some dialects still retain it in pronunciation. [OE. eahtateoSa, f. eahta, eight + teoSa tenth; cf. ON. dttjdndi; in the other OldTeut. langs. this numeral is not recorded. The mod. form is f. EIGHTEEN + -TH* (after fourth) which has become the ordinal suffix for all numerals above

3-]

Next in order after the seventeenth. Hence eigh'teenthly adv., in the eighteenth place. C893 K. .iElfred Oros. vi. ii. §3 On eahteteo)?an scare his [Tiberius’] rices.. wearS micel Jjeostemes ofer eallne middangeard. 1258 Procl. Hen. Ill (ed. Ellis 1868) Witnesse vs seluen Lundsn J?ane e3teten|?e day on the Mon)?e of Octobr. 1297 R. Glouc. (1810) 436 )>o deyde Mold |?ys god quene, enlene hondred 3er And ey3tej7e after J?at God aner|?e aly3te her. C1305 St. Szvithin 5 in E.E.P. (1862) 43 ei3teteoI?e king. 1530PALSGR. 372 Dixhuitiesme, eyghtenth. 1579 Fulke Heskins' Pari. 192 The eighteenth Chapter beginneth the exposition. 1611 Bible i Kings xv. i In the eighteenth yeere of king leroboam. 1872 Morley Voltaire (1886) 4 Voltairism may stand for the name of the Renaissance of the eighteenth century. 1642 Sir W. Monson Naval Tracts iii. (1704) 322/2 Eighteenthly, That One of the Three Officers do.. reside at Chatham. 1681 H. More Exp. Dan. App. iii. 303 Eighteenthly, why.. should the name.. be said to be written?

eightfold ('eitfauld), a. (and adv.) [f. eight + -FOLD.] 1. a. Consisting of eight things, b. Eight times as great or numerous. Also adv., in eightfold proportion; by eight times. 1557 Recorde Whetst. Bij, Octupla.. eightfolde. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. 1. 344 The customs had multiplied eightfold within sixteen years.

2. a. the Eightfold Path: the Buddhist path to enlightenment or nirvana, comprising eight stages which the aspirant must achieve (see quots.). [1845 Jrw/. Ceylon Branch R. Asiatic Soc. (1859) 25 The path leading to the cessation from sorrow.. is this eminent eight-sectioned path: that is to say, correct views, correct thoughts, correct words, correct conduct, correct modes of obtaining a livelihood, correct efforts, correct meditation and correct tranquillity.] 1871 AlabAvSTER Wheel of Law Introd. 42 The paths of the saints, or the eightfold path of purity. 1877 T. W. R. Davids Buddhism ii. 48 The Middle Path.. This middle course of a virtuous life, resulted from four fundamental truths.. as the path is called ‘the Noble Eightfold Path’. 1951 C. Humphreys Buddhism viii. no The Eightfold Path consists oi..Samma Ditthi, or Right Understanding.. Samma Sankappa^ or Right Attitude of Mind.. Samma Vacha^ or Right ^eech.. Samma KammantOy or Right Action.. Samma Ajiva, or Right Livelihood .. Samma Vayama, or Right Effort.. Samma Sati, or Right Recollection.. Samma Samadhi in its lowest stages.. Right Meditation.. its highest.. the threshold of Nirvana. 1976 H. Dumoulin Buddhism in Mod. World xvii. 248 The ethical contents of the Eightfold Path and of the perfect virtues (paramita) are fully appreciated.

b. eightfold -way (Particle Physics): the grouping of hadrons into supermultiplets by means of SU(3). 1961 M. Gell-Mann in Gell-Mann & Ne’eman Eightfold Way (1964) 11 {title) The eightfold way: a theory of strong interaction symmetry. 1973 L. J. Tassie Physics Elem. Particles xi. 136 The prediction of the Q‘.. was one of the early successes of the eightfold way. 1975 Sci. Amer. Oct. 40/2 The eightfold way is only an approximation,.. and within the families [of particles] there are significant differences in mass.

eighth (eit0), a. and sh. Forms: eahtoSa, eah-, ehteSa- (late WS, also eahteoSa), 1-3 eah-, ehtuda, -6e, 3 eihteoSe, -tu6e, eg-, ehteSe, 3-4 ei3te6e, -i^e, a^tpe, 5 eghtid, eyted, 7- eighth: from 3- the forms are often identical with those of the cardinal, 3 ei3t, 4 e3te, heyt, aght, 5 eght, 5-6 eyght, 6 awght, ayghte, 5-9 eight, Sc. aucht. [OE. eahtoda = OHG. ahtodo (MHG. ahtodcy ahtedcy ahte^ mod.G. achte) repr. OTeut. type ah'topon-y f. *ahtauy *aht6 eight (The OS. ahtodoy Goth, ahtuda represent a type *'ahtodon-j the result of accent-shifting or of analogy; for the OFris. and ON. forms see EIGHTIN.] A. adj. 1. a. That comes next in order to the seventh. a 1000 Menologium 3 (Gr.) Crist waes..on py eahteo6an d®3 Haelend jehaten. ciooo Sax. Leechd. II. 298 Eahto>>e is pass stanes maejen, paet, etc. CI175 Lamb. Horn. 81 \>et me sculde in pe ehtupe dei pet knaue child embsnipen. a 1225 Ancr. R. 144 }?e eihtuSe )>inc is hu muchel is pe mede i6e blisse of heouene. a 1300 Signs before Judgm. 113 in E.E.P. (1862) iot>e ei3t dai so is dotus and pat ful wel pou salt se. a 1300 Cursor M. 29310 pe aght case falles all pa in pat any witchecraft gers bigyn. 138. Wyclif Serm. Sel. Wks. II. 267

EIGHTY

lOO

pe ei3tij?e condicioun. CI400 Destr. Troy 6222 The Eghtid Batell in the burgh [was] Vnder Serces..the souerain of Perce. 1477 Norton Ord. Alch. vi. in Ashm. (1652) 100 The vertue of the Eight sphere. 1535 Coverdale j Kings viii. 66 And on the eight daye he let the people go. 155* Abp. Hamilton Catech. (1884) 11 The rycht keping of the aucht command. 1605 Heywood If you know not me Wks. 1874 I. 207 If it be treason To be the daughter to th’ eight Henry, I am a traitor. 1609 Bp. Hall Disswas. Poperie (1627) 635 Let him heare Origen, what he answers, in the eight volume of his Explanations of Esay. 1664 Evelyn Kal. Hort. (1729) 194 The sixth, eighth or tenth day. 1788 Gibbon Decl. ^ F. liii. (1838) V. 266 But the seventh and eighth centuries were a period of discord and darkness. 1887 Gray's Anat. (ed. 11) 667 The eighth or auditory nerve. b. With ellipsis of sb., to be supplied from

context. Also in dates, with ellipsis of day (of the month). aiooo Guthlac 1010 (Gr.) Min feorh heonan On pisse eahteSan [nihte] ende jeseceS. 1297 R. Glouc. (1810) 473 The eijtethe was, that.. citacion non nere Thoru bulle of the pope. C1325 E.E. Allit. P. A. 1010 pe a^tpe pe beryl cler & quyt. a 1400 Cov. Myst. (1841) 83 The eyted is contempt of veyn glory in us. CI400 Apol. Loll. 77 pe heyt. Crist biddip in pe gospel to His vicar, turn pe swerd in to pe schep. 1526 Tindale Rev. xxi. 20 The ayghte berall. 1588 A. King tr. Canisius' Catech. 183 The awght is meiknes quhilk assuages and mitigats al angrie motions of ire. 1642 Chas. I. Answ. Petit. Pres, at York 18 Apr. i Our Message of the eighth of April. 1647 Lilly Chr. Astrol. xliv. 257 When the Lord of the Ascendant is.. in the Antiscion of the Lord of the eighth. 1667 Milton P.L. ix. 67 The space of seven continu’d Nights he [Satan] rode With darkness.. On the eighth return’d. 1861 Ramsay Remin. Ser. ii. 181 She answered them..‘The tongue no man can tame.. James Third and Aucht’, and drank oflf her glass. 2. eighth part: one of eight equal parts into

which a quantity may be divided. 1523 Ld. Berners Froiss. I. cxxvii. 154 He had nat the eyght part in nombre of men as the frenche kynge had. 1571 Digges Pantom. iii. ix. Rij, An eight part of the great Pyramis HIK. 1660 Bloome Archit. A. c, One eight part of the thicknesse. 3. eighth note — quaver sb.^ U.S. 1889 in Cent. Diet. 1958 Blesh & Janis They all played Ragtime iv. 77 Unaccented eighth notes alternating with accented quarter notes.

B. sb. 1. a. = eighth part. See A. 2. 1557 Recorde Whetst. B ij b, An eight more. 1747 J. Lind Lett. Navy i. (1757) 23 The commander in chief is to have one half of the eight. 1842 Prichard Nat. Hist. Man 391 The Muskhoyees from seven eighths of what is termed the Creek Confederacy. b. Mil. eighth^wheelf when a body of troops

revolves upon its centre or one of its ends to the extent of one-eighth part of a circle. 1796 Instr. & Reg. Cavalry (1813) 110 The eighth wheel is toward the flank which is to be the head of the column.. Advantage will arise if the eighth wheel is made on the center of each body. Ibid. 130 According to the degree ordered, whether half, quarter, or eighth wheel. 2. fa. Music. = octave, Obs. An interval of

seven notes of the diatonic scale. 1597 Morley Introd. Mus. 70 A third, a Fift, a Sixt, and an eight. 1652 Newsfr. Lowe-Countr. 8 He.. Knows Thirds, Fifths, Eights, Rests, Moods, and Time. 1694 Phil. Trans. XVIII. 73 He next Observes, that all Progressions by Concords, except by Eighths, produce Discord. 1706 A. Bedford Temple Mus. iii. 54 They sang the..Part an Eighth, or Seven Notes higher than the Men. b. The note separated from any given one

above or below by an interval of an eighth. 1609 Douland Ornith. Microl. 15 In b fa $ mi, and his eight, you may not sing mi for fa. 1674 Playford Skill Mus. I. i. 3 Which will be the same, and only eights to those above. 1685 Boyle Effects of Mot. vii. 88, I made him raise his Voice to an Eighth.

c. = eighth note. 1956 M. Stearns Story of Jazz (1957) xxi. 273 Iturbi produces the feeling that he is playing straight (not dotted) eighths.

eighthly ('eitOli), adv.

Also 6-7 eightly. EIGHTH H—LY^.] In the eighth place.

[f.

1579 Fulke Refut. Rastel 770 Eightly, that images were not set vp to be worshiped. 1607 Topsell Four-f. Beasts 21 Eightly, a woman dissembling her pregnancy. 1648 D. Jenkins Wks. 38 Eightly, We maintaine that the King is King by an inherent birth-right. 1681 H. More Exp. Dan. App. iii. 298 Eighthly, If any demand why it is said to, etc.

eight hours. A period of time regarded as a fair

is operative throughout the Commonwealth. 194^ J* Betjeman Coll. Poems (1958) 227 An eight-hour day for all.

eightieth ('eitne), a. (sb.)

Also 4 eytithe, 6 The ordinal numeral answering to the cardinal eighty. eyghteth.

[f.

eighty: see -TH*.]

1382 Wyclif 2 Macc. i. 10 In the hundred jeer and eijte and eijtithe. 1530 Palsgr. 372 Octantiesme, eyghteth. 1867 Denison Astron. without Math. 176 Our moon is nearly one eightieth of the earth.

t'eightin, fl. Obs. Forms: 3 e3ten(e)de, ehtende, (Orm.) ehhtennde, 4 eyh-, eytand, -end, aighteden, agt-, aghtand(e, -end, aghten, achtande, aughtene, 5 heghten, auchtand, 6 egh-, ey3-, eyhtyn(e, eighytyn, auchtane, -in. [The northern form of eighth; perh. of Scandinavian origin; cf. ON. (*ahtundt) dttundi-, the intrusive n, due to the analogy of seventh (cf. ONorthumb. seofunSa), occurs in OFris. achtunda.) = eighth. CI200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 87 On pe ehtende dai after pe childes burde, p e frend shopen pe child name, c 1250 Gen. 6 Ex. 2543 De e3tenede king amonaphis, Agenes Sis folc hatel is. 01300 Cursor M. 9169 )>e eyhtand sibile bigan to rise. Ibid. 10573 Of decembre pe aghten dai Was sco geten. C1340 Hampole Prose Tr. (1866) ii The aughtene commandepient es that ‘thou sail noghte here false wyttnes agaynes thi neghteboure’. c 1440 Melayne 828 All solde come.. By the heghten day at none. 1522 Test. Ebor. (Surtees) V. 150, I will that my executrix.. make an eghtyn day honestly for me. 1558 Lyndesay Dreme 531 The sewint [is callit] Thronus, the auchtin, Cherubin.

b. Comb, t eightin-dele, -dole [/tf. eighth part]: an obsolete measure of capacity. (Wey in Promp. Parv. says ‘J of a coom’ = i6 quarts; the haughendoy aghendole of Lancashire may be the same word, though identified with halvendeal by the editors of Lane. Gloss. (E.D.S.), who quote conflicting explanations of it as ‘7 quarts’, ‘8 pounds’.) 1440 Promp. Parv. 137 Ey3tyndele, mesure. 1887 Rogers Agric. & Prices V. 323 At Gawthorp.. Shuttleworth pays 6d, for an eightendole.

eightsome ('eitsam), a. Now chiefly Sc. Also 4 a3t-sum. [f. on the analogy of OE. phrases like syxa sum one of six, where the numeral is in genit. pi. See eight and some, and cf. Sc. twasome, threesome', -some^.] Eight together, eightsome-reel (after four¬ some), a kind of dance in which eight persons take part. Also sb. = an eightsome reel. c 1325 E.E. Allit. P. B- 411 Hym a3t-sum in pat ark as apel god lyked. 1745 A. Murray Let. 3 July in J. J. Murray Chrons. Atholl ^ Tullibardine Families II. 481,1 am to be in the ‘Eightsome Minuet’ if I be at the Ball. 1843 Blackw. Mag. LIII. 615 The eightsome-reel of the heptarchy became the pas-seul of the kingdom of England. 1875 W. Alexander Sks. Life amang Ain Folk 246 They.. caper through the ‘eightsome’ figure with louder ‘hooch-hoochs!’ than before. x8^ Daily Mail i June 4/5 After two o’clock reels and eightsomes were indulged in. 1905 Westm. Gaz. 15 Sept. 7/2 A host of charming young Highland girls, with the tartans and badges of their clans, danced the eightsomes and the Reel of Tulloch. 1926 Glasgow Herald 7 June 8 The dancing of Scottish reels, foursomes, eightsomes, and sometimes even a sixteensome. 1952 ‘J. Tey’ Singing Sands vii. 109 There was room, with some squeezing, for three eightsomes.

'eight-'square, a. Obs. exc. Naut. [f. eight + SQUARE, after the logically correct four-square; cf. three-square.) Having eight equal sides; in the form of a regular octagon, octagonal. 1538 Leland Itin. II. 53 The work is Hakluyt Voy. II. i. 104 It was eight square

8-square. 1598 and very thicke, 1680 Lond. Gaz. No. 1499/4 A small eight-square Watch. 1710 Ibid. No. 4748/4 Two Silver polished Candlesticks eight square. ci8^ H. Stuart Seaman's Catech. 75 All yards are made eight-square in the centre. 1907 S. E. White Arizona Nights i. i. 4 He.. carried across his saddle a heavy ‘eight square’ rifle. quasi-adu. 1679 Plot Staffordsh. (1686) 369 The tower of the Church of Dilhom.. is somewhat remarkable, it being built eight square. 1682 Wheler Journ. Greece v. 395 He built a Tower eight square of Marble, c 1850 Rudim. Navig. (Weale) 114 A short beam.. trimmed eight-square.

Hence eight-square sb., an octagonal figure; eight-square v., to fashion into octagonal shape.

working-day; freq. attrib. (or with possessive apostrophe) and in form eight-hour (esp. in phr. eighirhour day).

1794 Ringing ^ Seamansh. I. 21 A straight line is then suuck.. and the eight-square lined from it. Ibid. 20 The.. side is then canted up and eight-squared.

1845 Disraeli Sybil vi. vi. 430 We have a right to four shillings a day wages, eight hours’ work and two pots of ale. —A fair day’s wage for a fair day’s work. 1865 Nation (N.Y.) I. 517/2 It is enough to condemn the scheme of this eighthour labor league to say that.. it would diminish production. 1867 in S. & B. Webb Hist. Trade Un. (1920) 309 Such a measure of legislative restriction as shall secure a uniform Eight Hours Bill in factories, exclusive of meal¬ times. 1869 C. L. Brace New West v. 60 The effort to gain a larger share of the profits of capital by means of an EightHour Law. Ibid. 61 From all we can hear, the eight hour movement will soon fall to the ground. 1891 S. Webb & H. Cox (title) The eight hours day. 1895 in Encycl. Brit. (1902) XXXII. 668/1 Higher wages and eight hours for Government workmen—all these things were in the direction of helping the unemployed. 1899 Daily News 6 Mar. 7/1 It should never be forgotten that Alfred was the inventor of the eight hour day. 1902 Encycl. Brit. XXXII. 668/1 English public opinion was sceptical when the Trades Union Congresses declared themselves powerless to establish an eight hours’ working day without the help of the State. 1910 J. F. Fraser Australia 202 The eight hours’ day

eighty ('em), a. (sb.)

Forms: i (huiid)eahtati5, -aehtatig, -ehtatig, -eahtis, 3-4 ei3teti, 5 ey3ty, 6 eyghty, eightie, 6- eighty. [OE. hundeahtatig, f. hund- (prefix to the denary numerals: see hundred) + eahta eight -(- -tiy.—OTeut. *tigiwiz plur. of *tegu-z decade (see -ty).] 1. The cardinal number equal to eight tens, represented by 80 or Ixxx. Also with omission of sb. and in comb, with numbers below ten (ordinal and cardinal), as eighty-one, eighty-first, etc. C825 Vesp. Psalter Ixxxix. [xc.] 10 In maehtum hundsehtatiges gera. -O.E. Chron. (Laud MS.) Introd., Gaius lulius Romana Kasero mid hund ehtatigum scipum gesohte Brytene. 1297 R. Glouc. (1810) 478 Endleue hundred 3er of grace, & eijteti & thre. 1375 Barbour Bruce XVIII. 349 Auchty thousand he wes and ma. 1382 Wyclif /so. xxxvii. 36 The aungil of the Lord smot in the tentus of Assiries an hundrid and fyue and eijteti thousend. CI440

EIGHTY-SIX Promp. Parv. 137 Eysty, octoginta. 1530 Palsgr. 367 Octante, eyghty, Ixxx. 1594 Shaks. Rich. Ill, iv. i. 96 Eightie odde yeeres of sorrow haue I scene. 1655 Fuller Ch. Hist. IX. 187 Mr. Fox fore-told the mine and destruction of the Invincible (so called) Armado in the eighty eight. 1771 Rarer in Phil. Trans. LXI. 533 When the Romans began to coin gold, it did not exceed the eighty-fourth part of their Pound. 1777 Robertson Hist. Amer. {1783) II. 217 In the year one thousand four hundred and eighty-five. 1872 Morley Voltaire (1886) 47 Aspasia, now over eighty.

2. qnasi-sb. a. The age of eighty years, b. the

Lockhart Scott (1839) VI. 21 No man could guess at how large a price Constable had estimated his eild kye.

Bose-Einstein,

eild, var. ELD, Obs., old age, eld v. to grow old.

[1929 Dirac in Proc. Cambr. Philos. Soc. XXV. 62 The socalled ‘statistics’ of Einstein-Bose or Fermi applies only to an assembly of actual systems which could interact with each other.] 1931 Physical Rev. XXXVII. 333 We. .justify the assumption that the clusters satisfy the Einstein-Bose or Fermi-Dirac statistics according to whether the number of particles in each cluster is even or odd. 1938 Proc. R. Soc. A. CLXVI. 127 {heading) Quantum theory of Einstein-Bose particles and nuclear interaction. 1955 R. D. Evans Atomic Nucleus iv. 178 Photons and a particles obey Einstein-Bose statistics.

’eUd, var. of

YIELD

V., to requite.

eildin(g, var. ff. elding, fuel. eildritch, var. of eldritch.

eighties: the years between eighty and ninety in a particular century.

teileber. Obs. [App. a corrupt form of OE. ealifer (? f. ea river + liver), a plant used as a

1835 E. Elliot Poems 221 He stoop’d no more, like toothless eighty. 1883 Seeley Expansion of Eng. 260 Adam Smith, writing in the eighties.

remedy for liver disease and lumbago; ? Water Liverwort (Ranunculus aquatilis).] Some plant; in Gerard’s ‘List of names gathered out of antient, written and printed copies’ identified with Alliaria (i.e. Sauce-alone, A. officinalis).

c. Eighty acres of land. U.S. 1842 C. M. Kirkland Forest Life II. 207 Happy he whose far reaching ‘eighties’ enclose a sugar-bush. 1872 Amer. Naturalist VI. 77 The whole surface of the plains is sere and brown save some ‘eighties’ or larger tracts that are fenced. 1936 M. H. Bradley Five^Minute Girl v. 74 So his ax had set to work on the maples and hemlocks in his north eighty.

3. Comb., as in eighty-gun ship, eighty-Um (gun). *747 J- Lind Lett. Navy i. (1757) 30, I have known some gentlemen captains of eighty gun ships, who.. were not old enough to be lieutenants. 1769 Falconer Diet. Marine (1789) Hhijb, The 80-gun ships..begin to grow out of repute. 1874 Porcupine 18 Apr. 37/1 The construction of an 8o-ton gun at Woolwich is stated to be decided upon. 1880 Encycl. Brit. XI. zgz/z In the 8o-ton gun powder cubes of IJ in. edge are used. i888 A. C. Gunter Mr. Potter of Texas iii. That was the first eighty-ton gun fired in war.

eighty-six.

U.S. slang. [See eighty a. (sb.); perh. rhyming slang for nix^ i.] In restaurants and bars, an expression indicating that the supply of an item is exhausted, or that a customer is not to be served; also, a customer to be refused service. Also transf. 1936 Amer. Speech XI. 43/1 Eighty-six, item on the menu not on hand. 1941 J. Smiley Hash House Lingo 58, 86, sold out. 1944 G. Fowler Good Night, Sweet Prince iii. i. 227 There was a bar in the Belasco building,.. but Barrymore was known in that cubby as an ‘eighty-six’. An ‘eighty-six’, in the patois of western dispensers, means: ‘Don’t serve him.’ 1971 P. Tamony (typescript) No. 28. 16 Eighty-six. Bar and restaurant usage, ‘nix’, i.e., customer has had enough to drink or house is out of comestible ordered. Basically, simple rhyming slang but among habitues has as many [ejtymons as Homer had home-places, such probably being boozed up ex cathedra. 1977 Washington Post 17 May Bx/5, 86 means you’re all out of something or you cut some guy off. 1981 W. Safire in N. Y. Times Mag. 15 Mar. 10/2 Eighty-six on etymologies for “cocktail”.

Hence as v. trans., to eject or debar (a person) from premises; to reject or abandon. 1959 Observer i Nov. 7/6 ‘Eighty-sixed some square bankers from the temple’.. eighty-sixed means evicted. 1963 J. Rechy City of Night li. 186 I’ll have you eighty-sixed out of this bar. 1^8 N. Y. Times 31 July 29 On the evening of July 22, Mr. Mailer was filming a dream sequence at the house of Alfonso Ossorio in East Hampton, when Mr. Smith came into the house. ‘He told me, “You’re 86*d”,’ Mr. Smith recalled yesterday. This is a barroom phrase that means ‘you’re banned in here’. 1980 New Yorker 30 June 67 Most of the program was devoted to the lessons in campaign management that could be learned from Presidential races, real and fictional (A scene was shown from the movie ‘The Candidate’, in which the media adviser said to Robert Redford, ‘O.K., now, for starters, we got to cut your hair and eighty-six the sideburns’).

eigne (ein), a. Law. [corrupt spelling of ayne, ad. Fr. aine.} First-born, eldest; see ayne. 1586 Ferne Blaz. Gentrie 286 Hee hath issue a sonne naturall by a concubine and after marryeth the same concubine, him the lawyers of Englande, call a Bastarde eigne. 1613 Sir. H. Finch Law (1636) 253 Where there be many of one name, diuersitie of the names must be put by addition of eigne, puisne, etc. 1677 Wycherley PI. Dealer IV. i, Thou art not so much as Bastard eigne. 1809 Tomlins Law Diet., Eigne, eldest or first-born; as bastard eigne.

b. eigne title: a prior, superior title, estate: one that is entailed.

EIRES

lOI

eigne

1619 Dalton Countr .Just. Ixxxiii. (1630) 213 By reason of the eigne title of the disseisee. ^1640 J. Smyth Hundred of Berkley (1885) 264 Hee was remitted to his eigne estate taile, to him and to the heires males of his body.

eigrette, obs. var. of aigrette 2. 1765 Foote Commissary i. i, Take care of the eigrette, leave the watch upon the table.

eik (i:k). Sc. 1. ‘The liniment used for greasing sheep’

(Jam.). 2. ‘A sort of unctuous perspiration that oozes through the pores of the skin of sheep in warm weather (Roxb.); often called sheep-eik’ (Jam.). 1641 Pari. Proc. 8 Sept, in Scotch Acts (1870) V. 598 Bicaus the eik and filthines of the samene [wooll] is a great prejudice to the workeris thairof.

eik. Sc. form of eke sb. and v. eikon, var. of icon. eil, obs. form of ail a. and v. eUd (i:ld), a. Sc. [? var. of yeld a.] Of a cow: Not giving milk, from being in calf, or from age. 1822 W. J. Napier Pract. Store-farming 252 The gimmers giving milk will consume more grass than when eild. 1837

[ciooo Sax. Leechd. II. 64 Ealifer hatte wyrt.] 1597 Gerard Herbal App. to Table. 1847 in Halliwell. 1878 in Britten & Hole.

eilet, obs. form of eyelet. eilich, a.

Obs.,

dreadful, terrible; see awly.

fei'lland. Obs. rare. Also eillond. [OE. flland, f. f/- (:—OTeut. *aljo- other) + land; cf. OS. elilendi adj. foreign, OHG. ali-, elilanti foreign, of another country, hence wretched (mod.G. elena). (The spelling is perh. due to confusion with eiland island.)] A foreign land. Beowulf 3020 (Gr.) Eorl.. sceal.. el land tredan. ^11300 Cursor M. 2189 Til eillandes pit J>am drou.

eilond, obs. form of island. -ein, -eine, variants of -in^ and -ine* used as suffixes in the names of certain chemical compounds containing anhydrides, esp. phthalic anhydride. In bases the ending is usually -eine, and in non-bases -ein. 1871 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. XXIV. 834 {heading) Fluorescein and Fluorescin. Ibid., By heating together phthalic anhydride and resorcin, Baeyer has obtained a body which he calls fluorescein. 1884, etc. [see cysteine]. 18^ Jrnl. Chem. Soc. LVI. 1153 Catecholphthalein.. is obtained when phthalic anhydride (3 parts) is heated with catechol and zinc'chloride. 1932 Chem. Abstr. 1388 One of the alleged secondary alkaloids, nicoteine, isolated by Pictet, is shown to have no existence. 1949 Blakiston*s New Gould Med. Diet., Narceine, an alkaloid contained in morphine.

eine, obs. pi. of eye. Ileinfuhlung ('ainfyilur)). Psychol. Also Ein-. [G,, see EMPATHY.] = EMPATHY. 1904, etc. [see empathy]. 1925 I. A. Richards Princ. Lit. Crit. XV. 108 The work done by Lipps, Groos and others on einfuhlung, or empathy. 1929 C. I. Lewis Mind WorldOrder ii. 41 ‘Real duration’.. is something which is immediate, in his own case, and is to be apprehended in its other manifestations only by empathy or einfuhlung. 1936 Times Lit. Suppl. 2 May 374/2 If.. a doctrine of Einfuhlung could be established. 1966 English Studies XLVH. 311 Some of the elements which have caused Vernon Lee.. to be almost forgotten by a later age, to the point of not even crediting her with the introduction of the idea of Einfuhlung or empathy.

einkorn ('ainkoin). [G., f. ein one + korn seed.] An inferior species of wheat, Triticum monococcum. [1884 tr. De Candolle's Orig. Cultivated Plants v. 365 The one-grained wheat, or little spelt, Einkorn in German, is distinguished.. by a single seed in the little ear.] 1904 T. F. Hunt Cereals in America iv. 48 Einkom never.. gives rise to a fertile cross with common wheat. 1924 J. A. Thomson Science Old New xliii. 250 Inferior cultivated wheats like Emmer, Spelt, and Einkom. 1965 Jrnl. R. Hort. Soc. XC. 284 The basic crops of neolithic agriculture were the wheats einkorn.. and emmer.

einsent, obs. form of enceinte a. einsi3t, obs. var. of eyesight. Einstein ('ainjtain, -stain). The name of Albert Einstein (1879-1955), German physicist and mathematician, used attrib. or in the possessive to designate certain theories and principles enunciated by him or arising out of his work. 1922 Glazebrook Diet. Appl. Physics H. 359/2 According to Einstein’s theory all energy possesses mass. Ibid. 595/1 Richardson has shown that Einstein’s equation may be derived by thermodynamic and statistical methods. 1923 J. M. Murry Pencillings 68 To some the Einstein theory may show the way of reconciliation. 1927 A. S. Eddington Stars Atoms 52 The Einstein effect is proportional to the mass divided by the radius of the star. 1934 Webster, Einstein shift, the difference in wave-length.. between light emitted by a source of a definite nature in the sun.. and that emitted by a like source on the earth. 1958 Listener ii Dec. 973/1 Eddington remained faithful to this idea that the universe evolved from the static but unstable Einstein universe. 1967 Handbk. Chem. ^ Physics (Chem. Rubber Co.) (ed. 48) F-69, Einstein theory for mass-energy equivalence, the equivalence of a quantity of mass m and a quantity of energy E by the formula E *= mc^. The conversion factor c^ is the square of the velocity of light.

Einstein-Bose ('amjtain'baus, -'bauz, -st-). Physics. [The names of Albert Einstein (see prec.) and S.N. Bose (see boson).] A designation used as an alternative to

as

Einstein-Bose

particle,

statistics, etc.

Einsteinian (ainj'tainian, -st-), a. [f. the name of Albert Einstein + -ian.] Pertaining to or characteristic of Einstein or his theories. 1925 C. E. M. Joad Mind & Matter 46 In an Einsteinian universe the velocity of light is the greatest velocity possible. 1928 Observer 25 Mar. 9/4 Einsteinian physics. 1937 Mind XLVI. loi He rejects the view which would confine the importance of the Einsteinian relativity theory to scientific method. 1941 D. L. Sayers Mind of Maker iii. 33 We may say..that Einsteinian physics has superseded Newtonian physics. 1959 Encounter Dec. 64/2, I confused Bergsonian time with Einsteinian time. 1968 E. McGirr Lead-Lined Coffin ii. 55 Once in every few years one of these thousands of men shows he has a brain of Einsteinian capacity.

einsteinium (ainj'tairuam, -st-). Chem. [f. the name of Albert Einstein + -ium.] An artifically produced radioactive element. Symbol Es. Atomic number 99. Atomic mass of isotope 253 (1967) 253 0847. 1955 [see fermium]. 1958 Times 29 Aug. 6/3 The following 10 [transuranic elements] were known., einsteinium (99), fermium (100). 1967 New Scientist 6 July 22/2 Oak Ridge National Laboratory says it has succeeded in separating roughly one ten millionth of an ounce of einsteinium, the transuranic element first discovered in

1954eir(e,

obs. form of air, eyre, heir.

eirack ('eirak, 'israk). Sc. Also earack, ea-, ee-, erock. [a. Gael, eiteag = Ir. etVeog.] A hen of the first year. 1791 A. Wilson Laurel Disput. Wks. (1846) 123 Three fat eerocks fastened by the legs. 1795 Statist. Acc. Xa. 8 (Jam.) Eirack, a chicken. 1831 J- Wilson in Blackw. Mag. XXIX. 306 A simultaneous charge of cocks, hens, and earocks!

['eirant, erroneous form of haurient, Obs. 1587 Fleming Contn. Holinshed III. 1370/1 A fesse indented sable charged with foure leuses heads eirant.] eird, obs. form of

earth;

var.

erd,

Obs.,

dwelling.

eirdly. Sc.

form of earthly.

eirede, var. JE- prefix.

erede a., Obs., lacking counsel: cf.

eirenarch ('ainnaik).

[ad. Gr. eigijvdpx’js, fdp-qvr) peace + apxeiv to rule. (In English Latin eirenarcha is used for ‘justice of the peace’.)] An officer charged with preserving the public peace. Hence eire'narchical a., having the function of an eirenarch. ‘eirenarchy (see quot.). 1641 J. Jackson True Evang. T. iii. 173 The Messias.. is also Eirenarchicall, and atones. 1656 Blount Glossogr., Eirenarchy, the office or Government of a Constable, or a lustice of the Peace. 1721-1801 Bailey, Eirenarch, a Justice of the Peace. 1775 in Ash. 1867 Pearson Early fif Mid. Ages Eng. I. 48 Under these, probably, were eirenarchs, or village bailiffs.

eirenic, (ai'riimk), a.

[ad. Gr. elpr^viKos, f. dp-qvrj peace.] Tending to or productive of peace. (See also irenic a. and sb.) 1885 Ch. Q. Rev. Jan. 283 The ‘eirenic’ efforts or aspirations of such divines. Sunday Times 13 Feb. 14/3 In view of the eirenic purpose of the Commission, this omission is the more regrettable. 1964 P. F. Anson Bishops at Large i. 37 The Bishop of Iona made good speed on his eirenic journey.

eirenical,

var. irenical a. 1890 Gasquet & Bishop Edw. VI & Bk. Com. Prayer 28 The choice of Quignon’s work for a model had an aspect almost eirenical. i^i Tablet 3 Jan. 11 The whole Pastoral .. is decidedly eirenical. 1958 Spectator 30 May 702/3 The scholarly writer and preacher and most eirenical divine, Richard Baxter. II eirenicon (ai'rimiknn). [ad. Gr. elprqvsKov, neut. of elp-qviKos'. see eirenic a.] a proposal tending to make peace; an attempt to reconcile differences. [1656 {title) EiffT^viKov, a Poeme, wherein is persuaded the composing of the differences of all the faithfull.] 1865 Pusey Truth Eng. Ch. (title-page), The Church of England a Portion of Christ’s One Holy Catholic Church, and a Means of restoring visible Unity: An Eirenicon. 1886 Pall Mall G. 19 June 1/2 We wait with interest to see Mr. Chamberlain’s response to the new Eirenicon.

t'eires. Obs. rare—^. Some kind of hawk. (? Mistake for eyas.) 1655 Walton Angler (ed. 2) 19 The Eires, the Brancher, the Ramish Hawk, the Haggard and the two sorts of Lentners.

EIRMONGER 'eirmonger. Obs. [f. eir-etiy ME, pi. of egg +

eis wool (ais). [G. eis ice.] (See quots. 1882,

MONGER.] A dealer in eggs. ^1305 St. Stvithin 69 in E.E.P. (1862) 45 Mi3te eirmongers nou fare so, )?e baldelikere hi mi3te Huppe ouer diches.

eiry, var. of aery, eerie, a.

I9S7-) 1882 Caulfeild & Saward Diet. Needlework, Eis wool (sometimes written ‘Ice Wool’), a very fine glossy description of worsted wool, made of two-thread thickness, and emploj^d double for making shawls. 1891 Queen 17 Oct. 639/3 Twelve balls of eis wool are required. 1957 M. B. PiCKEN Fashion Diet, iio/i Eis wool, fine, glossy, wiry woolen yarn. Used for clouds, scarfs, etc.

eise, ? obs. var. of easy.

eisy,

eisegesis (aisi'd3i:sis).

[f. Gr. ciV in, into + -egesis of exegesis.] The interpretation of a word or passage (of the Scriptures) by reading into it one's own ideas. Hence eise'getical a.

eitch, obs.

1878 P. SchafT Through Bible Lands i. v. 53 The eisegetical manner of those allegorical and typological exegetes who make the Scriptures responsible for their own pious thoughts and fancies. 1892 N. Y. Evangelist 3 Mar. 4/4 (Funk), Dr. Elliot.. held firmly to the doctrine that exegesis, and not ‘eisegesis’, is the province of the student of the Scriptures. 1924 H. E. Fosdick Mod. Use Bible iii. 87 The reformers.. could use eisegesis instead of exegesis on many a passage which they thought they were literally interpreting. 1958 Times Lit. Suppl. 3 Jan. lo/i Fully aware of the perils of eisegesis. Dr. Grant pronounces quite firmly against any such reverence for philosophy or theology as would empty history of meaning.

either ('i:63(r), 'ai6a(r)), a. (pron.) and adv. (conj.). Forms; i aeg-, dej-, e5hwae8er, 1-2 aegfier, 2 eigfier, (3 Orm. e33Ser), 3 aeiSer, aiel?er, 2-4 eiSer, ei)>er, 3-5 aij>er, aither, ayther, (ayder, 5 eyder), 3-6 ether, (? 4-6 a)>er, ather, -ir, 4 euther, ewther), 3-7 eyther, -thir, (5 eithar), 6 eather, 4- either. See also er. [OE. xshwse3er

eirn, obs. form of yearn.

t'eisell. Obs. Forms: 2-3 aisille, 2-4 eisil, 3-5 aysel(l, -il, -ylle, (4 aycel, -zell), 4-6 aisel, -il, -ylle, (4 aissil, 5 ascill, ass-, asell(e), 4-7 eisel(l, -ill, eysell(e, -seel, -sil, -syl, -zell, 5 esylle, -zyl, (4 heysyl, 6 esile). [a. OF. aisil, aissil:—late L. *acetillum, dim. of acetum vinegar.] Vinegar. CI160 Hatton Gosp. Mark xv. 36 Fylde ane spunge mid eisile. Ibid. John xix. 29 Da stod an fet full aisiles. 01225 Ancr. R. 404 }?is eisil.. puruh fullefi mine pine. 01240 Wohunge in Cott. Horn. 283 Nu beden ha mi leof. .aisille. 01300 E.E. Psalter Ixviii. 22 [Ixix. 21] In mi thriste with aysile dranke pai me. 138. Antecrist in Todd 3 Treat. Wyclif 133 Crist tasted eysel; and pel nolden non but goode wynes. c 1420 Pallad. on Husb. viii. 134 In this moone is made Aisel squillyne. C1450 Myrc 1884 Loke thy wyn be not eysel. 1557 Primer, XV Oos F iv, I beseche thee for the bittemesse of the Aisell and Galle. 1602 Shaks. Ham. v. i. 299 Woo’t drinkevp Esile, eate a Crocodile? i62oVenner Via Recta vi. 94 Eiseli.. is also a good sauce. 1634 Harington Salerne Regim. 67 Summer-sauce should be verjuyce, eyzell or vinegar.

t'eisful, a. Obs. Forms: i ejesfull, 3 £ei3esful, 2-3 eisful. [OE. ^sesfull, f. §^es-a (= OS, egiso, OHG. ekiso:—OTeut. *agison~, f. *agts-: see awe) H- -ful.] Fearful, terrible. 01000 Judith 21 Daes se rica ne wende, Egesfull eorla dryhten. cii75 Lamb. Horn, in De lauerd seal beon liSe pan godan and eisful pan dusian. C1205 Lay. 17972 'pest is an 2ei3es-ful sune? J>2et of pine licame seal cume. 01225 St. Marher. 9 A3ein pis eisful wiht.. help me mi lauerd.

t'eisie, v. Obs. In 2 eisian. [OE. ^si^)sian = OS. egisofiy OHG. ekisoni—O'Teut. ^agisojan, f. *agis~ terror: see AWE sb.] trans. To frighten. Beowulf b (Gr.) Oft Scyld.. ejsode eorl[as]. c 1175 Lamb. Horn. Ill Swa mihtles.. pet he his men eisian ne der.

t'eislich, a. Obs. Forms: i ejesHc, 2 eislic, 3 eiselich, 4 aisliche, [OE. §^eslic, f. §^es-a terror (see eisful) + -lie, -ly^; cf. OS. egislic, eislic, OHG. ekislth.] Fearful, terrible. c888 K. /Elfred Boeth. xxxv, §6 Da w®s 6«r eac swi6e ejeslic geatweard, 6aes nama sceolde bion Caron, ciooo WuLFSTAN Addr. Engl, in Sweet Reader 108 Eall Saet sindon micle and ejeslice dseda. CI175 Lamb. Horn. 87 Eislic swei and blawende beman. c 1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 67 To beregen us.. wiS pe eiseliche shame.

Hence 'eisliche Timidly.

EITHER

102

adv.

(a)

Fearfully;

(b)

CI175 Lamb. Horn. 41 He3e treon eisliche beominde etforen helle 3ete. CI394 P. PI. Crede 341 J>ere y auntrede me in & ai[s]liche y seide.

obs. var. of easy.

eith. Sc.

var. of eatche. Sc., adze.

form of eath.

(contracted wsSer) = OHG. eogihwedar (MHG. iegeweder), f. WGer. *aiwo{n (in OE. d, 6) ay, always -I- *gihwaparo-z (in (DE. ^ehtvaeder: see yand whether) each of two. In OE. and early ME. the word appears only in its original sense ‘each of two*, or as adv. = ‘both’; but about the beginning of 14th c. it assumed the disjunctive sense ‘one or the other of two’ (and the corresponding adverbial use), which properly belonged to OE. dhwaeSer, dwder, ME. owper, oper (see outher). This disjunctive sense has so far prevailed that in mod.Eng. such expressions as on either side = ‘on both sides’ are felt to be somewhat arch., and must often be avoided on account of their ambiguity. The word outher became obs. in literary use in i6th c.; its mod. dial, forms (pronounced D:S3(r)) are popularly regarded as belonging to either. (It is not quite clear whether the forms aper athir in Sc. from 14th to i6th c. should not be referred to outher; cf. OE. dSor.) The pronunciation ('ai6d(r)), though not in accordance with the analogies of standard Eng., is in London somewhat more prevalent in educated speech than ('i:6d(r)). The orthoepists of 17th c. seem to give ('eiSsr, 'eifer); Jones 1701 has (’eiSsr) and (’aiSar), Buchanan (1766) has (‘ai83(r)) without alternative (see Ellis, Early Eng. Pron. ix, x.). Walker (1791) says that ('i:83(r)) and ('ai83(r)) are both very common, but gives the preference to the former on the ground of analogy and the authority of Garrick. Smart (1849) says that ‘there is little in point of good usage to choose’ between the two pronunciations, though in the body of his dictionary he, like earlier orthoepists, gives ('i:8a(r)) without alternative.]

A. adj. (pron.) I. Each of the two. 1. a. As adj. used attrib. C893 K. ^Elfred Oros. i. ix. § i Hwa is paette ariman maeje hwaet paer moncynnes forwearS on aejOere hand. 1297 R. Glouc. (Rolls) 1439 Muche folc in eiper half to gronde me slou. 01300 Cursor M. 12881 \>e. holi strem of Burn iordane On aeiper side stude still as stane. 1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 1274 Bot with pe world comes dam fortone, J^at ayther hand may chaung sone. 1375 Barbour Bruce ii. 346 On athir syd thus war thai yhar. c 1420 Anturs of Arth. xxxix, Aythire freke appoune fold has fastned his spere. 1535 Coverdale Ezek. xl. 48 By the walles also were pilers, on either syde one. 1628 Hobbes Thucyd. (1822) 25 The standard being on either side lift up, they joind battle. 1762 Falconer Shipwr. Proem 40 The fierce extremes of either zone. 1820 Scott Ivanhoe iii, There was a huge fireplace at either end of the hall. 1842 Tennyson E. Morris 37 Either twilight and the day between.

fb. With plural sb.: = ‘both’. Also (rarely), either both, in same sense. Obs. 1561 T. Norton Calvin's Inst. i. Pref., They all endeuor .. to kepe still eyther bothe kingdome safe. 1586 Let. Earle Leycester 20 The Lords and Commons in either houses assembled. 1608 Topsell Serpents 694 Upon either feet they [skinks] have five distinct fingers or claws.

fc. With possessive pron. interposed before the sb. Obs. rare. C1305 St. Kenelm 355 in E.E.P. (1862) 57 Out berste aipere hire [the queen’s] e3e & fulle adoun vpe hire sautere.

eissel, Sc. form of eassel.

fd. either other: each of the two. (In quot. eist, var. of este a. Obs. dainty.

with pi. vb. as if = ‘both'.) Obs.

Eisteddfod (Hsis'teSvod, ais'tcdfod). lit. ‘session', f. eistedd to sit.] (Welsh) bards.

[Welsh; A congress of

1822 Ann. Reg. i. Chron. 428 An Eisteddfodd, or Congress of Bards, was held.. last week. 1847 National Cycl. II. 858 Since the time of Queen Elizabeth no royal commission has been issued for holding an eisteddfod.

Hence ei'steddfodism. 1868 Lond. Q. Rev. Oct. 53 That eisteddfodism by which Mr. M. Arnold seems to have been bitten.

Eisteddfodic (.aisted'fodik), a. [f. Eisteddfod + -ic.] Of or belonging to the Eisteddfod. 1877 J. Rhys Lect. Welsh Pkilol. vi. 314 Ofydd.. is defined to be an Eisteddfodic graduate who is neither bard nor druid, and translated into ovate. 1894 Daily News 31 May s/4 One of the Eisteddfodic conductors. 01922 H. Jones Old Mem. (1923) i. 29, I pass over the Eistedfodic prizes we won.

eister, obs. Sc. var. of faster a. tei'stricion. Obs. rare-^. ? Erroneous form of EXTRACTION (OFr. estracion). CI460 Pol. Rel. & L. Poems (1866) 2 Growinge be eistricion, that worthi and wis is, Concayued in wedlocke.

1526 Tindale Lev. Prol., For which cause either other of them were ordained.

t2. a. absol. as pron.', used both of persons and things. Often followed by o/with pi. sb. or pron. (In ME. with genit. pi. in same sense; in the case of pronouns this survived until 17th c., e.g. your either = ‘either of you'.) Obs. or arch. ciooo Ags. Gosp. Matt. ix. 17 Hij do6 niwe win on niwe bytta, and aejCer byC jehealden. c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 15 Eour eyper sunegaS bi-foran drihten. C1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 141 Hur ei8er alumS pe se. c 1200 Ormin i 19 Forr e33per here 3ede swa Rihht affterr Godess lare. c 1205 Lay. 15982 iEiSer [c 1275 aiper] wende to his hole. 01300 Cursor M. 8360 And did pair ether dun for to sitt. C1420 Pallad. on Husb. i. 808 So shall her eitheres werke been overblowe With colde or hoote. 1479 Bury Wills (1850) 54, I beawethe to eyther of myn executors xls. 1535 Coverdale Ruth i. 9 Ye maie fynde reste ether of you in hir huszbandes house. 1591 Spenser M. Hubberd 551 So parted they, as eithers way them led. 1615 Chapman Odyss. iv. 79 The portraiture of Jove-sustain’d and sceptre-bearing kings Your either person in his presence brings. 1676 in Picton L'pool Munic. Rec. (1883) I. 268 The Serjeant and Water Baylive shall have either a cloak. 1759 Goldsm. Misc. Wks. (1837) III. 219 Fontenelle and Voltaire were men of unequal merit; yet how different has been the fate of either.

fb. With plural concord. Obs.

1542 Udall Erasm. Apoph. 53 b. Either of them as naked as ever they wer bom, 1647 W. Browne tr. Polex. ii. 90 Either of them have treated me as the scandall., of my Sex,

c. Sometimes things).

=

each (of more than two

1588 R. Parke tr. Mendoza's Hist. China 76 The other thirteene prouinces that do remaine haue eyther of them a vizroy or governor, 1867 Howells Ital. Journ. 228 Just above the feet, at either of the three comers, is an exquisite .. female bust.

either other: = ‘each other’: cf. each. Obs. exc. in form either.. the other. Usually the two words were in different grammatical relations, one of them (in most cases the former) being the subj., and the other governed in acc., genit., or dat. by a vb., sb., or prep. Sometimes, however, either other became a compound (cf. each other, and might be governed by a prep. 01000 Andreas 1053 (Gr.) .Egfier para eorla o8rum trymede Heofonrices hyht. ci200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 213 }7esse wise biswikeC her aiCer o6er. C1205 Lay. 3932 Eiper hateden oper. 01300 Floriz & Bl. 509 Eiper oper sone ikneu. 01300 Cursor M. 799 Quen ayder biheld oper naked, For scham pay stode bath and quakid. c 1320 Sir Beues 1991 Ather askede of otheres stat. 1393 Langland P. PI. C. xxi. 127 Ayper axed of op er of pis grete wonder. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. v. i. (1495) 99 Membres helpen eyther other. 1439 E.E. Wills (1882) 124 Aither aftir othir in the taile. 1471 Hist. Arrivall Edw. IV (1838) 19 There was a greate myste and letted the syght of eithar othar. 15.. Kyng to Hermyt 513 in Hazl. E.P.P. I. 33 Ather betau3t other gode dey. 1552 Lyndesay Monarche 4023 Athens deand in vtheris armis. 1593 Shaks. Lucr. 66 Beauties red and Vertues white. Of eithers colour was the other Queene. 1677 Hale Prim. Orig. Man. 297 There seems to be a more connatural Transmutation of either into other. 1874 Morley Compromise (1886) 103 The rights of either to disturb the other.

II. One or other of the two. 3. a. As adj. used attrib. c 1300 Beket 2247 He mi3te.. wende up aither side, c 1320 Sir Tristr. (1886) 356 Chese onaiper hand. 1667 Milton P.L. I. 424 Spirits when they please Can either Sex assume, or both. 1740 Chesterf. Lett. I. lx. 170 When the sun shines on either side of us (as it does mornings and evenings) the shadows are very long. 1788 Gibbon Decl. & F. (1846) VI, 190 The artificial thunder, in the hands of either nation, must have turned the fortune of the day.

If Incorrectly with plural vb. 1874 Ruskin Val (T Arno 119,! don’t mean that either of the writers I name are absolutely thus narrow in their own views.

t b. either other: one or the other of two. Obs. 1532 More Confut. Tindale Wks. (1557) 707/2 Wythoute anye chaunge of beliefe on eyther other syde. 1567 Jewel Def. Apol. (1611) 100 Let him take whether he liketh best, if either other of these words shall serue his tume.

4. a. absol. as pron. inflected in genit.)

(Formerly sometimes

1548 Coverdale Erasm. Par. i Cor. iii. 15 If eythers worke be with fyre destroyed, the workeman shall lose his labour. 1593 Hooker Eccl. Pol. i. x. (1611) 25 If wee bee both or eyther of these, 1802 Med. Jrnl. VIII. 188 It is by no means necessary to determine a preference between the two., since either of them may be resorted to. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. I. 164 Whatever was ridiculous or odious in either increased the scorn and aversion which the multitude felt for both. 1866 Crump Banking viii. 167 Either causes a loss to the community.

Incorrectly with plural vb. 1833 Bp. Thirwall Philolog. Museum ii. 656 Religious rites by which either Thebes or Eleusis were afterwards distinguished.

fb. either of both: = ‘either of the two'. Obs. UIS75 Abp. Parker Corr. 396, I never heard of either of them both till your honour had sent me your last letters. 1621 Ainsworth Annot. Pentat. (1639) 86 Wives were taken in Israel by bils of Dowry, and solemne espousals; but concubines without either of both.

c. Sometimes = any one (of more than two). i6i6 Hieron Wks. (1624) II. II That doctrine which tends to the furtherance of all or either of these three. 1796 Encycl. Brit. XVII. 566 Rubens, Jordens, and Snyders, used to co-operate in each other’s.. pictures.. and thus they became more valuable than if finished by either of them singly. 1845 Stephen Laws Eng. II. 31 If either of them [several methods] be found to fail.

B. as adv. (conj.) I. Adverbial uses of A. I. II. In OE. and early ME. = both. In the oldest use followed by je.. ge, or ge .. and; afterwards je was omitted, and being retained in the second place. Obs. Z893 K. j^)lfred Oros. ii. v. §8 ge of Seij^j^ium je of Crecum. a 1067 Chart. Eadweard in Cod. Dipl. IV. 227 .flJjSer 56 binnan burh and butan. 01175 Cott. Horn. 223 [3e) imugon yecnowen eijSer god and euyl. CI175 Lamb. Horn. 23 Bute ()u heo alle for-lete eiSer 36 pa ane 36 l^a o6er. a 1200 Moral Ode 32 in E.E.P. (1862) 24 Ayther to lutel & to muchel. 6 X20$ Lay. 30887 AiSer [c 1275 bot>e] bi worden and by writen.

f2. Used to connect more than two terms. Obs. c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 115 Ei6er 30 on her3unge 3e on hungre 3e on cwalme 36 on uniwidere 3e on wilde deoran.

II. Adverbial uses of A. II. 3. Introducing the mention of alternatives, a. either. .or, ■[either. .o(u)ther. (Formerly either might be preceded by an adj.; see quot. I594-) 138. Wyclif Sel. Wks. III. 297 E]7er to kyng..oI»er to deukis. 6x385 Chaucer L.G.W. Prol. 5 Non..that eythir hath in heuyn or in hell I-be. CX420 Pallad. on Husb. i. 25 Eyther springing there Or elles thider brought from elles where. XS40 Cromwell in Ellis Orig. Lett. ii. 142 IL 168, I never thought treson to your Highnes.. ayther in woorde

EITTIN or dede. 1563 Homilies n. Rogation Wk. iv. (1859) 498 They either c^uite ear them up. .or else, etc. 1593 Hooker Eccl. Pol. I. ii, How should either men or Angels be able perfectly to behold? 1594 Bp. J. King Jfonas, &c. (1618) 623 The mutable and transitory either pleasures or profits of this life. 1713 Berkeley & P. i. Wks. 1871 I. 291 Either, Hylas, you are jesting, or have a very bad memory. 1875 JowETT Plato (ed. 2) III. 266 A narration of events, either past, present, or to come.

either ..either: = either., or. Obs, 155^ Recorde Pathio. Knowl. Pref., Knowledge.. that maye appertaine either to good gouemance in time of peace, eyther wittye pollicies in time of warre. 1574 Hellowes Gueuara*s £*/). (1584) 20 In those golden times either philosophers did goveme, either else governours did use philosophic. 1588 A. King tr. Canisius’ Catech. Gviijb, Ather on y« day self of y« ®quinoxe, ather ellis on y« day nixt yairefter.

c. either-or, eitherjor [in some examples reflecting Da. enten-eller (title of book by the Danish philosopher Kierkegaard, 1843)], used as $b., a necessary or unavoidable choice between alternatives. Also attrib. or as adj., black and white, susceptible of only one of two (often extreme) solutions, responses, etc. 1931 Times Lit. Suppl. lo Sept, Dr. Harris is a philosopher and a logician with a little too much of the ‘either-or’ in his mental make-up. 1931 Church Times 9 Oct. 388/2 Catholicism .. provides.. a check upon humanism, which any ‘either/or’ theology cannot give. 1941 Auden New Year Let. ii. 44 The either-ors, the mongrel halves Who find truth in a mirror. 1942 ‘G. Orwell’ in Partisan R^. IX. 498 One can predict the future in the form of an ‘either-or’: either we introduce Socialism, or we lose the war. 1944 W. Lowrie tr. Kierkegaard's Eitherjor II. 134 Although my life now has to a certain degree its either/or behind it, yet I know well that it may still encounter many a situation when the either/or will have its full significance. 1951 C. S. Lewis Let. 23 Apr. (1966) 228, I have no use for mere either-or people. 1953 Economist 10 Jan. 58/1 Too much rigid logic of the black-and-white either-or variety. 1958 Spectator 30 May 709/1 An ‘either-or’ attitude, leading to.. the Cawnpore Well and the hanging-parties at Benares. 1965 Language XLI. 258 Either-or questions.

t4. = Or. Also, either else = or else. Obs. 138. Wyclif Antecr. in Todd j Treat. Wyclif 118 Who ever clepip himself unyversal prest ei)7er desiref> to be clepid. 1395 Purvey Remonstr. (1851) 8 The cruelte of all thevis eithir robberis. 1483 Caxton G. de la Tour K vij b, She was brente eyther stoned with stones. 1546 Coverdale Lord's Supper Wks. 1844 I. 462 Perhaps men would have forgotten themselves, either else the mercy of God should not have been so much known as it ought to be. 1583 Stubbes Anat. Abus. II. 10 Either else they would neuer be so desirous of reuenge. 1611 Bible Luke vi. 42 Either [1881 Revised, Or] how canst thou say to thy brother.

5. a. As an alternative, ‘which way you please*, b. In negative or interrogative sentences: Any more than the other. CI400 Destr. Troy 1479 Or Alisaunder ewther was his other name. 1601 Shaks. Twel. N. ii. v. 206 To. Wilt thou set thy foote o’ my necke? An. Or o’ mine either? 1828 Scott F.M. Perth xxxii, Thy sex cannot help that either. Mod. If you do not go I will not go either. If John had said so, or William either, I could believe it.

eittin, obs. Sc. pa. pple. of eat. -city [cf. Fr. -eite\, termination of nouns of quality or condition corresp. to adjs. in -ecus, on the model of L. idoneus idoneous, late L. idoneitds idoneity (1617), scholastic L. homogeneus homogeneous, homogeneitds homogeneity (1625). Among other early examples are spontaneity (1651), subterraneity (1686), consentaneity (1798). Two exceptional mod.L. formations ecceitds (f. ecce lo, behold), velleitds (f. velle to will) gave ecceity (1549), VELLEITY (1618). ejaculate (I'dsaekjuleit), v. [f. L. ejaculdt- ppl. stem of ejaculdri, f. e out + jaculdri to dart, f. jaculum javelin.] 11. trans. To dart or shoot forth; to throw out suddenly and swiftly, eject. Obs. in general sense. 1613 R. C. Table Alph. (ed. 3) Ejaculate, cast out. 1661 Hist. Anim. & Min. 102 They [Porcupines] have.. prickles.. which they ejaculate. 1762 tr. Busching's Syst. Geog. III. 179 The stones thus ejaculated have been found to contain all kinds of minerals. Lovell

b. spec. To eject fluids, etc. from the body. 1578 Banister Hist. Man vi. 88 To eiaculate seede into the matrice. 1638 T. Whitaker Blood of Grape 35 So doth the heart eiaculate the influent spirit. 1693 Urquhart Rabelais ill. xxxi, The cavernous nerve, whose office is to ejaculate the moisture. 1807 Ann. Reg. 823 The spider., ejaculates.. several threads. 1816 Kirby & Sp. Entomol. (1828) II. xvii. 68 To ejaculate its venom into the wound. 1836-9 Todd Cycl. Anat. II. 422/1 A.. tube through which the seminal liquor is.. ejaculated. 1878 tr. Ziemssen’s Cycl. Med. VIII. 90s A man who could never ejaculate.

fc. transf. And fig. Obs. c 1630 Jackson Creed v. xxv, The sun .. can.. ejaculate his beams upon any body capable of heat and illumination. 1679 Bp. of Hereford Let. Popish Idol. 22 [They] groan and sigh, as if they would breath forth and ejaculate their very Hearts unto it. 1704 Swift Mech. Operat. Spirit (1711) 280 There are three general ways of ejaculating the Soul. 1712 Blackmore Creation 13 The mighty magnet.. Its active rays ejaculated then Irradiate all the wide circumference. 1853 Kane Grinnell Exp. xli. (1856) 374 A hissing sound, ejaculated by sudden impulse.

EJECT

103

2. To utter suddenly (a short prayer; now in wider sense, any brief expression of emotion). Also absol. 1666 Pepys Diary 23 July (1879) IV. 22, I could not but with hearty thanks to Almighty God ejaculate my thanks to him. 1791 Mrs. Inchbald Simp. Story I. iv. 38 Miss Woodley ejaculated a short prayer to herself, 1865 Carlyle Fredk. Gt. II. vii. vi. 314 But where can the Prince be? he kept ejaculating. 1872 Liddon Elem. Relig. vi. 184 We may of course ejaculate to such a thing if we like.

Hence ejaculated ppl. a. >7** Ken Christophil Poet. Wks. 1721 I. 524 Each Moment by ejaculated Pray’r We keep Possession of our Mansion there. 1865 Farrar Chapters on Lang. 100 We may condense into a single ejaculated monosyllable, all, and more than all, of a whole sentence.

ejaculate

(i'd3£ekjubt), Ejaculated seminal fluid.

sb.

[f.

the

vb,]

Jrnl. Amer. Med. Assoc. LXXXVIII. 901/2 Since the diagnostic vasostomy, the patient has not had sperms in his ejaculate. 1938 Amer. Jrnl. Med. Sci. CXCVI. 369 A determination of the number of sperm in the total ejaculate is obtained by multiplying the count per cc. by the volume of the entire ejaculate. 1966 Biol. Abstr. XLVII. 5708/1 Spermatozoa were observed in coagulated spontaneous ejaculates of isolated male guinea pigs.

ejaculation (i.dsaekjui'leijsn).

[as if a. L. *ejaculdtidn~emj f. as ejaculate v.: see -ation.] fl. The action of hurling (missiles); the spouting out (of water); the throwing up (stones, etc. by subterranean forces). Obs. 1610 Guillim Heraldry iv. xiv. {1660) 332 Man., furnished himself to the full.. with Instruments of ejaculation. 1625 K. Long tr. Barclay's Argenis ii. xxii. 143 Ashes.. carried many miles.. with their own violent ejaculation. 1633 Bp. Hall Hard Texts 238 A sling.. should be altogether for ejaculations. 1762 tr. Busching's Syst. Geog. III. 61 When the ejaculation is strong and brisk, the petroleous wells are observed to become very turbid. 1818 Ann. Reg., Chron. 495 [He] spouted out of his mouth., several tuns of water. .This ejaculation was received with the highest applause.

2. The sudden ejection or emission (of seed, fluids, etc,) from the animal or vegetable system. spec, the discharging of the male sperm. 1603 Holland Plutarch's Mor. 1301 The ejaculation or casting foorth of naturall seed. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. III. iv. 113 The vessels of ejaculations. 1677 Grew Anat. Fruits V. § 19 That violent and surprising Ejaculation of the Seeds. 1727 Bradley Fam. Diet. I. s.v. Bee, The Bees.. are generated.. by the Ejaculation of a little Crystalline Water into the Bottom of the small Cells in the Combs. 1807 Ann. Reg. 823 The ejaculation or darting of the [spider’s] threads is doubted. 1865 Reader No. 151. 576/3 Ejaculation of aqueous fluid from leaves. 1888 E. L. Keyes Surg. Dis. Genito-Urinary Organs i, xxvi. 442 Ejaculation of semen may be produced by a variety of causes. 1928 [see ejaculatio PRiZECOx]. 1966 R. D. Amelar Infertility in Men ii. 32 The semen is ejaculated in a liquid form and becomes a gel or coagulation, immediately after ejaculation, only to liquefy again within 5 to 20 minutes.

3. transf. and fig. a. The emission of rays (by a luminary), of occult or magical influence, etc. b. The putting up of short earnest prayers in moments of emergency; the hasty utterance of words expressing emotion. 1625 Bacon Envy, Ess. (Arb.) 511 There seemeth to be acknowledged, in the Act of Enuy an Eiaculation.. of the Eye. a 1635 Naunton Fragm. Reg. (Arb.) 20 In the ejaculation of her prayers on her people. 01657 Sir J. Balfour Ann. Scotl. (1824-5) H* 73 The suns eiaculatione of his beames wpone the earthe, more then 6,900,000 myles. i866 G. Macdonald Ann. Q. Neighb. vii. (1878) loi An ejaculation of love is not likely to offend Him.

4. concr. Also fig. a. gen. 1708 Motteux Rabelais iv. xviii. (1737) 77 Lightnings, fiery Vapours, and other aerial Ejaculations. 1841-4 Emerson Ess. Poet Wks. (Bohn) I. 168 The religions of the world are the ejaculations of a few imaginative men.

b. spec. A short prayer ‘darted up to God* (Fuller) in an emergency. In wider sense: A short hasty emotional utterance. 1624 T. Gokins Hallowed be Thy Name in Farr’s S.P. (1847) 3^ Thou takest recreation In.. one eiaculation. 1656 Finett For. Ambass. 237, I found by his ejaculations that they repented of their punctillios. 1684-5 Ellis Orig. Lett. I. 382 III. 338 The other Bishops giving their assistance.. with very good ejaculations. 1790 Burke Fr. Rev. 24 He makes the lords and commons fall to a pious, legislative ejaculation. 1863 Fr. Kemble Resid. Georgia 133 The usual chorus of.. ejaculations of welcome.

II ejaculatio praecox (idsaekju’leijiau ’priikoks). [mod.L,: see ejaculation, pr.®cocial a.] (See quot. 1925.) 1892 C. G. Chaddock tr. Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis iii. 196 He became neurasthenic, being amicted with weakness of erection and ejaculatio praecox. 1921 E. J. Kempf Psychopath, vii. 326 During his marriage, he was virtually impotent, and only at times was he able to perform as much as ejaculatio pr«cox. 1925 Stedman Med. Diet. (ed. 8) 307/2 E[jaculatio] praecox, premature ejaculation, rapid termination of the sexual act on the part of the male. 1928 Eisendrath & Rolnick Text-Bk. Urology xxviii. 441 The term impotence conveys a relative meaning, varying in degree from premature ejaculation (ejaculatio praecox) to total inability to have erection. 1959 L. P. Wershub Sexual Impotence in Male viii. 102 Some forms of ejaculatio praecox can often be due to physical causes.

ejaculative (i'd3aekjubt3v), a. [f. as ejaculate + -iVE.] a. Of the nature of an ejaculation, fb.

Pertaining to the emission of occult influence (obs.). 1660 Z. Crofton Fasten. St. Peter's Fett. 58 [It] can be no warrant for such premeditated, ejaculative expressions, to be prescribed in set and publick prayer. 1603 Florio Montaigne i. xx. (1632) 44 The Tortoises and the Estriges hatch their egges with their looks only, a signe that they have some ejaculative vertue. 1841 Disraeli Amen. Lit. (1859) I. 35 An Anglo-Saxon poem has the appearance of a collection of short hints.. curt and ejaculative.

il e'jaculator. Phys. [mod.L. f. ejaculd-ri to EJACULATE.] (See quot.) 1727-51 Chambers Cycl., Ejaculator in anatomy, a name applied to two muscles of the genitals, from their office in the ejaculation of the seed.

ejaculatory (i'd3aBkjulat3n), a. [f. as prec. + -DRY.]

1. fa. Adapted for ejecting (a missile, or the like), b. Phys. That is concerned in the ejection of semen, etc. 1655 Evelyn Mem. (1857) I. 322 The bullet’s falling on the ejaculatory spring. 1666 J. Smith Old Age (ed. 2) 117 Seminary vessels both preparatory, and ejaculatory. 1751 Chambers Cycl., Ejaculatory.. ducts, or canals, arising from the vesiculae seminales. i860 Sir H. Thompson Dis. Prostate (1868) 7 Two slight lines of depression.. indicate the tracks of the ejaculatory ducts. 1861 Hulme tr. Moquin-Tandon ii. I. 47 The excretory canal of the gland, called Ejaculatory Duct.

t2. Inclined to ejaculate; given to abrupt, impulsive expression. Obs. 1644 Quarles Barnabas ^ B. To Rdr., This small Essay (the epitome of his ejaculatory soul).

3. Of the nature of or resembling an ejaculation or sudden utterance. (Originally of prayers: see ejaculation 4 b; now in wider sense.) 1644 Sir E. Dering Prop. Sacr. Ciijb, In hymns and Psalms ejaculatory passages.. are warranted. 1698 W. Chilcot Evil Thoughts vi. (1851)65 Not only in ejaculatory, but in our set prayers. 1748 Smollett Rod. Rand. Ixv. (1804) 472 Strap.. venting ejaculatory petitions to Heaven for our safety. 1851 Longf. Gold. Leg. Convent of Hirschau, To breathe an ejaculatory prayer. 4. quasi-sb. = ejaculation 4 b. rare. 1883 Harper's Mag. Mar. 575/1 ‘Indeed, I have reason to know it,’ was the severe ejaculatory.

eject ('iidsekt), sb.

[ad. L. eject-um, neut. of ejectus thrown out; see next. The term was coined by Prof. Clifford on analogy of subject, object.] Something (viz. a sensation or mental state other than our own) which is neither an actual nor a conceivable object of our consciousness, but which is inferred to be a real existence analogous in kind to our own sensations or mental states. 1878 Clifford Things-in-thems., Lect. Sf Ess. (1886) 275, I propose.. to call these inferred existences ejects, things thrown out of my consciousness, to distinguish them from objects, things presented in my consciousness, phenomena. 1883 Romanes Ment. Evol. Anim. i. 22 The evidence derived from ejects is practically regarded as good in the case of mental organizations inferred to be closely analogous to our own. 1884-in Nature XXIX. No. 747. 380 The eject of my contemplation is the mind of a dog. 1885 C. L. Morgan Springs of Cond. iii. ii. 267 My neighbour’s mind, feelings, motions are ejects to me; they can never be objects.

t eject, Obs. [ad. L. eject-us, f. ejicere, f. e out + jacere to throw.] Used as pa. pple. of next. 1432-50 tr. Higden (1865) 1. 123 The inhabitatores of whom somme tyme eiecte and put in captiuite. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 208 b. Now is the prynce of y« worlde eiecte & casten out.

eject (i'd3ekt), v. [ad. L. eject-dre, freq. of ejicere to throw out, f. e out + jacere to throw; or directly f. eject- ppl. stem of ejicere. As in many other Eng. vbs. identical in form with L. ppl. stems, the precise formation is somewhat doubtful; the senses are derived partly from ejicere, partly from ejeetdre.'] 1. trans. To throw out from within. 1607 Topsell Four-f. Beasts 197 Seethe the same till all the scum or earthy substance thereof be ejected. 1644 Evelyn Mem. (1857) I. 62 In the Queen’s Garden is a Diana ejecting a fountain. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. iii. xxii. 165 To reduce that indigestible substance [gold] into such a forme as may not be ejected by seidge. 1807 Med. Jrnl. XVII. 221 He died..while endeavouring to eject saliva. 1830 Lyell Princ. Geol. (1875) II. ii. xxxiii. 217 If stones are thrown into the Crater they are instantly ejected.

b. transf. and fig.; esp. To dart forth, emit (flames, light, etc.). 1598 B. JONSON Ev. Man in Hum. ii. iii, Every look or glance mine eyes ejects [1601 mine eye objects]. 1630 Drayton Muses Elyz. Nym. 78 The Carbunckle.. a flaming light And radiency eiecteth. 1620 Quarles JonaA (1638) 35 His home-bred stomack’s curb’d or quite ejected. 1738 Brooke Jerusalem Deliv. iii. 10 His arms and eager eyes ejecting flame.. Tancred came. 1742 Young Nt. Th. i. 258 How groaning hospitals eject their dead!

2. To expel, drive out (by force or with indignity) from any place or position. 1555 Eden Decades W. Ind. iii. vi. (Arb.) 162 A1 the barbarous Kynges & Idolatours beinge elected. 1607 Shaks. Cor. III. i. 287 To dispatch This Viporous Traitor; to eiect him hence Were but one danger, Milton P.R. i. 414

EJURATE

104

EJECTA Ejected, emptyed, gazed, unpityed, shun’d, A spectacle of ruin or of scorn. 1726 Swift Bec’r Birt/iday Wks. 1819 XIV. 542 If the gout should seize the head, Doctors pronounce the patient dead; But if they can,. eject it to th’ extremest parts, etc. 1828 D’Israeli Chas. /, I. viii. 270 Those inferior minds, who had ejected the master-spirit from their councils. 1863 Fr. Kemble Reside Georgia 57 They [two free black preachers] have lately been ejected from the place.

fb. In pass, with omission of from. Obs. (Cf. to he banished the country.) 1657 J. Smith Myst. Rhet. 64 And for that they would be justified by the works of the law, were ejected the house of God. 16^ T. Watson in Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. xvi. 11 Austin saith ‘Lord.. if I might see thy face one day; but alas! were it only a day, then to be ejected heaven*.

3. To expel from a dignity or office. Also, To turn out, evict (a person) from property or possessions; es'p. in Law. 1570-6 Lambarde Peramb. Kent (1826) 229 The Abbat.. elected the Kings Clarke. 1623 Bingham Xenophon 127 That I might be reuenged vpon them, that had elected vs out of our patrimony. 1653 Baxter Chr. Concord 117 If they can prove their Ministers fit to be ejected, let them there prove it. 1794 S. Williams Vermont 217 When the executive officers came to eject the inhabitants from their houses and lands. 1836 H. Rogers J. Howe ii. (1863) 18 [The elder Howe] was not the man for Loughborough, and he was consequently ejected. 1879 Froude Caesar iii. 20 He had ejected disreputable senators from the Curia.

ejecta (i'd38kt3), sh. pi. [neut, pi. of pa. pple. of L. eicere, f. e- out, forth + iacere to cast.] 1. The matter ejected from a volcano.

\c,fig. An outgoing of emotion. Obs. 1655 H. Vaughan Silex Scint. i. 36 What thin Ejections, Cold affections.

d. Aeronaut. The mechanically contrived ‘baling out’ of a pilot from an aeroplane or space-craft. Also attrib.^ as Section seat^ on which this is effected. Cf. ejector 2. 1945 Aeroplane 16 Nov. 569/1 It was the first German aeroplane to employ a pilot-ejection seat... The single-seat cockpit is positioned well forward and the pilot ejection seat is of the explosive cartridge type. 1946 Aeroplane Spotter 10 Aug, 182/1 The first automatic high-speed ‘baling-out’ ejection by Mr. Bernard Lynch, .on. . July 24. 1956 W. A. Heflin U.S. Air Force Diet. 184/2 Ej^ection chute, cockpit capsule, seat, seat-trainer. 1967 New Scientist 27 Apr. 195/1 Ejection seats were omitted from the multi-man Voskhod spacecraft.

2. a. A casting out or expulsion from a particular place or position; also from office or possessions. 1566 Knox Hist. Ref. Wks. 1846 I. 349 He.. did entreat of the ejectioun of the byaris and the sellaris furth of the Tempill of Jerusalem. 1627 Hakewill Apol. i. i. § i [Adam and Eve’s] Creation and Ejection. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. iv. xlv. 356 Exorcisme (that is to say, of ejection of Devills by Conjuration). 1704 HearneDmcL Hist. (1714) 1. 417 To the Syracusians he gave Laws upon the ejection of their King. 1765 Johnson Pref. Shaks. (R.) Some of these alterations are only the ejection of a word for one that appeared to him more elegant. 1853 Marsden Early Purit. 48 The ejection of many good men immediately followed.

fb. The State of being banished, exile, rare.

1886 Amer. Meteor. Jrnl. III. iii. 109 Dust and other ejecta played but a secondary part in the production of the phenomena. 1890 Nature 16 Oct. 601/2 It may be thought that any volcanic ejecta would speedily melt the snow upon which they fell. 1902 Daily Chron. 11 Sept. 6/2 On the afternoon of the 3rd the ejecta was of the colour of sulphur. 1957 G. E. Hutchinson Treat. LimnoL I. i. 25 The summit of the volcano usually has a well-defined crater from which ejecta escape to continue the building of the cone,

2. Path. That which is ejected from the body. 1890 Billings Med. Diet. I. 433/1 Ejecta, matters thrown out. 1908 Practitioner Oct. 601 Frequent vomiting,.. the ejecta being often blood-stained and sometimes faecal. 1953 Faber Med. Diet. 134/2 Ejecta, matter thrown out; excretions.

11 eiectamenta (i.djekta'mentg), sb. pi. [pi. of L. ejectamentum, f. ejeetdre: see eject i;.] Substances ejected by eruptive forces.

1655-60 Stanley Hist. Philos. (1701) 49/1 The People with whom he [ the son of Periander] lived in his ejection.

c. In Scotch Law.

action of Section’.

=

EJECTMENT 2. letters of Section: see quot. 1764 Erskine Princ. Sc. Law 427 Actions of spuilzie, ejection and intrusion are penal. Ibid. 464 If one be condemned.. to quit the possession of lands, and refuses.. letters of ejection are granted.. ordaining the Sheriff to eject him. fS. = ECBOLE 2. Obs. 1603 Holland Plutarch's Mor. 1257 Polymnestus.. first made the drawing out of the note longer, and the.. ejection thereof much greater than before.

t ejec'titious, a. Obs.—^ [f. L. ejectici-us, f. ppl. stem of ejicere: see prec. + -iTious.] (See quot.) 1736 Bailey, Ejectitious, cast out. 1775 in Ash.

1863 Lyell Antiq. Man x. (ed. 3) 192 Yet the cone, an incoherent heap of scoriae and spongy ejectamenta, stands unmolested. 1879 Rutley Stud. Rocks iv. 32 These fragmentary ejectamenta are often thrown high into the air.

ejective (I'dssktiv), a. (and sb.) [as if ad. L. *ejectivus: see eject v. and -ive.] 1. That has the function or the power of ejecting.

t ejec'tation. Ohs.-~^ [f. as prec.: see -ation.]

1657 Tomlinson Renou’s Disp. 45 The one a vomiting or ejective medicament, c 1720 W. Gibson Farriers Dispens. II. i. (1734) 57 The Ancients thought there was some ejective Property in all purging Medicines. 1858 Greener Gunnery 301 Each shot carries with it its own share of ejective force. x886 Cornh. Mag. Oct. 428 The giant planets must have possessed corresponding ejective energies.

1736 Bailey, Ejectation, a casting or throwing out. 1775 Ash, Ejectation (not much used, from eject), the act of casting out.

ejected (I'dsektid), ppL a. [f. eject v. + -ed.] 1, Thrown out from the interior of anything. 1756 C. Lucas Ess. Waters II. 165 If the water be.. upon the fire.. these ejected bubbles will be more apparent. 1799 Kirwan Geol. Ess. 269 The low heat of the ejected lava. 1853 Kane Grinnell Exp. xlviii. (1856) 445 That singular ejected rock, the Devil’s Thumb. 1856-Arct. Expl. I. xxiv. 320 The young gulls were feeding on the ejected morsel.

2. Expelled from a country, or from an office; evicted, turned out from a possession, tenancy, etc. 1649 Milton Eikon. Wks. 1738 I. 408 True policy will teach them to find a safer interest in the common friendship of England, than in the ruins of one ejected Family. 1665 Marvell Corr. xlviii. Wks. 1872 II. 183 Non-conformist ejected Ministers. 1836 H. Rogers J. Howe iv. (1863) 116 But though Howe was an ejected minister, he could not consent to be a silenced one.

ejecting (I'dsektiij),

[f. eject w. + -ing*.]

Casting out, expulsion. 1602 Fulbecke 1st. Pt. Parall. 100 Our law punisheth.. the immature electing of any of these out of the wombe. 1692 Bentley Boyle Lect. 26 The miracles of our Lord.. were.. for the real benefit and advantage of men, by.. ejecting of devils.

ejection (i'd3£kj3n).

[ad. L. ejection-em, n. of action f. ejicerei see eject w.] 1. a. The action of casting out from within. Formerly applied spec, in Physiology (see quot.

1751)1613 R. C. Table Alph. (ed. 3) Election, a casting forth. 1636 Healey Epictetus' Man., Cebes 135 Her owne receipt.. which purgeth out all their ingulphed evils, as by vomit or ejection. 1652 French Yorksh. Spa viii. 74 There is no ejection of their excrements by stool for two or three dayes. 1751 Chambers Cycl., Ejection, the act of throwing out or discharging anything at some of the emunctories; as by stool, vomiting or the like. 1813 Eustace Tour Italy i. (R.) The vast ejection of ashes.. must have left a large void in its [Vesuvius’] centre. 1862 Darwin Fertil. Orchids vi. 260, I pricked deeply the column.. without causing the ejection of this pollinium. 1881 Stokes in Nature No. 625. 597 The ejection of gas from the body of the sun.

b. concr. volcano.

Something

ejected;

spec,

by

a

1654 Gayton Fest. Notes 158 The Apothecary sware he smelt him [the mouse] comming by the scent of the ejection. 1794 Sullivan View Nat. II. 197 One unclassed volcanic ejection, .the roche rouge in Velay, in France. 1833 Lyell Princ. Geol. III. 197 The ejections in this place entirely conceal from view the stratified rocks of the country.

2. Pertaining to an eject. 1883 Romanes Ment. Evol. Anim. i. i6 This necessarily ejective method of enquiry. 1884-in Nature XXIX. No. 747. 380 Our ejective inferences can only be founded on the observable activities of organisms.

3. Philol. Of voiceless consonants: articulated by means of non-pulmonic air-pressure, created by closing and raising the glottis. Also as sb. 1932 D. Jones Outl. Eng. Phonetics (ed. 3) xvli. 141 Consonants.. in which the necessary air pressure is produced by some other means than by the lungs. Sounds in which the air is forced outwards by these means are called ^ective consonants. 1939 L. H. Gray Found. Lang. iii. 57 Ejectives (plosives with a simultaneous glottal stop). 1964 R. H. Robins Gen. Ling. iii. 103 Three non-pulmonic types of consonant articulations are used in some languages: ejectives, implosives, and clicks. Ibid., Ejective consonants, which are sometimes also called glottalized consonants, are most commonly found with plosive or affricate release. 1968 Chomsky & Halle Sound Pattern Eng. 323 Ejectives have a transition with a somewhat higher termination frequency than the corresponding nonejectives. Hence e'jectively adv. (a) By means of

ejection. (6) With reference to ejects, ejec'tivity, the fact of being an eject. 1883 Romanes Ment. Evol. Anim. i. 17 Ejectively some such criterion is required. 1886-in Contemp. Rev. July 48 Both subjectivity and ejectivity are only known under the condition of being isolated from objectivity.

ejectment (i'd3Ektm3nt). [f. eject v. + -ment; app. first used in legal Anglo-French.] 1. a. Law. The act or process of ejecting a person from his holding, b. In wider sense, = EJECTION 2 (but chiefly with allusion to a,). 1567 Rastell Termes of Law 68 b, A writ of eiectement of wardelieth wher, etc. [Fr. hriefe deiectment degardgist, etc.]. 1602 Warner Alb. Eng. Epit. (1612) 359 This Eiectment of the Britons. 1672 H. Stubbe Justif. Dutch War 60 Continued after their [the Danes’] ejectment, by our English Kings. 1851 Ht. Martineau Hist. Peace (1877) III. v. xiii. 468 Forcible ejectments of the negroes from their habitations. 1869 Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. xxiv. i [Man] is but a tenant at will.. liable to instantaneous ejectment. 1869 Pall Mall G. 4 Aug., The Irish land question divides itself naturally into three great points*—improvements, tenant right, and ejectment.

2. (More fully, action, writ of ejectment): ‘An action at law whereby a person ousted or amoved from an estate for years may recover possession thereof (Tomlins Law Diet.); the

writ (otherwise de ejectione jirtnae) by which this action is commenced. An action of this kind, under which damages were claimed for a fictitious ejectment by an irnaginary person, was formerly the recognized mode of trying the title to landed ** X^^BIDEAUX Lett. (1875) 188 An ejectment hath been left at S' H. Hobarts house for 8000/. 1715 Act Reg. Papists 2 Geo. /, in Lond. Gaz. (1716) No- 5455/2 He may bring an Ejectment upon his own Demise. 1755 Young Centauryi. Wks. 1757 Iv. 253 But will not be at the trouble of bringing a writ of ejectment. 1768 Blackstone Comm. III. 199 A writ then of ejectione firmae, or action of trespass in ejectment. 1788 J. Powell Devises (1827) II. 45 He might bring his ejectment. 1794 S. Williams Termont 216 Actions of ejectment were commenced in the courts at Albany. 1886 Stephen Comm. (ed. 10) III. 415.

f 3. pi. [after L. ejectamenta]. Things cast up or out. Obs. rare. 1658 Sir T, Browne

Gard. Cyrus II. 514 Ejectments of

the Sea.

ejector (i‘d3fikt3(r)).

[f. as prec. + -or, upon the analogy of L. agent-nouns in -or.] 1. a.gen. One who ejects, lit. end fig. See eject V. I, 2. 1640 Bp. Hall

Episc. i. § 17. 70 The ejectors should show better prOofe than the ancient possessours. 1645 J. Bond Occasus Occid. 25,1 find that sin branded as an Ejector, as an Exiler, not only of Persons, but of whole Churches. 1657 J. Goodwin Triers Tried To Rdr. 2 Two Apocryphall Orders of Commissioned Officers.. known by the names of Triers, and Ejectors. 1831 Syd. Smith Speeches Wks. 1859 II. 218/1 The merciless ejector, .will be restrained within the limits of decency and humanity. 1834 Tail’s Mag. I. 494 The venomous slaver.. must be carried back to the face of the foul-breathed ejector.

b. Law. The person who ejects another from his holding, casual ejector: see casual. 1651 W. G.tr. Cowel's Inst. 191 If a third person eject him against Right, he shall recover dam^es against the Ejector. 1768 Blackstone Comm. III. 200 The lessee had no other remedy against the ejector but in damages. 1817 W. Selwyn Law Nisi Prius II. 680 The parties, viz. the plaintiff, and the defendant, the ejector, usually termed the casual ejector, are fictitious persons. 18^ Muirhead Gains IV. §154 The result of violent, clandestine, or precarious taking from the ejector himself.

2. Applied to various portions of machinery, etc. serving the purpose of ejecting; e.g. an appliance for discharging empty cartridge cases from a breech-loader; a contrivance for ejecting the ashes from the stoke-hole of a marine engine; an apparatus for discharging the contents of sewers by means of compressed air, etc. Also attrib., as in ejector-condenser, ejector gun, rifle, -sewer; ejector seat Aeronaut. = ejection seat. 1874 Knight Diet. Mech., Ejector-condenser (steamengine), a form of condenser worked by the exhaust steam from the cylinder. 1881 Greener Gun 128 The ejector is acted upon through its rear claw, that nearest its pivot. 1884 Health Exhib. Catal. 57/2 Egg-shaped Isaac Shone’s House Ejector Sewers. 1887 Daily News 25 Oct. 5/2 Of these ejectors there are eight, placed in pairs in different parts of the town. 1892 W. W. Greener Breech-loader 42 Fine guns and ejector guns cannot be purchased under £35Yesterday's Shopping (1969) 636 The Society’s hammerless ejector rook rifle. 1920 G. Burrard Notes on Sporting Rifles 68 Spare fore sights, extractors in the case of ejector-rifles. 1945 Flight 15 Nov. 524/1 Two types of German pilotejector seats. 1948 Flight 22 July loo/i There are no known reports of a pilot getting out of the Vampire. To fit an ejector seat now would be a major operation. 1955 Times 6 July 10/6 Lieutenant-Commander Rickell used his ejector seat to bale out.

Ilejido (e'xiSo, ei'hiiSau). [Mexican Sp., f. Sp. ejido common land, f. L. exitus departure, f. exire to go out.] In Mexico, land farmed communally; a co-operative farm; land to which communal title is held. Also attrib. 1889 in Cent. Diet. 1931 C. Beals Mexican Maze ii. 37 Their ejidos (village commons).. were again menaced. 1938 New Statesman 12 Feb. 241/1 To facilitate the harvesting of profitable crops, the lands are in some places worked collectively, the members of each neighbourhood or ‘ejido’ helping each other in co-operative fashion. 1946 H. F. Infield Co-operative Living in Palestine 4 The Russian Kolkhoz, the Palestinian Kvutza, the Mexican Ejido.. have made effective use of comprehensive co-operation. 1964 New Statesman 28 Feb. 327/3 Zapata stressed the return of the lost communal holdings to the rural Indian villages. Thus he proposed the 'ejido' system in which title to lands was to be vested in the landholding village.

t ejulation. Obs. [ad. L. ejuldtidn-em, noun of action f. ejuldre to wail.] Wailing, lamentation. a 1619 Fotherby Atheom. i. xv. §2 (1622) 156 It should be lamented, with this pitifull eiulation. 1659 Gentl. Call. §7 Pref. 3 What ejulations can be bitter or loud enough. 1708 J. Phillips Cyder ii. 85 With dismal groans and Ejulations in the pangs of death. 1721-1800 in Bailey. 1755 in Johnson; and in mod. Diets.

t 'ejurate, v. Obs. [f. L. ejurdt- ppl. stem of ejurare to abjure.] trans. To abjure, renounce. Hence eju'ration (see quot.). 1622-62 Heylin Cosmogr. i. (1682) 209 The Faith of Christ.. was defiled with Arrianism; not ejurated till the year 588. 1626 Cockeram, Ejurate, to forsweare, or resigne ones place. 1656 Blount Glossogr., Ejuration, a renouncing or resignation. 1678-96 in Phillips. 1721-1800 in Bailey.

EJURE t e'jure, v. Obs. rare. [ad. L. ejur-dre: see prec.] = prec. 1642 Rogers Naaman 855 To be a close client of his for ever, ejuring all former false and idolatrous service.

eka-('iiks), pre/. Chem. [a. Skr. ekaone.] Used 1872 in Ann. d. Chemie u. Pharmacia, VIII. Supplementband 196 by D. I. Mendeleeff (1834-1907), Russian chemist, to denote a predicted element that should occupy the next lower position to that so qualified in the same group in the periodic system. 1889 Chem. Soc. LV. 648 Gallium, which proved to correspond to eka-aluminium of the periodic law .. scandium, corresponding to eka-boron .. and . .germanium, which proved to correspond in all respects to eka-silicum. 1931 Observer 18 Oct. 22/4 Right years ago there were six [atomic] numbers corresponding to unknown elements... Both 43 and 75 were known before their discovery as eka-manganeses, from their anticipated similarity to manganese... 85 should be chemically akin to iodine, and so is provisionally called eka-iodine... On Friday the news came from America that eka-caesium had been discovered. 1938 Ann. Reg. igjy 355 Curie & Savitich .. obtained three new series of short period radioactive elements ending possibly in eka-gold, eka-iridium, and ekarhenium. 1955 Ann. Reg. 398 It was announced in February that physicists of the University of California had produced element No. 99 provisionally called eka-holmium. 1969 Daily Tel. 5 May 13/7 Russian scientists at Dubna and Leningrad are looking for element 114, eka-lead, in old mirrors made from lead glass.

ekdemite ('ekdimait, ek'dirmait). Min. Also ecdemite. [ad. Sw. ekdemit (A. E. Nordenskiold 1877, in Geol. For. Fork. III. 379), f. Gr. eKS-qfj.os unusual + -ite^.] A yellow oxychloride of lead and arsenic, of uncertain formula, found in Sweden and the U.S.A. iSyg yrnl. Chem. Soc. XXXVI. 22 Ekdemite.., a new mineral, coarse-crystalline, foliated, monoaxial, with a distinct basal cleavage. 1882 J. D. Dana Man. Min. (ed. 4) 152 Ecdemite, a lead chloro-arsenite. 1951 C. Palache et al. Dana's Syst. Min. (ed. 7) II. 1036 Found as crystals and masses associated with heliophyllite in manganoan calcite at Langban, Wermland, Sweden. Ecdemite apparently also constitutes the uniaxial parts of the intergrowths with heliophyllite found.. in Wermland. 1968 Embrey & Phemester tr. Kostov's Mineralogy 467 Ekdemite is tetragonal, dimorphous with heliophyllite.

teke (i:k), sb.^ Obs. exc. dial. Forms: i eaca, 3, 6, 9 eke, Sc. (6 eik, 7 eeke). See also eche sb. [OE. eaca = ON. auke:—OTeut. *aukon~y f. same root as eche v.'\ 1. An addition, increase; a piece added on; a supplement. In OE., A reinforcement (of troops).

thing Eiketh. 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. 96 Quhen the partie hes named ane certaine number of witnes, he may not thereafter eike, nor pair the number of the witnes. 1639 J. Clarke Parcemiol. 10 A litle eekes. 1650 Fuller Pisgah 372 It not being princely to.. eek the same [the vail of the tabernacle] another was contrived. 1731 Pope Ep. Burlington 32 Some patch’d dog-hole ek’d with ends of wall. 1755 Smollett Quix. (1803) II. 258 Without eking or curtailing God’s ^ecious truth. 1829 Clare Ode Autumn, Anniversary 76 The moaning brook, that ekes its weary speed.

fb. intr. To increase, grow. Obs. 1535 Stewart Chron. Scot. III. 162 His power eikit so and grew.

t2. To add. Const. ■\til, to. Also absol. Obs. c 1200 Ormin 16352 3iff p u takesst twijses an And ekesst itt till fowwre. a 1300 Cursor M. 21194 bar-til pai eked mar and mare. 1:1425 Wyntoun Cron. viii. xxvi. 190 Sal I ek til Goddis wengeance? 1549 Compl. Scot. xv. 123 Ther can na thing be eikkyt to my parsecutione bot cruel dede. 1634-46 Row Hist. Kirk (1842) 17 We.. conforme.. to the notes and additions thereto eiked. 1733 Neal Hist. Purit. H. 14 His Majesty .. eked others that I had omitted.

3. to eke out: a. to supplement, supply the deficiencies of anything (const, with)', esp. to make (resources, materials, articles of consumption, etc.) last the required time by additions, by partial use of a substitute, or by economy. 1596 Bp. Barlow Three Serm. iii. 133 Not to bee so., giuen to spending.. but eeke it out to the vtmost. 1600 Shaks. a. Y.L. I. ii. 209 Ros. The little strength that I haue, I would it were with you. Cel. And mine to eeke out hers. 1623 Lisle JElfric on O. & AT.T. To Rdr. 6 Best is he that inuents, the next he that followes forth and eekes out a good inuention. 1719 De Foe Crusoe (1858) 140 My ink..had been gone.. all but a very little, which I eked out with water. 1788 Burns Extempore 2 Lawyers, But what his common sense came short, He eked out wi* law, man. 1872 Baker Nile Tribut. xx. 353, I determined to start, .to eke out our scanty supply of water. 1874 Sayce Compar. Philol. i. 25 The meaning of their [savage races’] words has to be eked out by gesture. 1878 H. S. Wilson Alp. Ascents ii. 57 After a glass apiece we eke out the remainder with snow.

b. To prolong (a speech or composition, an action) by expedients devised for that purpose; to contrive to fill up (a certain amount of space in writing, etc.). 1641 Milton Animadv. (1851) 245 Your reverence to eek out your sermonings shall need repaire to Postills, or Polianthea’s. e name of )?e bischop, or heldarman. 1530 Compend. Treat. (1863) 51 The prophet Moses hadde chosen seuenty eldermen. 1708 Motteux Rabelais iv. xxv, So they call’d their eldest Elderman.

4. In Card-playing, player. Cf. eldest 5.

ELDERLY

II3

elder hand: the first

1589 Pappe w. Hatchet Ciiij, The poore Church should play at vnequal game, for it should loose al by the Elder hand. 1746 Hoyle Whist (ed. 6) 22 You are elder Hand. 1873 Cavendish [H. Jones] Piquet 29 The pack is then cut by the non-dealer, or elder hand.

fS. Of or pertaining to a more advanced period of life; later. Ohs. (In this sense elder days are the opposite of the elder days of sense 6, just as an older portrait has a younger face.) 1593 Shaks. Rich. II, 11. iii. 43, I tender you my seruice raw and young; Which elder dayes shall ripen. 1611 Cymb. V. i. 14 To second illes with illes, each elder worse. 1737 Whistos Josephus' Ant. xvi. xi. 8 He also was guilty of .. a crime in his elder age.

6. a. That existed at a previous time; ancient, earlier, former, b. Of or pertaining to ancient times or to an earlier period. ri340 Cursor M. App. i. p. 1636. 23876 We., in eldern men vr mirur se. C1449 Pecock Repr. ii. x. 202 In eeldir daies, whanne processioun was mad. 1587 Mirr. Mag., Induction xii. 7 What thinges were done, in elder times of olde. 1668 Hale Pref. Rolle's Abridgm. 8 Many of the Elder Year-Books are Filled with Law, now not so much in use. 1801 Southey Thalaba ix. ix. Huge as the giant race of elder times. 1823 Lamb Elia Ser. ii. i. (1865) 242 Curiosity prevailing over elder devotion. 1852 Miss Yonge Cameos I. Introd. 2 The elder England has been so fully written of. 1867 Macfarren Harmony ii. 35 Modern writers..may produce compositions in the elder style.

7. Comb. as elder-bom adj.; elderbrotherhood, the state or dignity of an elder brother; elder-brotherly, -sisterly a., pertaining or proper to an elder brother or sister. 1870 Bryant Iliad II. xv. 81 •Elder-born am I. 1884 in Littell's Living Age No. 2077. 66 Its •elder-brotherhood Writ on the face of its perfected plan. 1823 Bentham Not Paul 370 note. This.. assumed fatherly affection, under the

name

of

•elder-brotherly •• what was it? 1870 Miss R. Lynne II. viii. 163 ‘So I told them’, said Fanny, with a demure, •elder-sisterly air. Bridgman

B. sb. An elder person, lit. and fig. fl. a. A parent [cf. mod.G. eltern pi.]; an ancestor, forefather; hence, in wider sense, a predecessor, one who lived in former days. Almost exclusively in pi. Obs. 971 Blickl. Horn. 195 Ure yldran swultan and swij>e oft us from wendan. a 1000 Elene 462 (Gr.) pa me yldra min ageaf andsware. a 1067 Chart. Eadweard in Cod. Dipl. IV. 167 For mines fader and for allra minra yldrena sawlan. c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 123 Helle.. we weren in bifolen htirh ure eldra gult. C1205 Lay. 7290 pet me mine seldre [1275 eldre] dude scome. c 1230 Hali Meid. 27 Feire children.. gladien muchel )>e ealdren. 1297 R- Glouc. (1724) 11 Here elderne .. were y nome in ostage Fram the bataile of Troie. C1325 Metr. Horn. 109 Underlout till thaim was he, Als god child au til elderes be. 1393 Langl. P. PI. C. iv. 419 pat agag of amalek • and al hus lyge puple Sholde deye delfulliche • for dedes of here eldren. C1440 York Myst.xxvii. 14 That with oure elthers euer has bene. 1513 Douglas Mneis vii. iv. 44 And sett himselfe amyde his elderis trone. 1535 Coverdale John ix. 18 They called the elders of him that had receaued his sight. 1557 N. T. (Genev.) 2 Tim. i. 3, I thanke God, whome I serue from myne elders with pure conscience.

fb. transf. (see quot.) Obs. 1719 London & Wise Compl. Card. vi. 115 Some [branches] shoot directly out of the main Body.. and may be called Elders, or Mothers.

2. a. (A personas) superior in age, senior. Almost exclusively in pi. c 1000 Ormin 13215 He patt iss )>in elldre. c 1340 Cursor M. 12092 To his eldre worship drawe. C1420 Pallad. on Husb. I. 125 That yonger men obeye unto thaire eldron. 1552 Abp. Hamilton Catech. (1884) 36 Ic haif had., understanding aboue my eldaris. 1596 Shaks. Tam. Shr. ii. 7 So well I know my duty to my elders. 1737 Pope Hor. Epist. n. i. 117 If our elders break all reason’s laws. 1801 Med.Jrnl. V. 411, I.. leave my elders to judge of them. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. I. 47 The child.. undoubtingly listens to.. his elders. 1864 Tennyson Enoch Ard. 375.

b. A person advanced in life. 1597 Shaks. 2 Hen. IV, ii. iv. 281 The wither’d Elder hath his Poll claw’d like a Parrot. 01643 G. Sandys (J.) From their seats the reverend elders rose. 1884 Illust. Lond. News 20 Sept. 268/12 The three elders, his companions in this terrible adventure, are now brought home.

3. A member of a ‘senate’, governing body or class, consisting of men venerable for age, or conventionally supposed to be so. Now chiefly Hist. Orig. as transl. of the seniores of the Vulgate, rendering the Heb. z'qenim (lit. ‘old men’). Cf. the equivalent Gr. y4povT€s. 1382 W yclif Deut. xix. 12 The aldren [MS. C. elderes; 1388 eldere men] of that citee shulen seende. 1535 Coverdale Susanna 50 The elders (that is the principall heades) sayde.-i Macc. xi. 31 The lettre which we dyd wryte vnto oure elder Lasthenus. 1607 Shaks. Cor. i. i. 230 See our best Elders; 1611 Bible Ruth iv. 9 Boaz saide vnto the Elders, and vnto all the people. 1715-20 Pope Iliadxwu. 586 The reverend elders nodded o’er the case. 1815 Elphinstone Acc. Caubul (1842) I. 221 To which the chief and elders always lend their weight. 1870 Gladstone Prim. Homer (1878) 116 They bear the general appellation of gerontes, elders, as well as kings.

4. a. In ecclesiastical use. A literal rendering of Gr. npeaPvTtpos, the title given to a certain order or class of office-bearers in the early Christian Church. The Gr. word was adopted in ecclesiastical Latin as presbyter, and its historical representative in Eng. is priest. In certain Protestant churches, chiefly those called Presbyterian, the Eng. word elder (with presbyter as an occasional synonym) is used as the designation of a class of officers intended to correspond in function to the ‘elders’ of the apostolic church. In the Presbyterian churches the term elders includes the clergy (for distinction called 'teaching elders’), but in ordinary language it is restricted to the lay or ruling elders, who are chosen in each parish or congregation to act with the minister in the management of church affairs. [1382 Wyclif Acts xv. 6 And ^ostlis and eldre men camen to gidere.] 1526 Tindale Titus i. 5 That thou., shuldest ordeyne elders [Wyclif, preestis] in every citie. 1579 Tomson Calvin's Serm. Tim. 227I2 Seing y« Church is compared to a flocke..the word shepeherde signifieth an Elder, not by age, but by office. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. iii. xlii. 289 Timothy was an Elder. 1719 D’Urfey Pills (1872) II. 288 When their Bishops are pulled down, Our Elders shall be sainted. 1760 T. Hutchinson Hist. Col. Mass. iv. (1765) 426 Most of the churches.. had one or more ruling elder. 1794 Burns, Robin shure in hairst, Robin.. Play’d me sic a trick. And me the eller’s dochter. 1846 M^^Culloch Acc. Brit. Empire (1854) II. 285 The Kirk Session is., composed of the minister of the parish and of lay-elders. New elders are chosen by the Session. 1858 Longf. M. Standish 31 The excellent Elder of Plymouth.

b. An order of priests in the Catholic Apostolic Church. 1828 E. Irving Sermons I. p. xxiii, These Sermons on the Incarnation.. you received with all acceptation; and the Elders whom God hath set over you made choice of them to stand first in these volumes. 1876 Encycl. Brit. V. 238/1 Four-and-twenty priests, divided into the four ministries of ‘elders, prophets, evangelists, and pastors’... The understanding is that each elder, with his co-presbyters and deacons, shall have charge of 500 adult communicants in his district.

c. A minister of any denomination. U.S. local. 1792 in Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. II. 30 In the year 1673 settlers.. employed one Elder Jones as their preacher. 1851 Advent Rev. Sf Sabbath Herald 21 July 3/3 Elder Jesse

Thompson and his companion [wife], (at whose table we are now writing,) were of this nurrrber. 1874 B. F. Taylor World on Wheels i. xix. 140 Take a young fellow from Hamilton or Rochester.. and call him Elder, as his country brethren and sisters always will. 1921 R. M. Jones Later Periods Quakerism I. iv. 120 Even now in the rural districts of New England a minister of any denomination is called ‘Elder’. 1925 Z. A. Tilghman Dugout 7, I can remember some of the elder’s sermon that day.

d. Quakerism. An officer of the Society of Friends appointed by a monthly meeting and responsible for the organization and proper conduct of meetings held within the jurisdiction of the monthly meeting. 1703 Yearly Meeting Epistle (Friends House) i We., tenderly Recommend unto Faithful Friends, and Elders especially, to Watch over the Flock of Christ. 1789 Yearly Meeting Minutes (Friends House) XVIH. 527 This Committee is of the Judgment that the offices of Elder & Overseer are distinct. 0 1847 in W. & T. Evans Friends' Library XI. 425/2 This Epistle [of 31 Mar. 1672] seems to be specially addressed to Ministers, and those filling the responsible station of overseers of the flock; the duties subsequently assigned to Elders, probably devolved at this time, on the faithful, perhaps in both the stations above mentioned, but.. especially on overseers. 1917 E. Grubb What is Quakerism? V. 99 The principal offices in the Society of Friends are those of Overseer and Elder. These officers are appointed, triennially, by the Monthly Meetings... The main work of the Elders is to foster more directly the spiritual life of the congregations, specially in regard to the vocal ministry. 1921, etc. (see overseer sb. i e]. 1974 G. Hubbard Quaker by Convincement iv. iii. 209 The whole concept of Elders and Overseers is that the functions of spiritual and material caring which would elsewhere devolve on a professional pastor should be carried by lay members. 1983 Milligan & Thomas My Ancestors were Quakers 14 The word ‘elder’ appears in Quaker documents from commonwealth days.. here it means a seasoned Friend... The specific appointment by monthly meetings of elders ‘to counsel ministers’ belongs to the first half of the i8th centu^.

5. Comb., as elder-like adv. 1640 Witt's Recreat. in Southey Comm.-Pl. Bk. Ser. ii. 314 Now most Elder-like he can Behave himself. 1795 Southey Jo0n of Arc iii. 542 Fathers of the church.. what!

elder-like Would ye this fairer than Susannah eye?

'elder, v.

[f. prec.]

1. trans. to elder it: to play

the elder (brother or sister), nonce-tod. 185s Chamb. Jrnl. III. 243 She elders it with such tender protection over the little sister.

2. intr. To become older, to begin to show age. So 'eldering ppl. a. poet, and colloq. 1876 G. M. Hopkins Wr. Deutschland (1918) st. 18 Never-eldering revel and river of youth. 1885 S. W. Mitchell In War Time xii. 186 Before she went away she was what my nurse used to call ‘eldering’. 1949 O. Nash Versus 121 In my eldering age.

elder,

dial, form of helder, rather. E. Waugh Lane. Sk. 26 in Lane. Gloss. (E.D.S.) One could either manage we’t at th’ for-end o’ their days. 1874 Manch. Critic 21 Feb. ibid.. I’d elder see ’em wortchin forth’ next to nought nor see ’em doin nought. 1857

'elder-berry, [f. elder + berry.] The fruit of the elder. Also attrib. in elderberry-wine. Hence 'elderberriness (nonce-wd.), used as a mock title, after highness, etc. 1589 Pappe w. Hatchet (1844) 27 His Elderberines.. is.. like an elderberrie. 1625 Althorp MS. in Simpkinson Washingtons Introd. 62 Surrop of elderberries. 1766 Pennant Zool. (1777) IV. 12 (Jod.) The ova become., almost as large as ripe elder berries. 1840-1 S. Warren Ten Thous. a Year 84/1 Cowslip, currant, ginger, or elderberry wine.

elderhood

(’eldahud). [f. elder sb.^ + -hood.]

a. The position or estate of an elder, seniority, b. The estate of the elders or rulers; the body of elders. 1597 Daniel Civ. Wares vii. Ixxvi, No elderhood, Rufus and Henrie stayes The imperial Crowne.. t’undertake. i860 Ellicott Life our Lord vii. 346 The Nazarene was..a blasphemer in the face of the elderhood of Israel.

'elderling. rare. [f. elder sb.^ + -ling.] 11. Contemptuously for elder sb.^ 4. Obs. 1606 Bp. W. Barlow Serm. (1607) A3b, Euery.. Ceremonie which, in the Cockpit of Elderlings, is concluded to be Poperie, is not so.

2. An elderly person. 1863 Mark Lemon Wait for End xix. (1866) 237 The two elderlings began to lament their situation.

elderly (’eldali), a.

[f. elder a. + -lyL]

1. Of persons or of things quasi-personified:

Somewhat old, verging towards old age. Also in comb., elderly-looking adj. 1611 CoTGR., Coke Power Sf

Vieillot, elderlie, somewhat old. 1660 R. Subj. 107 Let. .twelve elderly men of free condition, together with the Sheriff be swome. 1712 Budgell Spect. No. 301 Ifi Elderly Fops, and superannuated Coquets. 1773 Priestley Inst. Relig. (1872) H. 353 The more elderly.. members presided. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. I. 341 The elderly inhabitants [of Leeds] could still remember the time when the first brick house.. was built. 1867 Freeman Norm. Conq. (1876) I. vi. «9 An elderly man at the time of his marriage. 1871 Tyndall Fragm. Sc. I. vi. 198 The ‘Urgent’ is an elderly ship. 1876 Geo. Eliot D0«. Der. III. xxxv. 30 You had need hire men to.. chip it all over artistically, to give it an elderlylooking surface.

2. Of or pertaining to one in later life.

ELDERMAN 1674 N. Fairfax Bulk & Selv. 152 In our own elderly doings.. we are set on work after higher scantlings of wisdom. 1863 Geo. Eliot Romola (1880) I. Introd. 8 The Frate carried his doctrine rather too far for elderly ears. 1866 - F. Holt (1868) 19 No elderly face can be handsome, looked at in that way.

3. quasi“sfe. X865 N. Q. Ser. iii. VIII. 82 Fifty years ago a common exclamation among the elderlies was ‘my eye Kitty Fisher’. Hence 'elderliness, [see -ness.] 1876 Miss Yonge Womankind xxxv. 322 The trials of elderliness have either been unfelt or safely weathered. 1883 W. M. Baker Roll of Waves in Chicago Advance 27 Sept., A certain reserve and elderliness of manner. elderman, see elder a. 3. eldern ('Eldan), a. Also 3 (Orm.) elldern, eldrin,

7-8 Sc. eldren, 8 elderin. [f. elder a. + -en. In quot. 1839 prob. a new formation.] fl. Elderly. Obs. exc. Sc. c 1200 Ormin 1213 3iff pu.. hafesst jet.. tohh i?u be jung, Elldernemanness late. Ibid. 1235. i6ii Hudson 49 (Jam.) The tree bends his eldren braunch That way where first the stroke hath made him launch. 1739 A. Nicol Poems 73 (Jam.) The eldem men sat down their lane, To wet their throats within. 1768 Ross Helenore 68 (Jam.) Colin and Lindy.. The ane an elderin man, the niest a lad. 1790 A. Wilson To E. Picken, Aneath some spreading eldren thorn. 1818 Scott Rob Roy xxxiv, His Excellency is a thought eldern.

2. Old, belonging to earlier times, arch. a 1300 Cursor M. (Gott. MS.) 18016 Mine eldrin folk of iuen lede Haue i [Satan] done rise againes him. „(ai fette wode and elet. 1847-78 Halliw, Elet, fuel; ollit. Wilts.

eleusine (eljui'siin). Bot. [mod.L. (J. Gaertner De Fructibus et Semirtibus Plantarum (1788) I. 7), f. the name of the Attic town Eleusis, site of a temple to the corn-goddess Demeter + -ine^.] A member of the genus of annual tropical grasses so named, some of which are grown for grain in Africa and Asia; also called ragi, finger millet, or birdsfoot millet. 1829 Loudon Encyl. Plants 1089. 1914 H. Kraemer Applied & Economic Bot. v. 467 The fruit is a grain., the seed being always firmly united with the thin pericarp

-apxns ruler.] The chief of an (imaginary) secret society called ‘the Eleutheri’. 1813 T. J. Hogg Alexy Haimatoff 178, The Eleutherarch .. asked if they had any objection to my being initiated in the mysteries of the Eleutheri. 1813 Shelley Let. 26 Nov. in Contemp. Rev. (1884) 387 The Swans and the Eleutherarchs are proofs that you were a little sleepy. 1817 T. Peacock Nightmare Ab. 97 He slept.. and dreamed of venerable eleutherarchs,

Eleu'therian, a. rare. [f. Gr. iXtvdfpi-os of same meaning (f. iXevBep-os free) + -an.] The title of Zeus as protector of political freedom. 1623 Cockeram, Eleutherian, a deliverer. i8oi Southey Thalaba i. xii. Where the family of Greece Hymn’d Eleutherian Jove.

eleutherism (i'lju:03nz(3)m). [f. Gr. free -I- -ism.] Zeal for freedom.

iXevdep-os

1802 W. Taylor in Robberds Mem. I. 435 A Miltonic swell of diction and eleutherism of sentiment. 1803 Ann. Rev. I. 360 Ever since the American war, eleutherism had been the fashion of Europe.

eleuthero- (I'ljuiGorou), combining form of Gr. iXevdepos free; e.leuthero'mania [see mania], mad zeal for freedom. e,leuthero'maniac a. [see maniac], one possessed by a mad zeal for freedom.

Also in botanical compounds,

as

e,leuthero'petalous [Gr. TreraXov leaf], e,leuthero'phyllous [Gr. vXXov leaf], e,leuthero'sepalous [see sepal] adjs., having the petals, leaves, sepals, free, i.e. cohering.

distinct, not

1837 Carlyle Fr. Rev. I. iii. iv. Nothing but insubordination, eleutheromania, confused, unlimited opposition in their heads. Ibid. I. ii. v, Eleutheromaniac philosophedom grows ever more clamorous. 1880 Gray Struct. Bot. vi. §5. 245 Eleutheropetalous.. has.. been used for polypetalous.

t'elevable, a. Obs. rare~^. [a. Fr. elevable^ f. elever, (see next).] That can be elevated. 1676 H. More Remarks upon two Ingen. Disc. 164 The Embolus.. being elevable near to the top of the Laton Syringe or pump. 1691 Ed. Taylor Behmen's Aurora xxiii. 256 Not accensible nor elevable.

elevate (’eliveit), pa. pple. and ppL a. Also 4-5 eleuat(e, (5 eliuate), 6 elevat. [ad. L. elevat-uSy pa. pple. of elevd-re to elevate.] Used as pa. pple. of elevate; also = elevated ppL a.\ in various senses. From i8th c. only poet. ri39i Chaucer Astrol. ii. §23 This is to scyn, as many degrees as thy pool is eleuat, so michel is the latitude of the Regioun. 1432-50 tr. Higden (Rolls) I. 227 If that ston be oon say.. by what arte hit was elevate. 1509 Hawes Examp. Virt. vii. 134 He in rychesse shall be so eleuate. 1513 Bradshaw Werburge 125 The graue was, opened, eleuat was the chest. 1598 Stow Surv. xxix. (1603) 259 A Tombe eleuate and arched. 1667 Milton P.L. ii. 559 In thoughts more elevate. 1673 R. Leigh Transp. Reh. 22 This is elevate, this is the new way of writing. 1676 Halley in Rigaud Corr. Sci. Men (1841) I. 228 St. Helena, .where the south pole is considerably elevate. 1742 Young Nt. Th. ii. 350 Souls elevate, angelic, wing’d with fire. 1814 Southey Roderick vi, Elevate Amid the thousands.. above their heads upraised. 1873 Browning Red Cott. Night-C. 1638 There had been shaggy eyebrows elevate.

elevate ('eliveit), v. Also 6 ellevate, eleuate. [f. L. elevat- ppl. stem of elevdre, f. e out + levd-re (related to levis light) to render light, lighten, hence, to lift, raise.] 11.1. trans. To lighten, lessen the weight of; to depreciate, extenuate. Obs. 1533 Elyot Cast. Helth (1541) 35 a, Custome from chyidhode doth eleuate the power of meates and drynkes. C1570 Thynne Pride Sf Lowl. (1841) 5 Cato..dooth their credit ellevate, As thing whereof but small regard he tooke. 1609 Holland Livy xliv. xliv. 1199 b, [The Consul] forgat not to elevate as much as he could, the fame of the foresaid unhappie field. 1624 Bp. Mountagu Gagg 94 To avoide or elevate the censure of the church.. [they] procured letters deprecatory. 1788 V. Knox Winter Even. II. v. xii. 195 Instead of exalting our idea of the Deity they elevate or lower it.

II. To raise, lift up.

ELEVATED 2. a. To raise above the usual position, or above the level of surrounding objects. Also fig. 1497 J- Alkok Mons Perfectionis Cj2o/2 Obedyence.. openeth heuens it eleuatith a man fro the erth dweller with angels. 1607 Topsell Four-f. Beasts 350 This first picture of the Ichneumon was taken by Bellonius, except the back be too much elevated. 1797 M. Baillie Morb. Anat. (1807) 61 Unless the head..be more or less elevated from the horizontal posture. 1830 J. G. Strutt Sylva Brit. 4 The character.. of the Oak is rather to extend its arms, than elevate its head. 1858 Lardner Handbk. Nat. Phil. 109 The rope by which the bucket is elevated. 1878 Huxley Physiogr. 186 The land in the Bay of Concepcion had been elevated to the extent of four or five feet.

b. To hold up to view. Now only with reference to the Mass: To lift up (the Host) for the adoration of the people. 1637 Gillespie E'ng. Pop, Cerem. iii. ii. 32 When the hoste is elevated in the celebration of the Masse. 1649 J. Kent in Ellis Orig. Lett. ii. 295 III. 342 A rogue of a minister, after his head was severed from his sacred body, elevated it publicly to the people. 1660 R. Coke Power & Subj. 243 She [the Queen] had forbidden the Archbishop.. to elevate the Host for adoration.

tc. To rear or raise (by building). Obs. 1798 Ferriar Eng. Historians 243 On the northern side of the choir, was elevated one of those lofty, conical towers.

fd. Of the action of heat: To raise in the form of vapour; to evaporate or sublime. Ohs. 1607 Walkington Opt. Glass 28 The damping fumes that the Sun elevates from bogges. 1665-9 Boyle Occas. Refl. iv. xii. (1675) 240 The Sun has by its.. Beams elevated this Water in the form of Vapours. 1667-Orig. Formes & Qual.f These volatile particles of Gold, with the Salts wherewith they were elevated. 1715 [see elevated i b].

3. transf.

To raise (the voice).

1618 Rowlands Sacred Mem. 30 But they the more do eleuate their voyce. 1816 [See elevated a. 2.] Mod. It is unnecessary to elevate your voice.

4. To raise in direction, direct upwards. a. To raise (one’s eyes), direct (glances) upwards;/Eg. to ‘lift up’ (one’s hopes, thoughts) to a higher object. C1611 Shaks. Wint. T. v. ii. 82 One Eye declin’d for the losse of her Husband, another eleuated, that the Oracle was fulfill’d. 1818 Jas. Mill Brit. India II. iv. iv. 143 The English now elevated their hopes to the recovery of the province.

(Video) Adjectives - Describing Words | English Grammar & Composition Grade 2 | Periwinkle

b. Gunnery, To raise the axis of (a gun, etc.) to an angle with the horizon. 1692 in Capt. Smith's Seaman's Gram. ii. xxi. 134 Put in your Bullet with a Wad after it, if the Piece be not elevated. 1769 Falconer Diet. Marine (1789) Hhb, The mortar must be more elevated. 1859 F. Griffiths Artil. Man (1862) 112 No, 2 searches, sponges, rams home, elevates.

5. a. To raise, exalt in rank or status. 1509 Hawes Past. Pleas, xxvii. xix. For riche mennes goodes I muste ofte translate. Unto the poore, them for to elevate. 1606 Warner Alb. Eng. xiv. Ixxxv. (1612) 351 Nathak, who, eleuated, altered from vertuous to most vaine. 1709 Steele Tatler No. 56 jfz Footmen, Fiddlers, and Lacqueys, are elevated into Companions in this present Age. 1713-Englishman No. 2. 10 We like nothing but what will.. elevate us above our Neighbours. 1835 Lytton Rienzi i. i, See what liberty exists in Rome, when we, the patricians, thus elevate a plebeian.

fb. To extol or magnify (in praise).

ELEVATION

136

Obs.

1513 Bradshaw St. Werburge (1848) 48 With reverence hym elevate.

6. a. To raise in a moral or intellectual sense. 1624 Gataker Transubst. 89 To elevate our minde by faith. 1711 Steele Sped. No. 79 IP9 Choose Books which elevate the Mind above the World. 1850 Mrs. Stowe Uncle Tom's C. xxiii. 229 You might as well set Mount ^Etna on them flat, and tell them to stand up under it, as tell me to elevate my servants with all the superincumbent mass of society upon them. 01867 Buckle Misc. Wks. (1872) I. 63 There is hardly any virtue which so elevates our character, as moral courage. 1883 H. Drummond Nat. Law in Spir. W. iii. (1884) 98 The attempt to elevate the race has been mysteriously thwarted.

b. absol. 1886 ‘M. Gray’ Silence of D. Maitland III. iii, vi. 154 It was the kind of sorrow that purifies and elevates. 1967 Listener 5 Oct. 448/2 The first step is to brainwash the pop audience of its pirate-induced distrust of the Corporation.. then, slyly and imperceptibly, elevate.

7. a. To elate, exhilarate. Somewhat rare in mod. use. Malory's Arthur {\%ib) \. 173, I was so elevated .. in my heart. 1709 Luttrell Brief Rel. (1857) VI. 483 Being elevated by the terror he had struck into the enemy.. [he] resolved to advance and fight them. 1725 De Foe Voy. round W. (1840) 34 He seemed extremely pleased at this, and even elevated. 1818 Jas. Mill Brit. India II. iv. ii. 77 The French, elevated by this advantage, reinforced their victorious party.

b. spec, of the effects of liquor. Now humorous or slang. 01704 T. Brown Wks. (1760) II. 194 (D.) We were all elevated above the use of our legs as well as our reason. 1763 Brit. Mag. IV. 372, I, being elevated with liquor. 1816 ‘Quiz’ Grand Master vui. 230 But with the jumping-powder heated. He got completely—elevated. 1844 Dickens Mart. Chuz. ix. (C.D. ed.) 94 His depth of feeling is misunderstood. He is supposed to be a little elevated; and nobody heeds him. elevated ('elivemd), ppl. a. (and sb.) [f. elevate V.]

1. a. Raised up; (of buildings, etc.) reared aloft;, (of the hands) uplifted; (Geog.) situated at a high level, elevated pole (see quot.). elevated railway: a railway supported on pillars above

the street-level; also (U.S.) elevated highway, railroad, road-, so elevated station, train-, ellipt. as sb. = elevated railway, etc. 1553 Eden Treat. New Ind. (Arb.) 32 The south pole is there eleuated fortie & syxe degrees. 1615 Crooke Body of Man 434 The intelligible faculty of the Soule, as the Queene and Princesse of the rest should sit in an eleuated Tribunall. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. iii. xlii. 290 To elect.. by plurality of elevated hands. 1674 Ch. & Court of Rome 7 The idolatrous Worship of the elevated Wafer. 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1776) I. 200 Rivers have their source either in mountains, or elevated lakes. 1856 Stanley Sinai & Pal. i. (1858) ii Um Shaumer, the most elevated summit of the whole range. 1867 Smyth Sailor's Word-bk., Elevated Pole^ that..pole which is above the horizon. 1868 N. Y. Tribune i July 8/2 The remarkable work of constructing an elevated railway.. was again on trial yesterday. 1868 Ibid. 8/6 The elevated railroad through Greenwich street has ‘gone up’ higher than was contemplated in the charter of the company. 1868 Comm. ^ Financ. Chron. VI. 361/1 Three tiers of roads could be constructed; a basement road .. a surface road .. and an elevated road. 1880 Harper's Mag. Sept. 563 The buzzing which vibrates in the air comes from an elevated railway. 1881 Scribner's Mag. May 159/2 The clatter and roar and groaning wail of the Elevated train. 1881 W. G. Marshall Through Amer. 24 The effect of the ‘elevated’ —the ‘L’, as New Yorkers generally call it—is, to my mind, anything but beautiful. 1884 N. Y. Herald 27 Oct. 2/2 Commodious First Flat; Rent $37; Elevated Station 86th st. 1890 Century Mag. Nov. 45 In those days there were no elevated roads. 1901 Scribner's Mag. XXIX. 454/1 In the street the Ninth Avenue Elevated train roared by... The cobble-stones on Sixth Avenue were shining under the Elevated. 1906 ‘O. Henry’ Four Million 8 Standing under a gas-light and looking over the elevated road at the moon. 1945 W. Maxwell Folded Leaf 257 They rode on the elevated railway. 1947 Harper's Mag. May 453/2 The remaining eighty per cent [of the population] cling to the greasy straps of the antiquated, unsanitary, dilapidated, and dangerous Elevated. 1963 P.M.L.A. Dec. p. vii/2 (list) U.K. flyover: U.S. elevated highway.

fb. Of vapours: Raised by heat. Obs. 1715 tr. Pancirollus' Rerum Mem. II. viii. 322 Distillation .. whereby elevated Fumes .. are resolv’d into Waters, Oils.

c. fig. Exalted in rank. 1665-9 Boyle Occas. Refl., So elevated a station is apt to make men giddy. 1855 Macaulay Hist. Eng. IV. 545 The most elevated position among English subjects.

2. transf. Of the voice, of temperature, Scott Antiq. i. With an elevated voice. 1878 Huxley Physiogr. 76 If the liquid metal be kept.. at an elevated temperature. 1816

3. Math. Of an equation; Involving high powers of the unknown quantity. 1841 J. R. Young Math. Dissert, iii. 138 Whenever.. the proposed equation is of an elevated order. 1854 Boole Laws Thought i. 17 When that equation is of an elevated degree. 4. a. Astrol. b. Her. (see quots.), 1721-1800 Bailey, Elevated, a Planet is said to be elevated above another, when being stronger it weakens the Influence of the other. 1731 Ibid. vol. II, Elevated in Heraldry.. signifies the points of them [wings] turned upwards, which is the true flying posture.

5. Exalted in character, style, and tone; lofty, sublime; dignified. 1604 T. Wright Pass. iv. i. 117 Among.. eleuated spirits it will often chance that there will arise in conuersation, a certaine diuersitie of opinion. 1713 Berkeley Ess. Wks. III. 183 The most elevated notions of theology and morality. 1834 Mrs. Somerville Connex. Phys. Sc. (1849) Introd. i Science.. must ever afford.. subject of elevated meditation. 1875 JowETT Plato (ed. 2) V. 120 One of the most elevated passages in Plato.

6.

a. Elated, exhilarated. intoxicated {humorous or slang).

b.

Slightly

1624 Massinger Pari, of Love ii. i, A little elevated With the assurance of my future fortune. 1800 Bloomfield Farmer's Boy, Winter 384 Sunshine, Health, and Joy... cheer the elevated Boy! 1827 J. Wight More Mornings at Bow St. 51 A leetle elevated in liquor. 1859 Jephson Brittany v. 64 Some of the men were a little elevated. 1863 Mrs. Oliphant Salem Ch. xi. 189 This elevated frame of mind. 1898 c. M. Yonge Founded on Paper xviii. 211 Though the landlord declared him to have been fairly sober, he was what one awe-stricken youth termed ‘a little elevated’.

Hence 'elevatedly adv., in an elevated manner; with exaltation, 'elevatedness, the quality or condition of being elevated. 1593 Nashe Christ's T. (1613) 27 So penetrating and eleuatedly haue I praid for you. 1731 Bailey, vol. II, Elevatedness, exaltedness, a being lift up, etc. 1799 W. Godwin St. Leon (L.), The elevatedness and generosity of my station.

elevating (’eliveitir)), vbl. sb. [f. elevate

v.

-\-

-ingL] The action of the verb elevate. 1641 Wilkins Math. Magick i. ix. (1648) 58 It is likewise used for the elevating or lifting up of weights. 1692 in Capt. Smith's Seaman's Gram. ii. xxiv. 129 A Gunner’s Ruler, for the Elevating of any Piece of Ordnance to any degree of Mounture. 1870 Miss Bridgman R. Lynne I. ix. 138 Elevatings of the eyebrows. attrib. 1859 F. Griffiths Artil. Man. (1862) 122 The elevating screw must.. be clamped. 1881 Times 28 Jan. 3/6 The elevating gear of this gun.

elevating ('elivemr)), ppl. a. [f. elevate

v.

+

-ing“.] That elevates; chiefly 1817 Coleridge To a Lady, The elevating thought of suffered pains. 1853 Robertson Serm. Ser. iv. xvii. (1876) 229 The elevating power of faith. 1875 Hamerton Intel! Life i. iv. 24 Elevating influences of literature.

elevation (eliVeiJan). [ad. L. elevdtion-em, n. of action f. elevate: see elevate t).] 1. Process or result of elevating.

1. a. The action or process of lifting up or raising aloft; also, the giving of an upward direction to anything, valley of elevation (see quot. 1887). 1526 Pilgr. Per/. (1531) 15b, The eleuacyons or wawes of the see ben meruaylous. 1607 Topsell Four-f. Beasts 8 A Bull.. can toss into the air very great.. beasts, which he receiveth again as they fall down, doubling their elevation with renewed strength and rage. 1663 W. Charleton Chor. Gigant. 32 At first elevation of their eyes. 1676 Grew Lect. II. i. §6 Elevation; when, like Paste in baking..they [the bodies mixed] swell and huff up. 1695 Woodward Nat. Hist. Earth (J.) The disruption of the strata, the elevation of some, and depression of others. 1863 A. Ramsay Phys. Geog. i. (1878) II Volcanic regions subject to earthquakes are often areas of elevation. 1878 Huxley Physiogr. 205 But the land is subject also to local elevations and depressions. 1887 Woodward Geol. Engl. & Wales (ed. 2) 586 We sometimes find the higher tracts to be formed by what was .. a depression, while tracts originally elevated have been converted into .. ‘Valleys of Elevation*.

f b.

Spec. = erection. Obs. 1543 Traheron Vigo’s Chirurg. i.

xi. 10b. The yarde..is full of ventosite.. by which the eleuation of the same commeth.

c. Spec. The lifting up of the Host for the adoration of the people. 1563-87 Foxe a. 6f M. (1684) III. 666 Before the Elevation.. he turned him to the People in a great Rage. 1637 Gillespie Eng. Pop. Cerem. iii. ii. 28 The elevation of the bread materialiter, is not Idolatrous. 1699 Burnet 39 Art. xxviii. (1700) 342 The Elevation of the Sacrament began to be practised in the Sixth Century. 1884 F. M. Crawford Rom. Singer I. 9 And only takes it off when he sings the Gloria Patri, or at the Elevation.

fd. fig. The lifting up of the soul (in adoration); a devout exaltation of feeling. Obs. a 1600 Hooker (J.) All which different elevations of spirit unto God, are contained in the name of prayer. 1643 Sir T. Browne Relig. Med. i. § 3,1 could never heare the Ave Maria Bell without an elevation. 1674 Owen Holy Spirit (1693) 185 The Elevation of Faith to apprehend Divine Power. 1687 Burnet Death prim. Persecutors, Let us then Celebrate Gods Triumph over his Enemies with all the Elevations of Joy. 1711 Norris (J.) We are.. to love him with all possible .. elevation of spirit.

e. Ballet. A dancer’s leap or jump (steps of elevation) off the ground; the point attained in such a leap; in modem dance, an act or the action of tightening the muscles and improving the general lift of the body in a dancer’s stance. (Also in Fr. form elevation.) 1830 R. Barton tr. Blasis's Code of Terpsichore ii. vi. 77 In all your high caperings, develope a manly vigour, and let your steps of elevation be agreeably contrasted, by the rapidity of your terre-d-terre steps. 1889 G. B. Shaw London Mus. l888-8g (1937) 223 The entrechats, battements, ronds de jambes, arabesques, elevations, that are the stock-in-trade of the art of theatrical dancing. 1934 A. Haskell Balletomania xi. 223 She has gained an elevation that allows her to do thirty-six consecutive entrechats sixl 1948 Ballet Ann. II. 36 A magnificent soaring elevation. Ibid. 126 A slender dancer of exceptional elevation. 1949 Shurr & Yocum Mod. Dance i. 14 Elevation refers not only to ‘inches off the floor’—as in running, jumping, and leaping—but also to the body lift. 1961 [see A terre].

2. concr. A rising or swelling (on the skin or surface of the ground); a rising ground, an eminence, 1543 Traheron Vigo's Chirurg. ii. x. 23 a, Pruna hath not so great eleuation as ignis persicus. 1599 A. M. Gabelhouer's Bk. Physicke 2SSI2 If..the Patient hath no externalle disease, nor anye eleuatione. 1799 Kirwan Geol. Ess. 285 Secondary strata present.. elevations, from an original elevation in the fundamental stone. 1825 Macaulay Milton, Ess. (1854) 1. 14/1 Nooks and dells, beautiful as fairyland, are embosomed in its most rugged and gigantic elevations. 1848 W. Bartlett Egypt to Pal. x. (1879) 221 The remaining part of the elevation seemed like a small hill placed upon a terrace.

13. Sublimation; vaporization by heat. Obs. 1605 Timme Quersit. ii. i. 103 The elevations and sublimations of the spirits of the said salt. 1612 Woodall Surg. Mate Wks. (1653) 270 Elevation is subtiliation, when spiritual parts from the corporal.. by the force of fire are elevated. 1641 French Distill, i. (1651) 10 Elevation, is the rising of any matter in manner of fume, or vapour by vertue of heat. 1677 Hale Prim. Orig. Man. iv. ii. 301 An elevation or rectification of some parts of that Matter.

4. transf. a. A raising or increase (of temperature), b. A quickening (of the pulse); a raising of the animal spirits. Hence {dial, or vulgar) that which raises the spirits, a ‘pick-meup’. 1725 N. Robinson The. Physick 88 Elevation or Depression of the Pulse. 1850 Kingsley Alt. Locke xii, What*s elevation? Opium, bor’ alive, opium. 1882 Vines Sachs' Bot. 825 The slight elevation of temperature in the forenoon.

5. a. The raising (of the voice) in loudness (? also in pitch), f b. concr. The stressed syllable of a metrical foot; = arsis {rare). 1605 Bacon Adv. Learn, ii. 60 The consideration of the Accedents of Wordes, which are Measure, Sound, and Eleuation, or Accent. 1668 Wilkins Real Char. 45 Prolongation of Vowels, or Elevation of voice in the pronouncing of any syllable, Accent, a 1789 Burney Hist. Mus. (ed. 2) I. vi. 64 They [feet] were divided into two parts .. the first of which was called elevation.

16. Music. One of the ‘graces’ in old English music. Ohs. i6s9 Chr. Simpson Division Viol 9 Sometimes a Note is graced by sliding it from the Third below, called an Elevation, now something obsolete.

ELEVATIONAL t7. The raising or rearing (of plants). Obs. 1658 Evelyn Ft. Card. (1675) 38 The elevation and raising of trees, 8. The action of raising in rank or dignity; the state or fact of being elevated in rank. 16.. Locke (J.) Angels, in their several degrees of elevation above us. 1701 Luttrell Brief Rel. (1857) V. 4 The duke of Berwick was gone.. to compliment the pope upon his elevation. 1827 Hare Guesses Ser. ii. (1873) 541 A sudden elevation in life.. smells us out, and often perniciously. 1856 Froude Hist. Eng. (1858) II. viii. 270 The many men of talent who owed their elevation to Wolsey.

II. The height to which anything is elevated. 9. Of angular magnitude: a. Astron. The altitude or angular height of the pole, or of any heavenly body, above the horizon. fOf a place: The elevation of the pole at that place; the latitude (obs.). Also in Dialling, the angle made by the gnomon with the horizon (which is equal to the latitude of the place). c 1391 Chaucer Astral, ii. §23 Tak ther the elevacioun of thi pool. 1549 Compl. Scot. vi. \1Sy2) 47 Cosmaghraphie.. sal declair the .. eleuation.. of the sone, mune, and of the sternis. 1593 Fale Dialling 10 Before Sunne rising and after Sunne setting in our Elevation. 1642 Howell For. Trav. (Arb.) 87 The distance between places may be known by the elevation of the pole. 1683 Tryon Way to Health i Under the Elivation of pure Pole. 1686 tr. Chardin's Trav. 247 The Elevation of Erivan is in 40 Deg. 15 Min. 1706 Phillips, Elevation of the Pole (in Dialling) is the Angle which the Style .. makes with the Substylar Line. 1726 tr. Gregory's Astron. I. ii. 373 The Elevation of the Pole in that place therefore is also given. 1867-77 G. Chambers Astron. Vocab. Def. 915 Elevation of the Pole.

b. The angle made with the horizontal by any line of direction; spec, the angle at which a gun is elevated. 1692 in Capt. Smith's Seaman's Gram. ii. iv. 93 If his Piece be mounted to any Elevation, he need not put a Wad after the shot. 1769 Falconer Diet. Marine (1789) Hhb. The shell being fired at an elevation of 45°. 1798 Capt. Millar in Nicolas Disp. Nelson (1846) VH. Introd. 155, I observed their shot.. and knowing that.. they would not have coolness enough to change their elevation, I closed them suddenly.

10. a. A particular height or altitude above a given level; as the height of a locality above the level of the sea; of a building, etc., above the level of the ground. 1732 Berkeley Alciphr. iii. §9 The particular distance, position, elevation, or dimension of the fabric. 1830 J. G. Strutt Sylva Brit. 4 In sheltered groups they will reach an elevation of eighty or a hundred feet. 1856 Stanley Sinai & Pal. ii. (1858) 129 Jerusalem is of nearly the same elevation as the highest ground in England, i860 Tyndall Glac. i. §2. 19 What was snow at the higher elevations changed to rain lower down.

b. fig. 1822 Imison Sc. Art II. 391 He will perceive to what an elevation the excellence of the art can raise him.

11. concT, A drawing of a building or other object made in projection on a vertical plane, as distinguished from a ground plan. 1731 Bailey vol. II, Elevation (in Architect.) a draught or description of the face or principal side of a building, called also the Upright. 1762-71 H. Walpole Vertue's Anecd. Paint. (1786) IV. 244 The plan and elevations of the late earl of Leicester’s house. 1833 Brewster Nat. Magic xi. 281 An elevation of the automaton, as seen from behind. 1847 s. Brooks {title) City, Town and Country Architecture, designs for Street Elevations, Shop Fronts, etc. 1874 R. Tyrwhitt Sk. Club 28 That’s the front of your block which faces you,—the ‘elevation’ they call it.

12. As an abstract quality: Height, loftiness, a. lit. Of a building, etc. b. fig. Of literary style: Grandeur, dignity; formerly also in pL, instances of elevation, c. fig. Of character and sentiments: Nobleness, loftiness of tone. a. Mod. A building of imposing elevation. b. a 1639 WoTTON (J.) His style.. wanted a little elevation. 1716-8 Lady M. W. Montague Lett. I. xxxiv. 126 The elevation of an expression in an ancient author. 1750 Johnson Rambl. No. i If 6 Some [epic poets] that imagined themselves intitled.. to elevations not allowed in common life. 1871 Morley Voltaire (1886) 134 A return to..the classic form, its dignity, elevation, and severity. c. a 1680 Glanvill Serm. iii. (R.) They.. pitied the poor and carnal world .. all that were not of their conceited pitch and elevation. 1751 Johnson Rambl. No. 87 ff7 When nothing is necessary to elevation but detection of the follies of others. 1868 Lecky Europ. Mor. II. i. 72 Elevation of character constituted the Roman ideal of perfection. 1880 McCarthy Own Times HI. xlvi. 407 His character was somewhat wanting in the dignity of moral elevation.

elevational (eli'veijansl), a. [f. elevation + -AL*.] Of or pertaining to elevation. Cf. ELEVATION II. 1928 Daily Tel. 13 Nov. 10/6 The use of a model for an intended building was, he considered, far superior to any plan or elevational drawing. 1948 Archit. Rev. CIV. 238 {caption) The illustration shows an elevational view. 1970 H. Braun Parish Churches i. 16 In the same way that elevational architecture had been examined from the pictorial aspect, the plan came to be investigated from the point of view of its accommodation.

elevator ('eliveit3(r)). [a. L. elevator, f. elevd-re to ELEVATE.] One who or that which elevates. 1. Anat. a. A muscle which raises or moves a limb or an organ.

ELEVEN

137 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. iv. vii. 196 Being destitute of any motion, they conferre no reliefe unto the Agents or Elevators. 1746 Parsons Human Phys. i. 17 The Elevator arises tendinous and fleshy from the Edge of the Foramen lacerum. 1748 Hartley Observ. Man i. ii. §1. 148 The Elevators of the lower Jaw. 1870 Rolleston Anim. Life 13 The main elevator of the humerus and the wing.

b. In insects, one of the two flat joints of the maxillary or labial feelers. 1826 Kirby & Spence Entomol. III. 448 Thus in the hive bee and the humble bee the labials including the two flat joints or elevators have four joints.

2. Surg. ‘An instrument for raising any depressed portions of bone, particularly of the skull. Also, an instrument used in Dentistry for the removal of stumps of teeth’ (Syd. Soc. Lex.). 3. a. A machine used for raising corn or flour to an upper storey, b. U.S. A large building (containing one or more of these machines) used for the storage of grain, c. A machine used for raising hay or straw to the top of the stack. Also, an appendage to a thrashing machine, d. chiefly N. Amer. A lift, hoist, ascending chamber. Also attrib. 1787 in Rep. Comm. Pat. 1848 (U.S.) (1849) 574 One of which [machines], denominated by the said Oliver Evans an elevator, is calculated by its own motion to hoist the wheat or grain from the lower floor.. to the upper loft of such mill. 1799 I. Weld Trav. N. Amer. iii. 21 The elevators are inclosed in square wooden tubes. 1825 J. Nicholson Operat. Mech. 100 These elevators consist of a chain of buckets, or concave vessels.. fixed at proper distances upon a leathern band, which goes round two wheels. 1853 Harper's Mag. VH. 130/2 The introduction of a steam elevator, by which an indolent, or fati^ed, or aristocratic person may.. be borne up.. to the third, fourth, or fifth floor. 1862 Trollope N. Amer. I. 248 An elevator is as ugly a monster as has been yet produced. 1862 J. Wilson Farming 161 A larger set of elevators is usually employed to carry up the roughs to the feeding board [in a thrashing machine]. 1872 M. E. Holley Betsy Bobbet (1891) 295 She spoke up and says she, ‘Here is the elevater, be carried up.’ 1879 Chicago Tribune 8 May 8/4 As is the custom with elevator-boys— a reprehensible one it is too—the lad in charge of the elevator started it before closing the door. 1879 Jefferies Wild Life in S.C. 114 The new-fangled elevator carries up the hay by machinery from the waggon to the top. 1883 Harper's Mag. Jan. 275/1 He did not trust the elevator, but almost flew down the stairs. 1884 Howells ibid. Dec. 118/1 The Elevator boy, pulling at the rope [says] ‘We’re not there yet’. 1884 Lisbon (Dakota) Star 10 Oct., A. H. Laughlin.. has bought the store building.. near the elevator. 1885 Century Mag. XXX. 579/1 With staircases and elevator-shafts which must remain open, [etc.]. 1887 Contemp. Rev. May 699 Extensive elevator Companies. 1890 Congress. Rec. 8123/2 On this list there are firemen, watchmen, elevator men. 1902 Encycl. Brit. XXVIII. 129/1 A.. plunger, which.. carries the elevator-cage on its upper end. Ibtd. 130/2 The walls..of the elevator shaft. 1945 Chicago Tribune 26 Jan. z’jfi (Advt.), Elevator operator for office building. 1947 Auden Age of Anxiety (1948) ii. 47 When elevators raise blondes aloft to bachelor suites.

4. Aeronautics, a. An elevating screw, b. A control surface of an aeroplane (now always on the tailplane) used to change its angle of pitch. 1871 English Mechanic 27 Jan. 448/2 The side elevators would not only raise but poise the car. 1910 R. Ferris How it Flies y. 83 The large elevator planes in front have been a distinctive feature of the Wright machine. Ibid. xx. 460 Elevatory a shorter name for the elevating planes or elevating rudder, used for directing the aeroplane upward or downward. 1911 Reports Mem. (Adv. Comm. Aeronaut.) No. 59, 103 The most convenient arrangement of controls of elevator.. might be investigated. 1915 G. Bacon All about Flying 3 In monoplanes, of course, the elevator has always been in the tail. 1934 J. A. Sinclair Airships in Peace Sf War iv. 84, I had remained inside the control car with only the elevator-man and we both left the ship [fc. a zeppelin]. 1969 Listener i May 596/1 An elevator bracket broke.

5. Elevators, a proprietary name for a make of shoe with a raised insole intended to make the wearer appear taller. Also (now generically) elevator shoe. U.S. 1940 Official Gaz. (U.S. Patent Off.) 5 Mar. 28/1 StoneTarlow Co., Inc., Brockton, Mass... Elevators. For leather shoes. Claims use since Dec. 13, 1939. 1953 Wodehouse Performing Flea 165 Some are wearing elevator shoes. 1969 Wall St. Jrnl. 30 Sept, i /i He used to wear elevator shoes to increase his height. 1976 W. Allen Without Feathers 10 His .. elevator shoes, curiously enough, made him two inches shorter. 1984 New Yorker 9 Apr. 76/1 There are a lot of midgets in politics who run around in elevator shoes.

elevatory ('eliveitan), a. and sb. [f. elevator: see -ORY.] A. adj. Of or pertaining to elevation, that tends to elevate. 1. Geol. Concerned in raising or tending to raise the crust of the earth. 1833 Lyell Princ. Geol. HI. 117 The disturbing and dislocating force of the elevatory movements. 1847 HMiller First Impr. xi. (1861) 140 Should the time ever arrive when the elevatory agencies motionless and chill shall sleep within their profound depths. 1878 Huxley Physiogr. 205 Elevatory forces must have been at work.

2. In a non-material sense. 1851 Ruskin Mod. Paint. II. iii. i. xiv. §5 The moral feelings are thus elevatory of the mental faculties.

B. sb. = ELEVATOR 2 [as if ad. L. *elevdtdrium; so Fr. elevatoire. It. elevatorio]. 1612 Woodall Surg. Mate Wks. (1653) 91 If a depression of the Cranium be, strive with the elevatorie to raise it. 1758 J. S. tr. Le Dran's Observ. Surg. (1771) Ddiij, Vectis, an

Elevatory used to raise depress’d Bones. and in mod. Diets.

1832 in Webster;

Obs. as Eng. [a. Fr. eleve, f. clever to bring up.] A pupil. feleve.

The Fr. word is occas. used when Fr. subjects are spoken of: e.g. ‘He was an el^e of the Ecole Normale.' 1736 Bailey, An Eleve, a pupil or scholar educated under any one. 1769 Hope in Pnil. Trans. LIX. 241 note, Mr. James Robertson is an eleve of mine. 1807 J. Hall Trav. Scot! I. 146 Dr. Hunter..the eleve of Lord Monboddo. 1829 Gentl. Mag. XCVII. ii. 527 Their Eleves should have .. an excellent classical education. eleven (i'lev(3)n), a. and sb. Forms: i endleofan,

-lufon, -lyfon, -an, ellefne (Northumb, aellefne), 3-4 endlevene, -leve, -luve, 3-5 eiileve(n(e, -levyn, (3 enlovene, 4 onlevene), elleve(n(e, -evin, -yven, (3 sellevene, eolleve), 5-7 elevyn, (5 eleivan), aleven, -eaven, -euyn, 5- eleven, (6 Sc. allevin, alewin, 9 dial, ellebn, eleeben, lebn). [Common Teutonic: OE. gndleofon corresponds to OFris. andlova, elleva, OS. elleban (MDu. elleven, Du. elf), OHG. einlif (MHG. eilf, Ger. elf), ON. ellifu (Sw. ellifva, elfva. Da. elleve), Goth. ainlif.—OTeut. *ainlif- f. *ain- (shortened from ’*aino-) ONE + -lif- of uncertain origin. Outside Teutonic the only analogous form is the Lith. veno-lika, where -lika (answering in function to Eng. -teen) is the terminal element of all the numerals from ii to 19. The OE., OFris., OS., and ON. forms represent a type *ainlifun, app. assimilated to *tehun ten. The theory that the ending is a variant of OTeut. *tehun, Aryan *dekm ten, is now abandoned; some would derive it from the Aryan root *leiq or from *leip (both meaning to leave, to remain) so that eleven would mean ‘one left’ (after counting ten.)]

The cardinal number next after represented by the symbols 11 and xi. A. adj. 1. In concord with a sb. expressed.

ten,

^890 K. ^Elfred Bseda v. xviii. (Bosw.) Osred 6aet rice hsefde endleofan wintra. a looo Andreas (Gr.) 664 Naes folces ma..Nemne ellefne orettmaeegas. ciooo .^lfric Gen. xxxii. 22 [Jacob] nam his wif mid hira endlufon sunum. c 1325 Coer de L. 2725 Onlevene thousand of our meyne. 1382 Wyclif Acts i. 26 Mathi..was noumbrid to gidere with enlevene apostlis. 1393 Langl. P. PI. C. iv. 227 Thou hast hanged on myn hals elleuen tymes. C1400 Pol. Rel. & L. Poems 216, I have had ther-to lechys aleven, and they gave me medysins all. 01440 Sir Degrev. 342 More then enleve mele. 1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. cii. 82 And this mysauenture dured enleuen yere and moo. 1552 Lyndesay Monarche 4509 The 3eir of oure Saluatioun Alewin hundreth and sax and fyftie. 1591 Horsey Trav. (1857) 188 Aleaven of his. .servants. 1594 Shaks. Rich. Ill, iii. vi. 6 Eleuen houres I haue spent to write it ouer. 1664 Evelyn Kal. Hort. (1729) 229 Nor the Height above ten or eleven [Feet] at most, 1796 Burke Regie. Peace iii. Wks. VIII. 301 Eleven days they had the full use of Bantry Bay. 1887 Ruskin in Pall Mall G. 2 Sept. 3/2 Humanity.. had reduced itself to see no more than eleven eyes in a peacock’s tail.

2. a. With ellipsis of sb., which may usually be supplied from the context, the Eleven: sc. disciples; also, a body of executive officers at Athens. c 1205 Lay. 145 31 Bi tene & bi aelleuene [c 1275 enlouene]. C1275 O.E. Misc. 55 He seyde to his apostles . hi weren elleouene. 1297 R. Glouc. (1724) 298 In pe j>ousend 3er of grace, and endleuene j>erto. a 1300 Cursor M. 4119 An was eildest o pe elleuen. 1387 Trevisa Higden (Rolls) I. 343 Sex score and enleuene. 1591 Garrard Art Warre 130 When they passe a leven or twelve they are not to be accompted an aray. 1611 Bible Luke xxiv. 33 And found the eleuen gathered together. 1814 Byron Juan i. xlix. At six a charming child, and at eleven With all the promise of as fine a face. 1849 Grote Hist. Greece V. ii. Ixii. 427 They were handed over to the magistrates called the Eleven.

b. esp, sc. hours: as eleven o'clock, etc. 1548 Udall, etc., Erasm. Par. Matt. xx. 6 About a leuen of the clocke. 1602 Shaks. Ham. i. ii. 252 Vpon the Platforme twixt eleuen and twelue He visit you, 1759 Compl. Letter-Writer (ed. 6) 227 The Ball continued its Briskness and vivacity..’till about Eleven. 1803 R. Anderson Cumbrld. Ball. 67 When the clock strack eleeben.

c. eleven o'clock (dial, and formerly in U.S.A.), eleven hours (Sc,), a refreshment or slight repast taken at about eleven o’clock. 1805 A. Scott Poems (1808) 120 At length, ’le’en hour’s time brought the dame. 1808 Jamieson, Eleven-hours, a luncheon; so called from the time that labourers or children get their meridian. 1845 S. JuDD Margaret u. i. 214 Men and boys were seen going to the tavern for their eleven o’clock. 1898 ‘S. Tytler’ Mrs. Carmichael's Goddesses xv. 183,1 was trying my ’prentice hand at sawing and hammering and polishing till my ‘leven hours’. 1900 Eng. Dial. Diet. II. 247/2 Eleven hours,—o'clock or o'clocks.

B. as sb. 1. The abstract number eleven. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. ix. iv. (1495) 349 Thryes enleuen makyth thre and thyrty. 1547 Boorde Introd. Knowl. 123 Nyne, ten, aleuyn, twelue.

2. A set of eleven persons; esp. a set of eleven players forming ‘a side’ at cricket or football. 1743 in T. Waghom Cricket Scores (1899) 30 The above match was played in the Artillery Ground between the above elevens. C1800 in Etoniana v. 95 The eleven of football and the eleven of cricket. 1885 Truth 28 May 836/2 Such a county should.. produce a few bowlers to maintain the credit of its eleven.

t3. In phrase, by the elevens! (of uncertain origin). Obs.

ELEVENER

ELF

138

1773 Goldsm. Stoops to Conq. ii. i, By the Elevens, my place is gone quite out of my head.

allusion to the parable of the labourers {Matt. XX.); also eleventh^hour used attrib. or as adj.

exercised variously for the benefit or the injury

C, Comb., as elevenfold adj. and adv.; elevenpenny, comb, form of eleven pencey as in elevenpenny bit, formerly, in the U,S.y a coin of the value of twelve and a half cents; = levy eleven-plus, the age (between ii and 12) at which pupils leave primary schools; also, an examination taken at the same stage before entering one of the various types of secondary schools; eleven-pointer, a stag whose horns show eleven points. Also eleven-o’-clock (see A, 2 b) used attrib. or as adj. in eleven-o’-clock lady, eleven-o’-clock wind (see quots.).

971 Blickl. Horn. 93 Ball eorpe biS mid t^eostrum ofort>eaht set pa endlyftan tid pxa daejes. c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt. xx. 6 Da embe pa endlyftan tide he uteode. 1297 R. Glouc. (1724) 414 Jje enlefte day of heruest. a 1300 Cursor M. 22627 Jje signe o pe dai elleft, It es na skil pat it be left. 1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 4798 J>e ellevend day men sal com out Of caves. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. ix. xix. (1495) 357 The enleuenth month is Nouembre. 1489 Plumpton Corr. 78 Aleffant day of moneth of March. 1513-75 Diurn. Occurr. (1833) 10 Wpoun the ellevfint day of July, &c. 1551 Recorde Patkw. Knowl. 1. xvii. According vnto the eleuen conclusion. 1599 Shaks. Hen. V, i. i. 2 In th’ eleuenth yere of y' last Kings reign. 1663 Cowley Verses & Ess. (1669) 60 Come the eleventh Plague, rather than this should be. 1829 Southey All for Love i. xxiv, Though at the eleventh hour Thou hast come to serve our Prince of Power. 1870 Rossetti Let. 17 Mar. (1965) II. 820 But I am getting into that mistrustful state which nth hour work is sure to engender. 1897 C. M. Flandrau Harvard Episodes 230 So, in response to John’s eleventh-hour prayers, he did what he could. 1904 Daily Chron. 24 Oct. 5/4 An eleventh-hour alteration in the arrangements for the return of Queen Alexandra from Copenhagen. 1966 Listener i Dec. 810/2 To commit a boy to preparing for either.. examination.. deprives the eleventh-hour developer of a chance of an award.

They were believed to be of dwarfish form, to produce diseases of various kinds, to act as incubi and succubi, to cause nightmares, and to steal children, substituting changelings in their place. The Teutonic belief in elves is probably the main source of the mediaeval superstition respecting fairip, which, however, includes elements not of Teutonic origin; in general the Romanic word denotes a being of less terrible and more playful character than the ‘elf as originally conceived. In mod. literature, elf is a mere synonym of fairy, which has to a great extent superseded it even in dialects. Originally elf was masculine, elven feminine; but in 13th and 14th c. the two seem to have been used indifferently of both sexes. In mod. use ^//chiefly, though not always, denotes a male fairy. Beowulf 112 (Gr.) Fram l?anon untydras ealle onwocon eotenas and ylfe. ciooo Sax. Leechd. II. 296 Wi6 alfe and wij> uncuhum fidsan gniC myrran on win. ri205 Lay. 19256 Sone swa he com an eorSe* aluen hine iuengen. c 1386 Chaucer Man Lawes T. 656 The mooder was an elf by aventure. 1426 Audelay Poems 77 (Matz.) Alfe Rofyn begon to rug. C1460 Towneley Myst. (Matz.) He was takyn with an elfe. 1513 Douglas Mneis viii. vi. 7 Wyth Nymphis and Favnis apoun euery syde, Quhilk fairfolkis, or than elvis, clepyng we. 1579 E. K. in Spenser's Sheph. Cal. June 25 Gloss., For Guelfes and Gibelines, we say Elfes & Goblins. 1610 Shaks. Temp. v. i. 33 Ye Elves of hils, brooks, standing lakes and groues. 1635 Herrick Hesper. (1869) II. App. 477 Come follow, follow me You fairie elves that be. 1700 Dryden Wife Bath's T. 3 The King of elfs.. Gamboll’d on heaths. 1712-4 Pope Rape Lock i. 33 Airy elves by moonlight shadow seen. 1866 Kingsley Herew. xv. 193 You are an elf and a goddess. 1875 B. Taylor Faust i. i. Then the craft of elves propitious Hastes to help where help it can. fb. Sometimes distinguished from a ‘fairy’:

1557 Recorde Whetst. B ij, Vndecupla 11 to i: 22 to 2: 33 to 3, aleuenfolde. 1803 E. L. Peel in Longm. Mag. Nov. 74 A grand eleven-pointer.. standing out alone. 1807 C. W. Janson Stranger in Amer. xiv. 186 Beggars will also stipulate with you as to the sum they expect to be given them—they will name a quarter of a dollar, a nine-penny or eleven penny bit. 1826 New-Harmony Gaz. 3 May 256/2 (Th.), There were many poor people that would have made the shirts for three elevenpenny bits apiece. 1859 [see levy ii.'*]. 1879 Prior Plant-n., Eleven o’clock lady, Fr. dame d'onze heureSy from its waking up and opening its eyes so late in the day; the star of ^ethlthem {Ornithogalumumbellatum, L.). iBBB Pall Mall G. 9 July 8/2 A.. stiff breeze.. called ‘eleven o’clock wind’.. that is to say, supposing the target to be marked like the dial of a clock, the wind would blow .. in the direction of the figure 11. 1891 Kipling Light that Failed ix. 182 The one-and-elevenpenny umbrella. 1937 E. Garnett Family from One End Street iii. 27 The age known in state educational circles as ‘eleven-plus’ (that year of destiny for all elementary school children with any ambition). 1945 Lancet 30 June 823/1 A universal age of entry at ii + and a leaving age of 16 will go far. 1957 Listener 2,1 Nov. 853/2 The so-called eleven plus examination. Ibid., The most helpful book that has so far appeared on ‘eleven plus’. 1958 Economist 12 Apr. 99/1 Labour.. turns to the Rent Act, the block grant, the ‘iniquitous eleven-plus’. 1959 I. & P. Opie Lore Lang. Schoolch. xi. 227 They [^c. children] are particularly conscientious about bringing charms to the ri'plus examination, the ‘scholarship’ as they call it, which determines whether they shall go on to a grammar school or to a secondary modern.

Hence elevens meal, a luncheon.

{dial.),

an

eleven-o’-clock

& H. Raynbird Agric. Suffolk vi. 296 The name ‘fourzes’ and ‘elevens’, given to these short periods of rest and refreshment, show when taken. 1865 W. White E. Eng. II. 197, ‘I commonly has a drop [of ale] for my elevens; but I can manage a pint o’ a’ternoons besides.’ 1849 W.

elevener (ilev3n3(r)), [f. eleven + -er*.] 1. An eleven-o’-clock meal, a luncheon. E. Moor Suffolk Words & Phr, s.v. Sever, the Hevener—this.. is the interstitial snack between the prime and the next. 1875 Parish Sussex Dial, Elevener, a luncheon. 1823

2. One who takes a drink at ii a.m. rare—^. U.S. 1807 C. W. Janson Stranger in Amer. xxii. 299, I know of no custom more destructive than that which is practised by slingers and eleveners.

elevenses (I'lsvanziz), sb. pi. [orig. dial, form of elevens s.v. eleven a.] Elevens; light refreshment about ii a.m. 1887 Parish C. J. Cornish

& Shaw Diet. Kent. Dial. 51 Elevenses. 1895 Wild Eng. Today 243 The workmen rest for their ‘elevenses’ and ‘fourses’. 1923 Daily Mail 30 July 6 The men at work with bare chests or enjoying their drink in the shade of the hedge at ‘elevenses’ or ‘fourses’ according to the hour. 1927 Wodehouse Meet Mr. Mulliner ii. 56 At eleven o’clock he has his ‘elevenses’, consisting of coffee, cream, more bread and more butter. 1930 T. Thurston Man in Black Hat viii. 143 Charwomen.. consuming what I am told they call their ‘elevenses’. 1933 Punch 2 Aug. 124/2, I came upon him drinking his elevenses (these functions usually lasted from eleven-thirty to twelve—the time of his dinner-hour). 1947 I. Brown Say the Word 17 ‘Elevenses’ is middle-class and particularized, usually coffee and a biscuit at the hour named. 1951 Lilliput Sept.-Oct. 111/2 On the desk in front of him was a cup of coffee and some sandwiches. ‘Elevenses,’ he said.

t e'leventeen. Obs. nonce-wd. -TEEN.] Twenty-one.

[f. eleven

-I-

16.. Wither Weakness, Many giglets I have married seen Ere they forsooth could reach eleventeen.

eleventh (i'lev(3)n6), a. and sb. Forms; a. i endlyfta, Northumb. aellefta, 3-4 enlefte, north. elleft. /3. I endleofeSa, 4 elleveflJe, 4-5 enlevenjj, -the, ellevend, -ent, -enl)e, -ynd, -ynt, (4 alleven}>e, elned, 5 aleffant), 6 elleventh, (ellewint, elevynth, aleventh, eleven, leventh, Sc. levint, 7 elventh, 9 dial, elevent), 7- eleventh. [OE. ^ndlyfta, asllefta, correspond to OFris. andlofta, ellefta, OS. ellifto, OHG. einlifto (MHG. einlifte, eilfte, mod.G. elfte), ON. ellifte (not recorded in Goth.):—OTeut. *ainlifton- f. *ainlif-eleven -Iordinal suffix f. OAryan -to-. As in the case of other numerals, the original word has been superseded (since 14th c.) by a new formation on the cardinal numeral -t- -th (after fourth), which is now the universal ordinal suffix. Certain forms in ME. and mod.Eng., following other analogies, have -t or -d instead of -th.) A. adj. 1. a. That comes next in order to the tenth. eleventh hour: the latest possible time, in

b. with ellipsis of sb. CI325 E.E. Allit. P. B. 1013 pe lacyngh J?e enleuenj?e gent. 1340 Ayenb. 14 pe enlefte is to leve Jje lesnesse of zenne. c 1380 Sir Ferumb. 2845 Basyn was pe elleuefpe pat 3e han slawe there. C1400 Apoll. Loll. 78 >e elleuynt. 1552 Abp. Hamilton Catech. (1884) 51 The levint, quha presumis of thame self ony thing. 1588 A. King tr. Canisius' Catech. 183 The ellewint is continence quhairby we abstain nocht only from meats, bot also from al vickednes. 1632 Sanderson 12 Serm. loi At the eleventh.

2. eleventh part: one of eleven equal parts into which a quantity may be divided. 1797 Burke Regie. Peace Wks. VIII. 402 An increase., from an eleventh to a twentieth part of the whole duty.

f 3.

quasi-aff?j.

in

the

eleventh

place,

ELEVENTHLY. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W.) 292 b, Elleuenth, they be mortifyed from all feares, scrupules, and euyll dedes.

B. sb, 1. ” eleventh part', see A. 2. 1557 Recorde Whetst. Bijb, Sesquiundecima. 12 to ii: 24 to 22.. ii^l a leuenth more.

2. Mus. A note eleven diatonic degrees above or below a given note; also (usually) the interval between this and the given note, equivalent to an octave and a fourth; a chord containing two such notes. 1597 Morley Introd. Mus. 70 From Gam vt to D la sol re is a twelfe, although it seeme in common sence but an aleuenth. 1811 T. Busby Diet. Mus., Eleventh, an interval consisting of ten conjunct degrees, or eleven diatonic sounds. 1880 Grove Diet. Mus. I. 437 The chord of the dominant eleventh, when complete.. is hardly likely to be found unabridged. Ibid. 438 [Some] theorists.. repudiate the chords of the eleventh and thirteenth. 1934 C. Lambert Music Ho! i. 26 The ninths and elevenths and whole-tone chords that form the stock-in-trade of Debussy’s early mannered style.

eleventhly (i’lEv(3)n01i), adv. [f. eleventh a. + -LY^.J In the eleventh place. Also quasi-56. 1609 R. Barnerd Faithf. Sheph. 55 Eleventhly & lastly. D. Jenkins Wks. 39 Eleventhly, wee maintaine, etc. Vind. Sacheverell 85 We are now come to Eleventhly, these Eleventhly^s and Twelfthly's, these false Stories. 1648 1711

elevi'ation, bad form of alleviation. 1543*4 35 Hen. VIII, c. 12 To the eleuiation of parte of his great and inestimable charges.

elevon ('elivon). Aeronaut, [f. elev(ator (sense 4 b) 4- ailer)on.] The movable section of the trailing edge of a delta wing, so called because it fulfils the function of both aileron and elevator on the wing and tailplane of an aeroplane so equipped. 194s Sphere 22 Sept. 358 {caption) Elevens. 1946 Aircraft Recognition Jrnl. Dec. 65/2 It is not absolutely necessary to have sweep-back in the flying wing’s plan form, but it is useful because otherwise the ‘elevons’.. would have such poor leverage about the centre of gravity. 1948 Jane's Aircraft 2ic/i Longitudinal and lateral control by ‘controllers’ or ‘elevens’ which are hinged on each outer wing to serve as both elevators and ailerons. 1953 ‘N. Shute’ In the Wet ix. 301 He could see the four engines, the elevons, the flaps, the long line of the fuselage.

elf (elf), sb.^ Forms: i ®lf, ylf (app. recorded only in pi. ylfe), 3 alve, 5 alfe, 5-7 elfe, 4- elf. Plural elves; i ylfe, 3 alven, 6-7 elfes, Sc. elvis, 8 elfs, 6- elves. See also elven, auf, OAFk [OE. xlf str. masc. = OHG. alp (MHG., mod.G. alp nightmare, ON. alfr (Da. alf) elf:—OTeut. *albo-z; a parallel type *albi-z (cf. Sw. elf. Da. elv) appears in late WSax. *ylf (found in pi. ylfe:—*i^lfe) = Mercian, Kent. *^lf, Northumb. *ielf, one or other of which is represented in the mod. word. (The mod.G. elf is believed to be adopted from Eng.; MHG. had elbe a female elf.) Some have compared the Teut. word with the Skr. rbhu, the name given to the three genii of the seasons in Hindu mythology.]

1. Mythol. a. The name of a class of supernatural beings, in early Teutonic belief supposed to possess formidable magical powers,

of mankind.

{a) as an inferior or subject species; {b) as a more malignant being, an ‘imp’, ‘demon’; also fig. Obs. 1587 M. Grove Pelops & Hipp. (1878) 75 To exercise your selfe In feates of armes, thereby to shun of loytring loue the elfe. fli593H. Smith Wks. 1867 IL483 Frenzies, furies (wayward elves): What need ye call for whip or scourge? 1623 J. Abbott Force Contrition in Farr’s S.P.Jas. I (1848) 353 The raine which this detested elfe must drowne Must from aboue..come downe. a 1628 F. Greville Mustapha, 3rd Chorus, What means.. This finite Elfe of mans vaine acts and errors? 1651 Hobbes Leviath. (1839) 699 When the fairies are displeased with any body, they are said to send their elves, to pinch them, a 1700 Dryden (J.) That we may angels seem, we paint them elves.

2. transf. a. (See quot.) 1651 Hobbes Leviath. (1839) 699 The fairies.. are said to take young children .. and to change them into natural fools, which common people do therefore call elves, and are apt to mischief. b. A tricksy, mischievous, sometimes a spiteful

and malicious creature, to play the elf: to act elfishly, maliciously. 6 J. Playfair Nat. Phil. II. 185 The orbit of the fourth satellite is sensibly elliptical. 1831 Brewster Optics xxvii. 225, I have been enabled to refer all the phenomena of the action of metals to a new species of polarisation, which I have called elliptical polarisation. 1878 Huxley Physiogr. xx. 354 In the great elliptical path of the earth the sun occupies one of these foci.

b. elliptical compasses: = elliptic compasses. \ elliptical dial, a small pocket-dial (Kersey). Also in Bailey 1721-1790, Chambers 1751. c. Comb. 1845 Lindley Sch. Bot. v. (1858) 53 Leaves •ellipticallanceolate.

2. Gram. Of sentences and phrases: Defective, lacking a word or words which must be supplied to complete the sense. Of style, etc.: Characterized by ellipsis. 1778 Bp. Lowth Isaiah (ed. 12) 313 note, It was necessary to add a word or two in the version to supply the elliptical expression of the Hebrew. 1828 Whately Rhetoric in Encycl. Metrop. 284/1 Aristotle’s Style., is frequently so elliptical as to be dry and obscure. 1848 Mill Pol. Econ. i. iii. §i (1876) 29 Production and productive, are.. elliptical expressions, involving the idea of a something produced. 1884 Traill in Macm. Mag. Oct. 441/1 Carlyle’s violently elliptical manner.

3. Omitted by ellipsis. ? nonce-use. 1829 W. Duncan Greek Test. Pref., He has given at the foot of the page.. many of the principal elliptical words.

elliptically (e'liptikali), adv.

[f. prec.

-1- -ly®.]

In an elliptical manner. 1. Gram. With use of ellipsis. 1816 J. Gilchrist Philos. Etym. Introd. 21 Almost every word is put elliptically. 1856 Dove Logic Chr. Faith i. i. §2. 39 [Certain sciences] use.. elliptically, the Syllogism.

2. In the form or after the manner of an ellipse. 1831 Brewster Optics xxvii. 229 Light polarised + 45° is elliptically polarised.

e'llipticalness.

ELMENTEITAN

145

rare. [f. elliptical -NESS.] The quality of being elliptical.

a.

+

1681 H. More Exp, Dan. App. iii. 300 According to the Ellipticalness of the Apocalyptick style.

ellipticity (elip'tisiti).

[f. elliptic -i- -ity.] Elliptic form; degree of deviation (of an orbit, etc.) from circularity, (of a spheroid) from sphericity. 1753 Phil. Trans. XLVIII. 84 [In] the case of beds supposed of the same ellipticity.. 1 have taken greater care. 1833 Sir J. Herschel Astron. iii. 109 Its deviation from the circular form, arising from so very slight an ellipticity- 1864 Athenseum No. 1926. 402/2 The ellipticity of Mars. 1870 Jevons Elem. Log. xxxiii. (1880) 291 An orbit of slight ellipticity.

b. as a measurable quantity. The ellipticity of a spheroid (e.g. of the figure of a planet) is expressed by some mathematicians as the ratio of the difference of the axes to the major axis, and by others as the ratio of this difference to the minor axis. (With reference to

orbits this mode of expressing ellipticity is not used; see ECCENTRICITY 3 b.) 1753 Phil. Trans. XLVIII. 77 The diminution of the gravity having been found greater than the ellipticity or difference of diameters ought to be less than that fraction. 1831 Brewster Newton (1855) 1. xiii. 361 The ellipticity of the earth.. has been found to be jh- 1867 Denison Astron. without Math. 7 Its ellipticity.. means the proportion between the difference of the two axes.. of an ellipse, and the greater of them.

elliptograph. =

ellipsograph. 1855 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 8) s.v. [A description of the instrument].

ellip'toides. Obs. Also

[Badly f. ellipt- (cf. elliptic) ■+■ mod.L. -oides: see -oid.] An infinite ellipse. t

8 elliptoide.

1731 Bailey, Eliptoides. 1796 Hutton Math. Diet., Ellipto^e, an infinite or indefinite Ellipsis, defined by the indefinite equation ay= bx”*. a — x” when m or n are greater than i.

Ilellops ('elops). Obs. in actual use. [a. Gr.

cAAoi/t

or cAoi/t, the name of a fish and of a serpent. (The variants Elaps and Elops zoological Latin in different senses).]

are

used

in

mod.

1. A kind of serpent. 1667 Milton P.L. x. 526 Cerastes hornd, Hydrus, and Ellops drear.

2. A kind of fish mentioned by ancient writers. 1601 Holland Pliny I. 266 The Lamprey in Sicilie: the Elops at Rhodes, and so forth of other sorts of fishes. 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1862) II. i. iii. 299 The Elops or Seaserpent. 1775 Ash, Ellops, a fish affording delicious food which some think to be the sturgeon of the modems. 1875 Browning Aristoph. Apol. 110 Spends all his substance on stewed ellops-fish.

elloret obs. f. elder sb.^ (the tree). ell-rake. dial. Also eld-, eller-rake. [Derivation uncertain; cf. elcrook; the writers of the Chesh. and Shropsh. glossaries suggest heel-rake. Halliwell gives also *Ellock-rake, a small rake for breaking up ant-hills. Salop.*] A large rake with curved iron teeth, drawn behind the raker. 1879 Shropsh. Word-bk. (E.D.S.) Ellrake, eldrake. 1884 Chesh. Gloss. (E.D.S.) Ell-rake, eller-rake.

eU-wand ('elwnnd). Chiefly Sc. and north, dial. Also 5 elenwand, ellewande, elwonde, Sc. elnewande, 7-9 elwand. [f. ell + wand.] 1. A measuring rod, an ell-measure: sometimes used for ‘yard-measure’. [1403 Nottingham Borough Rec. II. 34 Ipse Johannes cepit quendam elenwand, et ipsam percussit super capud.] ?ai500 tr. Leges Burgorum Scociae xlviii. in Sc. Acts (1844) I. 342 Ilk burges may hafe in his hous.. ane elnewand. i6og Skene Reg. Maj. 36 The heire of ane burges, is of perfite age, quhen he.. can.. measure claith (with ane elwand). 1725 Ramsay Gentle Sheph. iii. i. An elwand fills his hand, his habit mean. 1834 H. Miller Scenes Leg. xxi. (1857) 304 Beating time with his ellwand on the point of his shoe.

f 2. The larger of the bones of the fore-arm; =

ULNA. Obs. C1440 Promp. Parv. 139 Elle wande [P. elwonde,] ulna.

3. Sc. The group of stars called Orion’s Belt. 1513 Douglas Mneis viii. Prol. 153 The son, the sevin sternis, and the Charll wane, The elwand, the dementis, and Arthuris hufe. C1817 Hogg Tales Sf Sk. IV. 29 King’s Elwand (now foolishly termed the Belt of Orion).

elm (elm), sb.

Forms: i elm, 5-7 elme, 9 dial. elem, ellum, 4- elm. Also 4 ulm, 6 ulme. [OE. elm str. masc. = OHG. elm str. masc. (whence the derivatives MHG. elme, ilme, ilmene wk. fern.) :—WGer. *elmo-z-, the same word with difference of ablaut appears as ON. dlmr (Sw. aim. Da. aim, selm) etymologically = L. ulmus. The mod.Ger. ulme, Du. olm, and the Eng. form ulm(e, are due to the influence of the Lat. word.] 1. The name of well-known trees belonging to the genus Ulmus, esp., in England, the Common or Small-leaved Elm (Ulmus campestris), a tree having rough, doubly serrated leaves, flowers nearly sessile, the fruit oblong, deeply cloven and glabrous; in Scotland, the Witch or Wych Elm (Ulmus montana) or the Cork-barked Elm (Ulmus suberosa); in U.S. the White Elm (Ulmus americana). c 1000 Sax. Leechd. 11. 52 Eft jenim elmes rinde, sebaern to ahsan. 1382 Wyclif Isa. xli. 19, I shal sette in desert fyrr tree and vim and box togidere. c 1440 Promp. Parv. 138 Elm, tre, ulmus. 1541 Act. 33 Hen. VIII. c. 9 §5 Two other bowes .. of ashe, elme, wyche, hasyll or other wood mete for the same. 1567 Drant Horace Epist. I. vii. D vj, Our cittizen is now a Corridon. He trimmes his ulmes. 1664 Evelyn Sylva iv. §6 The Elm delights in a sound, sweet and fertile Land. 1750 Gray Elegy iv, Beneath those rugged elms, that yew tree’s shade. 1794 Martyn Rousseau’s Bot. xvii. 224 Few persons know that the Elm has any flower. 1830 Lindley Nat. Syst. Bot. 94 The inner bark of the Elm is slightly bitter and astringent. 1850 Tennyson In Mem. xciv. 58 Rock’d the full foliaged elms. 1858 O. W. Holmes One-hoss Shay, Logs from the ‘Settler’s ellum’. 1877 E. Peacock N.W. Line. Gloss. (E.D.S.) Elem, the elm. 1881 Isle Wight Gloss. (E.D.S.) Ellum, an elm.

2. With distinguishing epithets, denoting the above-named and other species of the genus Ulmus: broad-leaved elm, Ulmus latifolia or

montana-, Chichester elm, also called American elm, Ulmus americana-, Dutch elm: see Dutch A. adj. 3 c. witch or wych elm, Ulmus montana. Also yoke elm, the hornbeam (Carpinus Betulus). 1876 Harley Mat. Med. 423 The Broad-Leaved Elm.. 60-80 feet high, with rugged bark. 1882 Garden ii Nov. 419/3 The Chichester Elm..is variously known as the Huntingdon, Scampston, or unfortunately as the American Elm.

3. fig. with reference to the practice of training vines on elms. 1590 Shaks. Com. Err. ii. ii. 179 Thou art an Elme my husband, I a Vine. 1643 Myst. Iniq. 2 Subverting the Protestant Religion, together with the Subjects Liberty, (the Elme of that Vine).

4. The wood of these trees. 1823 P. Nicholson Pract. Build. 261 Elm is another tough and strong species of wood.

5. Comb., chiefly attrib., as ehrudresser, -plank, -shadow, -tree, --wood-, elntrarched, -bordered, -embosomed, -encircled, -fringed, -grey adjs.; elm-balm, the fluid contained in elm-galls; elm bark beetle, elm (leaf) beetle, (see quots); elm butterfly, a butterfly whose larva feeds on the leaves of the elm, as the comma-butterfly (Grapta comma-album)-. Elm City (also City of Elms) U.S. (see quots.); elmgall, the gall produced on the different species of elm by the puncture of Aphis ulmi; elm-pipe, the trunk of an elm hollowed for use as a drain or water-pipe. i860 Harper's Mag. June 4/1, I wandered through the *elm-arched streets [of New Haven] in solitude as absolute as though I trod the aisles of a primeval forest. 1868 J. R. Lowell Al Fresco (1896) 6i Upon these elm-arched solitudes No hum of neighbor toil intrudes. 1861 Miss Pratt Flower. PI. V. 42 Galls are also produced on the leaves by the puncture of a cynips, and each gall contains some drops of liquid, which has been called *Elm balm. 1909 Cent. Diet. Suppl., *Elm bark-beetle, a scolytid beetle, Phlseophthorus liminaris, which bores the bark of elm-trees. 1936 Discovery Feb. 41/2 The Elm-Bark Beetle {Eccoptogaster scotylus Fab.) has increased remarkably in recent years and as it carries the fungus of elm disease, its increase is a serious economic problem of the future. 1961 New Scientist 16 Mar. 665/1 DDT.. is used to control the elm-bark beetle. 1876 Field ^ Forest II. 12 One [insect] found destroying the foliage of the elm, pronounced.. to be Galeruca calmariensis, the •elm beetle. 1902 C. J. Cornish Naturalist on Thames xxxvi. 224 The •elm-bordered meadows of the Vale of White Horse. 1872 A. S. Packard Study Insects Index 692/1 •Elm butterfly. 1843 Yale Lit. Mag. VIII. 328 Some inconsiderate hard-hearted beauty, that was supposed to reside somewhere in the ‘•City of Elms’. 1871 Schele de Verb Americanisms (1872) 664 New Haven in Connecticut, is known throughout the United States as Elm City, from the number and magnificent size of the elm-trees that adorn the public squares and most of the principal streets. 1596 in Rogers Agric. & Prices III. 578 •Elm dresser 20/. 1839 Clough Poems ii. 11 Field and wood And •elm-embosomed spire. 1777 T. Warton Poems Ode vii, Or grange, or •elm-encircled farm. 1909 Westm. Gaz. 14 Apr. 5/1 The •elm-fringed arm of the Tyburn stream. 1935 E. Bowen House in Paris i. v. 70 The •elm-grey autumn park. 1881 Amer. Naturalist XV. 242 Inquiries about the imported •elm leaf-beetle. 1731 S. Hales Stat. Ess. II. App., Where •elm-pipes lay underground. 1677 Moxon Mech. Exerc. (1703) 173 An Oaken plank, or •Elm plank. 1835 Mrs. Hemans Haunted House, Where the deep •elm shadows fall. 1562 Turner Herbal ii. 169b, The leues, the boughes, and the barck of the •elm tre, haue a binding vertue. 1688 R. Holme Armoury ii. 52/1 The Elme Tree is of some called All-Heart. 1771 Goldsm. Hist. Engl. ii. 387 Her body was..thrown into a common chest of elm tree. 1832 Tennyson Dream Fair Worn. 57 Enormous elmtree-boles did stoop and lean Upon the dusky brushwood underneath Their broad curved branches.

elm, var. of

helm sb. and v. dial.

felmawes. Obs. rare-^. (31500 Voc. elmawes.

elmen

in

Wr.-Wiilcker

591

Lameres,

anglice

(‘Elman), a. Now dial, or arch. Forms: 5

elmyn, (6-7 elming), 5-9 elmin, 5- elmen. [f. elm +

-EN.]

1. Of or pertaining to an elm-tree. 1494 Fabyan vii. 585 They were hanged vpon an elmyn tree. 1599 T. M[oufet] Silkwormes 56 Tender Elming bud May..be giuen in steede of foode. 1607 Topsell Four-f. Beasts 301 Let him feed upon.. Elming boughs. 1676 Hobbes Iliad vi. 402 Planted about it many Elmen-trees. 1807 Crabbe Hall Justice, We slept beneath the elmin tree. 1813 Scott Rokeby ii. xxvii, Leaning against the elmin tree. 1881 Palgrave Visions Eng. 21 The elmen leaf Thinn’d into gold, and fell.

2. Made of the wood of the elm-tree. 1466 Mann. & Househ. Exp. 323 Item, for lx. fete of elmen horde, xx.d. 1648 Bury Wills (1850) 209 A great chest of elming horde.

3. Composed of elm-trees. 1876 World No. 106. 19 The elmen howers are in their prime of foliage.

Elmenteitan (slmEn'teitan), a. [f. Elmenteita, a lake in Central Kenya + -an.] Of, or relating to, the mesolithic culture which belongs to the Makalian wet phase, and which was found in deposits of the East African lake Elmenteita by

Dr. L. S. B. Leakey in 1927. Also as sb., a member of this culture; the culture itself. 1929 L. S. B. Leakey in S. Afr.Jrnl. Set. XXVI. 754 The Elmenteitan. This is a localised development from the Upper Kenyan Aurignacian in Makalian times. It has no exact parallel in Europe, but has close affinities with the Magdalenian. 1931-Stone Age Cultures Kenya Colony viii. 172 The Elmenteitan culture certainly represents a very late and aberrant development of the upper Kenya Aurignacian culture. 1939 C. S. CooN Races of Europe iv. 85 The East African Elmenteitans represent.. a gerontomorphic or sexually differentiated Mediterranean or Galley Hill form, and in cranial features [are] closer to Galley Hill itself than any other branch. 1964 K. P. Oakley Framework for dating Fossil Man 11. 268 The Elmenteitan was named after Lake Elmenteita, for the typical occurrence is in Gamble’s Cave which is close to the lake.

elmes, elmisse, elmys,

obs. ff. alms, q.v.

elmy (’elmi). [f.

elm sb. + -y.] Consisting of, characterized by, or abounding in elms. 1757 Dyer Fleece i. 206 The sandy soil Of elmy Ross. 1795 Southey Joan of Arc x. 5 The summer breeze Moves o’er the elmy vale. 1799 Coleridge in New Monthly Mag. (1835) XLV. 225 We have elmy hedges. 1873 Miss Thackeray Old Kensington i. 4 The old palace that stands blinking its sleepy windows across elmy vistas.

eln(e,

ELOHIM

146

ELMES

obs. var. of ell.

felne, 'ellen, sb. Ohs. [Com. Teut.; OE. §llen (gen. §lnes) corresponds to OS. ellen., ellien, OHG. ellan, ellen, ellin, Goth, aljan str. neut.; ON. eljatiy eljun str. fern. (Icel. elja wk. fern.):— OTeut. types *aljano{my *aljand.'\ Strength, courage (also, in OE., zeal); in TheoL strength vouchsafed, comfort, grace. Beowulf 602 Ac ic him geata sceal EafoS and ellen unyeara nu gut»e gebeodan. 888 K. ^^lfred Boeth. xxvii. §2 (Bosw.) Feower craeftas, )>ara is an wserscipe, o5er metjung, )?ridde is ellen. aiooo Guthlac 264 Waes Gut?lac on elne strong. £2 1225 Ancr. R. 106 Vor 3e schulden wenen J?et God, uor ouwer holi Hue, sende ou his grace and his elne. c 1230 Mali Meid. z’j Ah monnes elne is muche wurS. a 1240 Ureisun in Cott. Horn. 185 We .. buggel> worldles froure . wi)? moni sori teone . and elne of monnes speche. Ibid. Hwa se euer haueS longe wone of gastliche elne.

Hence 'ellenlaes a. [see -less], powerless. £2 1000 Juliana 393 (Gr.) Ic geomor sceal secan oSerne ellenleasran cempan. c 1200 Ormin 10908 Jllc meocnesse iss ellenlsES Wi]?}?utenn herrsummnesse.

t'elne, v. Obs. [OE. glnian — OHG. ellinon, ON. elna, Goth, aljanon:—OTeut. *aljandjan, f. *aljano-m: see prec.] trans. To strengthen, hearten, comfort. 01225 Ancr. R. 10 Gon & iseon swuch & elnen ham & helpen mid fode of holi lore, a 1225 Leg. Kath. 1374 As men droh ham to hare deaS, pa.. elnede pe ofSre. a 1240 Lofsong in Cott. Horn. 215 Ich wot fet t>u wult senden me )7ene holi gost to elnen me.

t'elning. Obs. [OE. glnung, f. glnian,

elne v.:

think so basely of this? rather then of her sister, I meane Rhetoricall Eloquution. 1634 Habington Castara (Arb.) 11 How unhappie soever I may be in the elocution, I am sure the Theame is worthy enough. 1681 Nevile Plato Rediv. 167 A Person of good Learning and Elocution. 1731 Bailey vol. H, Elocution (with Rhetoricians) consists in apt expressing, and a beautiful order of placing of words. 1844 Lingard Hist. Anglo-Sax. Ch. (1858) 11. xi. 171 Your., acquaintance with those forms of elocution in which it is expressed.

fb. concr. A mode of expression. Obs. 01679 Hobbes Rhet. (1840) 492 Elocutions are made decent: i. By speaking feelingly.. 2. By speaking as becomes the person of the speaker, etc.

f2. Eloquence, harangues.

oratory;

concr.

in

pi.

1593 Nashe Christ’s T. 39 a, How shall I arme myne elocution. 1631 Massinger Emp. East ii. i, She’ll tire me with Her tedious elocutions. 1635 Naunton Fragm. Reg. (Arb.) 49 She began to be taken with his elocution. 1649 Milton Eikon. 241 To stirr the constancie of any wise man is.. above the genius of his cleric elocution. 1715-20 Pope Iliad HI. 283 When he speaks, what elocution flows! 1791 CowPER Iliad IX. 549 Both elocution and address in arms.

3. Oral utterance; way or manner of speaking. Now only with some notion of 4, 1623 Cockeram, Elocution, vtterance. 1667 Milton P.L. IX. 747 Whose taste.. Gave elocution to the mute. 1754 Richardson Grandison (1781) II. xxix. 274 He had a lively and easy elocution. 1794 Godwin Cal. Williams 18 For this Mr. Tyrrel was indebted to a boisterous and overbearing elocution. 1795 Burke Let. Wks. VII. 371 You have a natural, fluent, and unforced elocution. 1846 Ruskin Mod. Paint. I. I. i. ii. §7 The clear and vigorous elocution of useless and senseless words.

4. The art of public speaking so far as it regards delivery, pronunciation, tones, and gestures; manner or style of oral delivery. Also attrib. 1613 R. C. Table Alph. (ed. 3), Elocution, good vtterance of speech. 1678 Phillips, Elocution, proper Speech, handsome utterance. 1739 Cibber Apol. (1756) I. 87 True theatrical elocution. 1815 Scott Guy M. xxxvii. It.. served to give zest and peculiarity to the style of elocution. 1864 Sat. Rev. 13 Dec. 819/1 The worst of the other system, that of boarding-schools and ‘elocution-masters’, is that, etc.

Hence elo'cutional a., elo'cutionally adv. 1933 Times Lit. Suppl. 30 Mar. 220/3 Sentence-form being in the main elocutional, there may be sentences without locutional sentence-form. 1932 A. H. Gardiner Theory Speech & Lang. v. 322 No sentence can be really elocutionally formless, since utterance itself imposes a certain minimum of form.

elocutionary

(eb'kjuijanan),

a.

[f. prec.

+

-ARY.] Of or pertaining to elocution. 1846 Poe Wks. (1864) 111. 40 The elocutionary.. value of her programmes. 1882 Daily News 7 Mar. 5/4 Mr. Newdegate, with great.. elocutionary effect, read the letter. 1884 Manch. Exam. 14 May 5/4 Dr. Parker’s elocutionary gifts added to the strong impression which it made.

elocutionist (eb'kjuijamst).

[f. elocution +

-1ST.] One who practises the art of elocution; a

see -ING^.] Comfort, grace.

proficient in the art of elocution.

01240 Ureisun in Cott. Horn. 185 Min ihesu Hues louerd pu beodest us J>in elning {printed elming]. Ibid. 201 I?u beodest pin elning.

1847 in Craig, i860 Daily News 17 Dec., Mr. Bengough is a good elocutionist. 1875 Whitney Life Lang. xiv. 283 The.. variations of tone which the skilled elocutionist uses.

felo'cation. Obs. rare, [as if ad. L. *elocdtionem, n. of action f. eloedre, lit. to place out, f. e out + -locdre to place.] 1. Removal from a person’s control.

elocutionize (eb'kjuijanaiz), v. [f.

1649 Bp. Hall Cases Consc. (1650) 294 When the child by .. former elocation shall be out of the Parents disposing.

a 1849 Poe Wks. (1864) III. 250 The author proceeds.. to elocutionize. 1883 Homiletic Monthly Aug. 661 The two tasks [of a preacher].. writing and elocutionizing.

2. fig.

Alienation (of mind), ecstasy,

01619 Fotherby Atheom. i. v. §i (1622) 30 In all Poesie .. there must be.. an elocation, and emotion of the minde.

elocution

+ -IZE.] intr. a. To make use of florid or eloquent language, b. To speak or read in public.

elocutive (I'lokjutiv), a. and sb. rare, [as if ad. L.

Without partitions or

*ilocutiv-us, f. eloqui: see elocution.] A. adj. That is concerned with utterance or eloquence. B. sb. An utterance.

elocute (’elskjuit), v. [Playful back-formation f.

1627 Feltham Resolves ii. xlviii. (1677) 254 Though Preaching in it’s elocutive part be but the conception of Man. 1821 New Monthly Mag. II. 41 Mr. Manager, .went through the appeasing elocutives of dumb show.

elocular (i'lokjol9(r)), a. Bot, [f. e out + loculus small cell loculi.

+

-ar.]

1864 in Webster.

To practise elocution; to declaim in an elocutionary manner.

ELOCUTION.]

1884 ‘Mark Twain’ Buck. Finn 315 They didn’t yellocute long till the audience got up. 1896Mar. 183/1 ‘Elocute’ as he might, his reputation was always overshadowed by that of a ‘past’ boy. 1908 Dialect Notes III. IV. 308 Elocute, v.i., to recite in elocutionary style. 1920 S. Lewis Main Street x. 121 That was fine. I don’t know but what you can elocute just as good as Ella. Ibid. iv. 47 Ella is our shark at elocuting. 1963 Times 14 May 15/4 Dorothy Reynolds’s Oenone, flutingly elocuted.

elocution (eb'kjuifan). Forms: 6 elocucion, -sion, -syon, eloquution, 6- elocution, [ad. L. elocution-em, n. of action f. eloqui to speak out: cf. ELOQUENCE. Sense i is identical with the meaning of elocutio as used by Roman rhetoricians. Sense 4, which has been evolved from the etymology without regard to Latin usage, corresponds to what the Romans expressed by pronuntiatio.]

fl. a. thought; ‘matter’; effective

Oratorical or literary expression of literary ‘style’ as distinguished from the power or art of appropriate and expression. Obs.

1509 Hawes Past. Pleas, xi. i, Elocusion with the powre of Mercury, The matir enorneth right well facundyously. 1553 T. Wilson Rhet. 4 Elocucion is an appliyng of apte worries anri sentences to the matter founrie out to confirme the cause. 1586 Webbe Eng. Poetrie (Arb.) 19 Why should we

e'locutory, a.

rare~*. [ad. L. elocutdri-us pertaining to oratorical expression.] That pertains to elocution; elocutionary. 1817 Monthly Mag. XLIV. 448 Dr. Carey has..in forwardness, an elocutory edition of Thomson’s Seasons.

elodea (e'budra, elau'diia). Bot.

[mod.L. (A. Michaux Flora Boreali-Americana (1803) I. 20), f. Gr. lX(l)8i]s marshy.] A member of a small genus of aquatic plants, belonging to the family Hydrocharidaceae and native to temperate America; cultivated in aquaria and pools. (Cf. WATER-THYME 2.) 1894 Darwin & Acton Pract. Physiol. Plants i. 16 An Elodea leaf is mounted in water. 1937 E. C. B. Wright Gen. Plant Physiol, viii. 226 The main study was made of the chloroplasts of the aquatie Elodea. 1955 Sci. News Let. 16 July 46/1 Elodea, the moss-like weed in most American goldfish bowls, yielded from 12 to 14 tons green weight to the acre in a Kansas pond, i960 Times 9 July 9/5 Soft weed (such as Elodea, Hornwort).

e'loge.

[a.

elogium).

Fr.

eloge,

Now treated

ad. L. elogium (see as Fr.: pronounced

(eb3).] 11. An expression of praise or commendation; an encomium. Obs.

c 1566 Nuce tr. Seneca’s Octavia i. iii. That woman wight shal have alwaye This eloge yet. 1693 J. Beaumont On Burnet’s Th. Earth i. 55 The Author here gives us an Eloge on Mountains. 1764 Wilkes Corr. (1805) III. 128 The eloge which the noblest of poets gives me. 01789 Burney Hist. Mus. HI. iv. 287 Pere Mersenne.. has given us an.. eloge of him. 1802 Edin. Rev. 1. 23 The latter member of this eloge would now be wholly unintelligible, if applied to a spirited coach-horse.

2. A funeral oration; a discourse in honour of a deceased person, e.g. that pronounced by a newly-elected member of the French Academy upon his predecessor. c 1725 Atterbury Epist. Corr. 1. (1783) 179,1 return you. Sir, the two eloges, which I have perused with pleasure. I borrow that word from your language. 1753 Chambers Cycl. Supp., The secretary of the royal academy of sciences in Paris composes the eloges of such members as die. 1861 G. Wilson & Geikie E. Forbes xv. 553 Pronouncing the Eloge of his old master into whose place he now ascends!

t'elogist. Obs. [f. ELOGE + -ist.] pronounces a panegyric’ (Todd).

‘One who

121639 Wotton Rem. (1685) 366 She did not want a passionate Elogist, as well as an excellent Preacher [for her funeral sermon].

Ile'logium. Obs. [L. elogium a short saying, an inscription on a tombstone; this word and its mod. forms seem to have been confused with EULOGIUM, EULOGY.] 1. An explanatory inscription. 211699 Stillingfl. Serm. 1. viii. (R.) The elogium of his cross, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews.

2. = ELOGY 2-4. 1570-6 Lambarde Peramb. Kent (1826) 251 Where he bestoweth this honourable Elo^um upon him. 1683 D. A. Art Converse 54 Let your Elogium’s be alwaies within the circumference of common sense, a 1764 Dodsley Art Preach. 99 In elogiums, ’tis the art. With plain simplicity to win the heart. 01789 Burney Hist. Mus. (ed. 2) I. lx. 166 Posterity.. will.. meet with their names and elogiums.

t 'elogy. Obs. Also 7-8 elogie. [Anglicized form of prec.] 1. An explanatory inscription, esp. on a monument or a portrait. Cf. elogium i . 1605 Bacon Adv. Learn, ii. 13 Many personages., deserue better than dispersed report, or barren Elogies. 1645 Evelyn Mem. (1857) I. 209 The effigies of the several Dukes, with their Elogies. 1658 J. Burbery Hist. Christina Q. Swedland 422 In several pastboords hung their elogies. 1663 Cowley Verses Sf Ess. (1669) 47 His Statue or Picture, with an Elogy under it, shall be placed in the Galery.

2. A brief summary of a person’s character; a characterization; usually in favourable sense, a eulogy, expression of praise. 1612 Drayton Poly-olb. iv. Notes 70 But for Arthur you shall best know him in this elogie. This is that Arthur, etc. 1629 Earle Microcosm. Ixii. (Arb.) 87 No man.. comes off more with the elogie of a kind Gentleman. 1638 Evelyn Mem. (1857) I. 12 One Stokes.. did.. set forth a pretty book, which was published, with many witty elogies before it. 1681 tr. Willis' Rem. Med. Wks. Voc., Elogie, a report in praise or dispraise of a thing. 1704 Earl Cromarty Sp. in Lond. Gaz. No. 4037/5 An Elogie or Panegerick on Her Majesty. 1740 Johnson Blake Wks. IV. 369 We must then admit, amidst our elogies and applauses.

3. A biographical notice (usually of a deceased person). 1644 Milton Judgm. (1851) 291 Jacobus Verheiden .. in his Elogies of famous Divines. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. IV. xii. 217 As Paulus Jovius hath delivered in his Elogie oneamed men. 1652 C. Stapylton Herodian 74 Of such before as writ his Acts or Elogie, Some Records doe unto this day remain.

4. A funeral oration. 1677 Govt. Venice 197 His Funerals are kept in the Church of St. Mark; and his Elogy pronounced in presence of the Senat. 1689 Evelyn Mem. (1857) III. 296 She.. had her obsequies celebrated.. by a solemn procession, and elogy of all the witness of that renowned city.

||Elohim_(e'l3uhim, -hi:m). Also 7 elohym. [Heb. elohim, pi. of eld“h god, but often construed as sing, with sense ‘God’ or ‘a god’.] a. One of the Hebrew names of God, or of the gods. 1605 Timme Quersit. 1. ii. 7 That Elohym.. Who moved upon the waters. 1715 Kersey, Elohim, one of the names of God in the bible. 1862 Stanley yew. Ch. (1877) 1. i. 19 Abraham saw that all the Elohim were meant for God.

fb. transf. in allusion to the supposed use of the word in certain passages of the Bible to denote earthly potentates. (This interpretation is now abandoned, exc. in the ironical passage Ps. Ixxxii. 6.) 1682 Sir T. Browne Chr. Mor. 19 He who..sways the scepter of himself, not envying the glory of.. elohims of the earth.

c. attrib. = Elohimic a. 187s Encycl. Brit. III. 637/1 It is still possible to reconstruct at least the Elohim document. 1886 Ibid. XX. 30/1 The Elohim psalms..have undergone a common editorial treatment distinguishing them from the rest of the Psalter. 1936 J. E. Carpenter in A. S. Peake Commentary on Bible 122/1 He [sc. Jean Astruc] noticed that in different narratives the Deity was designated by different names... On this basis he distributed the contents of Genesis into two main documents, an Elohim narrative A and a Yahweh story B. 1963 S. Sandmel Hebrew Scriptures xxvi. 330 There was a source additional to the Yahve and Elohim source, which could be called the Deuteronomic code.

ELOHIMIC Elohimic (elau'himik), a. rare. [f. prec. ^—ic.] Of passages in the Hebrew scriptures: Characterized by the use of the word Elohim instead of the word Yahveh. See Elohist. 1871 F. Bolton Delitzsch on Ps. III. 172 Two Elohimic fragments brought together. 1882-3 Schaff Relig. Encycl. III. 1954 The Elohimic psalms.

Elohism (e'buhiz(3)m). [f. Eloh(im) + -ism.] The worship of Elohim.

ELONGATIVE

147 Iliad I. 291 In the eloignement we behold Jupiter in golden armour. Pope

01763 Shenstone

Ess. 146 He discovers an eloignment

from vulgar phrases.

telome. Obs. rare~^. (See quot.) 1753 Chambers Cycl. Suppl., some authors to orpiment.

Elome, a name given by

1888 Edin. Rev. Apr. 502 It was the task of the great prophets.. to bring Israel back to the primitive Elohism of the patriarchs.

t elong. Obs. Forms: 5 eslonge, 5-7 elonge, 6-7 elong. [ad. late L. elongd-re to remove to a distance, f. e out + longe far away.

Elohist (e'buhist). [f. Eloh(im) + -ist.] The

elongate,

name given by Hebraists to the author (or authors) of those parts of the Hexateuch which are marked by the use of Elohim as the name of God instead of Yahveh (popularly written Jehovah). See Jehovist, Yahvist. 1862 H. J. Rose Bunsen 77 llgen imagined two Elohists, and one Jehovist. 1882-3 Schaff Relig. Encycl. II. 1043/1 Amended by a younger Elohist and a Jehovistic editor.

Elohistic (ebu'histik), a. [f. prec. + -ic.] Of or pertaining to the Elohist; characterized by the use of Elohim instead of Yahveh: see prec. 1841 Ryland Hengstenberg on Pentat. (1847) 331 In some passages of the Elohistic part., Elohim must stand under all circumstances. 1863 Johannes Laicus Anti-Colenso I, The Jehovistic passages taken by themselves require the Elohistic story to connect them. 1881 W. R. Smith Old Test, in Jew. Ch. vii. 197 The Elohistic collection [of psalms] .. was formed after the time of Ezra.

eloin, eloign (I'bin), i>. Forms: 6 eloine, eloygn, 6-7 esloyn(e, eloyn, 7 esloign, elloigne, 7-9 eloigne, 6- eloin, 8- eloign, [a. AF., OF. esloignier (Fr. eloigner) to remove to a distance:—late L. exlongare, elongdre to remove to a distance (see elong v.). In English lawLatin elongdre is used in the various senses defined below.] 1. gen. (Sometimes transf. from the legal use.) 11. To remove to a distance, lit. and fig. Obs. 1535 Goodly Primer, O bone Jesu wipe clean away that eloineth me from thee. 1575 Brieff Disc. Troub. Franckford 158 They shall be eloigned from us that would gladly succor the poore. 1624 Fisher in F. White Repl. Fisher 448 Their spirit being eloyned.. from the contagion of the bodie. 1636 Abp. J. Williams Holy Table (1637) 205 If the Table be so far esloigned from the people. 1653 Cogan tr. Pinto's Voy. xxix. (1663) 115 Leastwise labour to esloign thy minde from the vanities of the Earth. 1692 Christ Exalted § 127. 98 Thou hast eloyned, or cast me far away.

b. refi. To take oneself off, abscond; to retire to a distance, seclude oneself (from). Now rare. 1539 31 Hen. VIII, c. 8 If any person .. eloine .. himselfe within any parte of this realme. 1575 TuRBERV. Bk. Venerie 3 5 The harte.. eloygning him self from the houndes. 1596 Spenser F.Q. i. iv. 20 From worldly cares himselfe he did esioyne. 1662 Fuller Worthies Line, ii. 162 If. .you should elloigne your self by residence there from those imployments. 1818 Coleridge Rem, (1836) I. 223 The artist must..eloign himself from nature. 1858 Hogg Shelley II. 402 He eloigned himself, and evaded pursuit.

II. Spec, in Law. To convey or remove out of the jurisdiction of the court or of the sheriff.

2. trans.

1558 Act I Eliz. c. 21. §25 If.. his goods or chattels be so eloyned. 1682 Luttrell Brief Rel. (1857) I. 234 His lordship had eloigned the body of.. Henrietta. 1768 Blackstone Comm. III. 129 The sheriff may return that he is eloigned. 1796 J. Anstey Pleader's Guide (1803) 48 Content his person to eloign. 1809 Tomlins Law Diet, s.v., If such as are within age be eloined.

3. To remove, carry off, send away (property). 1622 Callis Stat. Sewers (1647) 151 If such best beast should be esloyned. 1714 Sir W. Scroggs Courts Leet (ed. 3) 78 If one eloign my Goods that are not distrainable by Law. 1823 New Monthly Mag. VII. 518 Many a tale of plundered flocks.. and eloigned cattle.

4. To divert (money) from its proper use. 1640 Prerog. Pari, in Sel. Harl. Misc. (1793) 239 The rents, profits, and revenues of this realm.. are so much.. eloined.

t e'loinate, e'loignate. Obs. rare. [f. Fr. eloign¬ er (see prec.) + -ate.] trans. = prec. 1642 Howell For. Trav. (Arb.) 56 Nor is some vulgar Greek so farre adulterated, and eloignated from the true Greek, as Italian is from the Latin. 1847 Craig, Eloinate^ to remove.

Sense i of this word, and the ordinary modem sense of show that the L. word was sometimes taken as f. e + long-us long. The form eslonge is due to the influence of the equivalent Romanic form: see eloin.]

1. trans.

To make longer, lengthen.

c 1420 Pallad. on Hush. ii. 79 Elonge eke as the Hketh best thi lande.

b. To retard, delay; to retard the growth of. C1420 Pallad. on Hush. iv. 632 Premature yf that the list elonge [maturam ficum vis serotinam facere]. 1610 G. Fletcher Christ's Viet, in Farr’s S.P. Jas. I. 57 Upon the roof the bird of sorrow sat, Elonging joyfull day with her sad note.

2. To remove, separate, cause to wander away from. lit. dind jig. Also To set free (from trouble or grief). >475 Caxton Jason 135 b, I haue found and felte my self eslonged .. of all my sorowes. a 1541 Wyatt Wks. (1861) 55 By seas, and hills elonged from thy sight. 1603 Florio Montaigne iii. ix. (1632) 539 Doth not too much elonge . .us from our.. principles. 16^ Skene Reg. Maj. 108 Ane beast that is elonged, and wavered away from his maister.

3. intr. To go far away. 1598 Florio,

rare—^.

Allontanare, to elonge, to go farre off.

elongate ('iiloggeit, I'lnggeit), v.

[f. late L. elongdt- ppl. stem of elongdre: see prec.] 11. trans. To remove, set at a distance (from). c 1540 Boorde The bokefor to Lerne B j a. Let the common howse of esement be.. elongatyd from the howse. 1656 Blount Glossogr.y Elongate, to remove afar off. i72z>i8oo Bailey, Elongate, to remove or carry a great way off.

2. intr. fa. gen.

To depart, move away or recede from (obs.). b. spec, in Astronomy: To recede apparently from the sun or a fixed point in the celestial sphere; said, e.g., of a star or a planet. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. ii. ii. 63 But elongating from the coast of Brasilia toward the shore of Africa it [the south point] varyeth Eastward. 1775 Ash, Elongate, to go off to a distance.

3. trans. To lengthen, draw out, prolong. 1578 Banister Hist. Manwiii. 107 It [spinal marrow] is.. a portion of the brayne elongated. 1656 Blount Glossogr., Elongate, to prolong. 1793 M. Baillie Morb. Anat. (1807) 9 Time has been given for the adhesions to be elongated by the motion of the heart. 1830 Scott Demonol. vii. 217 The mode of elongating a goat’s back by means of a spit. 1865 Dickens Mut. Fr. vii, Having thus elongated and emphasised the word.

4. Bot. (intr.) To grow or increase in length; to be lengthy; to have a slender or tapering form. in Phil. Trans. XCI. 340 The wood between the bunch and the next leaf below, has ceased to elongate. 1828 Stegart Planter’s G. 128 The minutest Fibres both expand and elongate with facility. 1870 Hooker Stud. Flora 263 Linaria repens .. Racemes elongating. 1801 Knight

01670 Racket Abp. Williams l. (1692) 92 The sun., appears to us no bigger than a platter.. because of that esloinment.. between our eyes and the object. 1715-20

C1391 Chaucer Astrol. ii. §25 Take the heiest altitude.. of any sterre fix..& tak his nethere elongacioun. ?1540 Dyfference of Astron. Aiib, Of sygnes, and of theyr elongations. 1647 Lilly Chr. Astrol. 31 ^ is in his greatest elongation or distance from the G. 1662 Fuller Worthies ii. 237 The star Venus was visible all day long, as sometime it falls out neer her greatest Elongation. 1841 Brewster Mart. Sc. iii. (1856) 35 We saw her [Venus] in the form of a crescent, resembling exactly the moon at the same elongation. 1868 Lockyer Heavens (ed. 3) 76 In the morning.. its maximum western elongation attains the same value.

fb. The difference in motion between the swifter and the slower of two planets, or the quantity of space whereby the one has overgone the other. 1727-51 in Chambers.

t c. The difference between the true place and the geocentric place of a planet. Obs. 1796 in Hutton.

12. a. Removal to a distance, departure, recession; hence, remoteness; alsojfi^. Obs. 1616 Bullokar, Elongation, a putting far off. Symonds in Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. xxxviii. 9

1639 J. Ofttimes there is a frustration of our desires, or an elongation of the things. 1654 tr. Scudery's Curia Politise, Those who designed his elongation and further removal from Court. 1661 HiCKERiNGiLL Jamaica 5 That vulgar errour, that it’s [the Sun’s] elongation [is] the reason of extreamity of cold. 1672 Phil. Trans. VII. 5126 The Dis-appearance of those Stars may be ascribed to their Elongation from.. our Eyes. 1694 R. Burthogge Essay on Reason 140 In its utmost Elongation or Removal from him.

fb. Astron. The removal of a planet to its furthest distance from the sun; aphelion. 1715 in Kersey. 1721-1800 in Bailey. 1787 Smeaton in Phil. Trans. LXXVII. 319 The same disappointment., with respect to the approaching elongation in September.

3. The action or process lengthening out, or extending.

of

elongating,

1731 Arbuthnot Aliments 42 This Motion of Elongation of the Fibres. 1793 T. Beddoes Math. Evid. 142 What overturns this whole system of analogical elongation.. is a discovery.. to which Lennep contributed an hint. 1828 Steuart Planter's G. 277 This decided tendency to elongation of the boughs on the lee-side. 1831 Brewster Nat. Magic iv. (1833) 80 The figure will undergo most curious elongations and contractions. 1878 L. P. Meredith Teeth 47 There is also an elongation of the anterior portion of the jaws.

t4. Surgery, a. *An imperfect luxation, when the ligaments are only relaxed and lengthened, but the bone is not out of place* (Syd. Soc. Lex.). 1676 Wiseman Surg. 480 Those Elongations which are the effect of an Humour soaking upon a Ligament.. making it liable to be stretcht. 1715 in Kersey. 1847 in Craig.

b. ‘The extension of a limb for the purpose of reducing a dislocation or setting fractured bones’ (Syd. Soc. Lex.). 1847 in Craig.

elongate (I'lorigeit),

a. [formed as prec.] Lengthened, prolonged, extended; esp. in Bot. and Zool. that is long in proportion to its breadth; that has a lengthened, slender, or tapering form. 1828 Stark Elem. Nat. Hist. II. 196 Lip elongate., narrowing towards the point. 1847 Hardy in Proc. Berw. Nat. Club II. No, 5. 235 The remaining five forming an elongate club, i860 Gosse Rom. Nat. Hist. 336 Immense unrecognised creatures of elongate form roam the ocean. 1870 Hooker Stud. Flora 103 Peduncles elongate.

Hence as combining form 'elongate-, in various zoological terms, as elongato-conical, -ovate, -triangular adjs., that has the form or outline of a lengthened cone, egg, triangle. 1846 Dana Zooph. (1848) 276 Ridges small, acute, sometimes elongato-conical. 1852-Crust, ii. 932 Hand .. elongato-ovate. Ibid. l. 483 Beak lamellar, elongatotriangular.

pple. of ELONGATE U.] 1. Made longer; drawn out or extended to an unusual or unnatural length.

2. a. The space or distance between one object and another, b. Distance, in the sense of the distant part or background of a scene or of a picture.

Also 4 elongacioun. [ad. late L. elongdtion-em, n. of action f. elongdre: see elongate.] 1. Astr. a. The angular distance of a heavenly body from some relatively fixed point; in mod. usage, the angular distance of a planet from the sun, or of a satellite from its primary.

5. The state of being elongated or lengthened.

AF. esloigneour.] One who eloins.

1678-96 Phillips, Eloinment, a removing a great way off. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

elongation (idoij'geifan).

1858 Greener Gunnery 422 The patent elongating socket.

elongated ('i:lDi)geitid, I'loijgeitid), ppl. a. [pa.

te'loinment, e'loignment. Obs. Also 7 esloinment, 8 eloignement. [a. AF. esloignement, Fr. eloignement: see eloin and -ment.] 1. Removal to a distance.

Foy. Challenger I. ii. 131 The heart, an elongated

tube.

Hence 'elongating ppl. a., that elongates.

eloiner (i'bin3(r)). Law. [f. eloin + -er; after 1865 Nichols Britton I. 67 Our Justices can convict the eloiners of malice.

Thomson

3. fig. Remoteness in feeling or taste (from).

1751 R. Cambridge Scribbleriad iii. 83 O’er all her Limbs were seen Th’ elongated papillae of the skin. 1859 Helps Friends in C. Ser. II. 1. vi. 217 An elongated maxim of Rochefoucault’s. 1861 Reade Cloister fef H. I. 251 He stood .transfixed.. sudden horror in his elongated countenance. 1870 F. Hall in Wilson tr. Vishnu-purdna V. 68 [Bhishmaka is] the elongated form of Bhishma. 1884 Times (weekly ed.) 26 Sept. 6/3 The lover of elongated farces.

2. That is excessively long in proportion to its breadth, as if drawn out or extended. R. Knox Cloquet’s Anat. 51 Two of these edges., present anteriorly an elongated surface. 1836 Macgillivray tr. Humboldt’s Trav. xxi. 305 One.. has an elongated snout. 1863 Berkeley Brit. Mosses iii. 13 The stem.. consists more or less of elongated cells. 1877 W. 1831

concr. That which is elongated; an extended space, a continuation, a part produced. 1751 R. Cambridge Scribbleriad iii. 83 note. His skin was .. grown over with an homy excrescence called by the Naturalists the Elongation of the papillse. 1796 H. Hunter tr. St. Pierre's Stud. Nat. (1799) III. 29 To prove the truth of my theory respecting their [the poles’] elongation. 1797 M. Baillie Morb. Anat. (1807) 299 If these elongations were to be situated at a distance from the neck of the bladder. 1813 H. & J. Smith Rej. Addr. 61 But when on this boarded elongation it falls to my lot to say a good thing. 1837 Whewell Hist. Induct. Sc. (1857) II. 282 The elongation of the image. 1869 J. Martineau Ess. II. 76 His morality.. is a mere elongation of law.

6. Mech. In mechanical testing, the amount of extension of a test piece when stressed, usu. expressed as a percentage of the original length; also attrib. 1866

Engineering

19

Jan.

33/2

The

homogeneous metal and steel is only

elongation

of

th part of its

length for every ton of direct tensile strength per square inch. 1877 Encycl. Brit. VII. 818/1 Eight different specimens.. bore from 43I to 46 lb. (average 45 2) just before breaking, with elongations of from 17 per cent to 22 per cent. row. Obs. [f. else + who.] Anyone else. T1542 Udall in Ellis Orig. Lett. Lit. (1843) 4, I cannot persuad myself that your maistershipp hateth in me or elswhom any thyng excepte vices.

elsewise (’slswaiz), adv. [f. else + -wise.] In some other manner; in other circumstances, otherwise. 1548 Udall, etc. Erasm. Par. i Cor. iii. 3 This matter.. would elswise haue caused much spyte. 1549 Coverdale Erasm. Par. Rom. i. 29 Whiche wer elswyse ful of al naughtynes. 1865 Dickens Mut. Fr. I. 97 Elsewise the world got up at eight. 1888 N. Amer. Rev. Feb. 214 The leaders elsewise.. have declared themselves.. as his enthusiastic supporters.

fElsibeth players. Obs. rare—^. [app. f. the name Elizabeth.) A kind of strolling actors. 1672 Marvell Reh. Transp. i. 318 A set of Elsibeth Players, that in the Country having worn out.. all the Playes they brought with them from London, etc.

elsin (’glsin). Obs. exc. north dial. Forms: 5 elsyn(g, 6-9 elsen, 5- elson, 8- elshin, 9- elsin. [app. a. MDu. elssene (later elzen(e, mod.Du. els):—*alisna:—OTeut. *alasnd (whence by transposition OHG. alansa, alunsa); f. the same root as AWL + suffix as in OTeut. *segasnd (-isnd), Ger. sense scythe. (The Teut. word was adopted into Romanic: cf. Sp. alesna, lesna. It. lesina, Fr. alene, Pr. alena.)] An awl. CI440 Promp. Parv. 138 Elsyn [ti.r. elsyng], sibula. 1530 216/2 Elson for cordwayners, alesne. 1681 COLVIL Whigs Supplic. (lyst) 107 There lyes his elson and his lingle. a 1774 Fergusson Election, Syne wi’ a muckle elshin lang He brogit Maggie’s hurdies. 1830 Galt Laurie T. iii. ix. (1849) 114,1 never bored a hole with an elsin in my life. 1864 Atkinson Whitby Gloss., Elsin, an awl. ‘As sharp as a cobler’s elsin,’ acute. Palscr.

elsewards ('elswadz,’elswoidz), adv. rare~'. [f. ELSE + -WARDS.] In the direction of, towards some other place. 01882 Trollope Autobiogr. (1883) II. xyiii. 173 These earthly sufferers know that they are making their way heavenwards,—and their oppressors their way elsewards.

felsewhat, pron. Obs. [f. else Something or anything else.

+

what.]

C890 K. iElfred Bseda iv. iii. (Smith) 569 Gif he set leornunge stet, oppe elles hwtet dyde. a 1240 Lofsong in Cott. Horn. 215 Of pet ase of helles hwat iwurSe pi wille euer. 01400-50 Alexander 4556 Quepir pai here or eisquat it hurtis ay pe saule, 1586 Sidney Sonn. (1622) 489 For why should I, whom free choise slaue doth make, Elsewhat in

2. Comb.-, elsin-blade, the blade of an awl, or the awl itself; elsin-box, a box for holding awls; elsin-haft, the haft or handle of an awl; also, ‘the old designation for a jargonelle pear from its resemblance to the haft of an awl’ (Jam.). 1571 Wills & Inv. N.C. (1835) I. 261 Vj doss* elsen heftes .. elsonblades viijs. viij855) 77 The restorers of readings, the emendators.

(I'mendatan), a. [ad. L. emenddtori-us corrective: see emendate v. and

emendatory

-DRY.] Of or pertaining to emending, fl. In moral sense: Corrective, disciplinary. 1660 Jer. Taylor Duct. Dubit. iv. i. iv. §10 Punishments emendatory.

2. Of or pertaining to emendation 2 and 2 b. 1795 R. Anderson Life of Dr. Johnson 142 The sagacity of his emendatory criticisms. 1870 Athenaeum 2 Apr. No. 2212. 457 Emendatory editions may be yet in store. 1885 Spectator 18 July 952/1 Every page.. bristles with the emendatory asterisk.

emended (I'mendid), ppl. a. [f. emend v. + -ED*.] Freed from faults, improved, corrected. 1882 Nature 199 An emended copy. 1884 Mahaffy in Contemp. Rev. June 902 Scholia in an emended form.

emender (I'mendair)). One who emends.

[f. emend v.

+ -er.]

1885 Spectator 18 July 952/1 The wildest emenders almost invariably make.. discoveries of permanent value.

t e'mendicate, v. Obs. [f. L. emendicdt- ppl. stem of emendicd-re (f. e out + mendicus beggar) to obtain by begging.] 1. irons. To obtain by begging. 1611 Speed Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. viii. §38 Nor would [he] any longer emendicate their forraine Justice. 1624 F. White Repl. Fisher 554 It must emendicate Vertue .. to satishe the Auarice of the Horse-leaches of Rome. 1681 [see below].

2. absol.

EMERGENCE

175

To beg.

1623 CocKERAM, Emendicate, to beg, or craue almes. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

Hence e'mendicated ppl. a. 1681 Burnet Hist. Ref. II. 56 Orders are..given, upon the credit of emendicated recommendations.

e'mending, vbl. sb. [f. emend action of the vb. emend.

v.

+ -ing*.] The

1411 E.E. Wills (1882) 17 In emendynge of weys lyand about J>e manere of Bradfeld. C1542 Udall in Orig. Lett. Eminent Men (1843) 4 Aftir myn emendyng and reformacion.

fe'mendment. Obs. rare—^. In 6 emendement. [f. emend V. + -MENT.] = AMENDMENT I a. 1569 Crowley Soph. Dr. Watson ii. 92 Our emendement of life.

fe'mends. Obs. rare~^. [ad. OF. esmendes, pi. of esmende reparation (in med.L. emenda, f. emenddre to emend.] = amends 2. 1542 Udall Erasm. Apoph. II. §2 The.. losse.. of one precious stone semed a sufficient.. emendes for his felicitie.

emer, var. of yemer, Obs., guardian. 14.. Tundale’s Vis. 224 That was the angell to beton is bale The whych was emer of Tundale.

emerald ('smarald). Forms: 4-7 emeraud(e, -awd(e, emraud, (4 emeraund, -rad(e, -royde, emmorant, 5 emerant, 6 amerand, emerode, emorade, emrade, -rode,) 7 hemerauld, emrald, -auld, -old, (8 emerant), 6- emerald, [a. OF. emeraude, esmeraude, esmeralde (Fr. emeraude); cf. Pr. esmerauda, Sp., Pg. esmeralda. It. smeraldo:—Com. Romanic types *smaralda, *smaraldo, repr. L. smaragdus, a. Gr. apApayboy. see SMARAGDUS. The change of gd into Id in Romanic occurs in other cases, as It. Baldacca for Bagdad. In Eng. the form with Id does not appear in our quots. before i6th c., when it may be due to Sp. influence.] 1. A precious stone of bright green colour; in mod. use exclusively applied to a variety of the Beryl species (see beryl sb. 2), found chiefly in S. America, Siberia, and India. [In early examples the word, like most other names of precious stones, is of vague meaning; the medieval references to the stone are often based upon the descriptions given by classical writers of the smaragdus, the identity of which with our emerald is doubtful. In the AV. (as previously by Tindale) emerald has been adopted as the rendering of Heb. nophek (LXX. avdpa^, Vulg. carbunculus), a gem as to the nature of which there is no evidence.] c 1300 K. Alts. 7030 Crete drakis.. emeraundis in mouth bare. 01310 in Wright Lyric P. v. 26 Ase emeraude amorewen this may haveth myht. 1481 Caxton Myrr. ii. vii. 79 The Emerawde.. is.. playsaunt to the eye. 1526 Tindale Rev. xxi. 19 The fourth an emeralde. 1527 Test. Ebor. (Surtees) V. 244 Unum annulum cum lapide vocato an emorade. 1599 Hakluyt Voy. II. 243 [249] Fine emrauds

set in golde. 1601 Holland Pliny II. 454 Our cups, .must be set out with hemeraulds. 1609 Bible (Douay) Ex. xxviii. 19 In the first rew shal be.. the emeraud. 1634 Milton Comus 894 My chariot thick set with emerald green. 1691 Wood Ath. Oxon. II. 523 A ring..having an emrold set therein between two diamonds. 1751 Chambers Cycl. s.v.. The emerald is supposed .. to arrive at its greenness by slow degrees. 1842 Lytton Zanoni 28 Valleys where the birds build their nests with emeralds to attract the moths. 1861 C. King Ant. Gems (1866) 29 The Bactrian and Scythian Emeralds were considered the best.

2. Her. The name given by English heralds to the green colour (ordinarily called vert) when it occurs in the arms of the nobility. 157a Bossewell Armorie ii. 6ob, The fielde is of the Topaze, a Basiliske displayed, Emeraude, cristed, Saphire.

3. transf. as name of its colour; = emeraldgreen. 171a tr. Pomet's Hist. Drugs I. 107 Scales of Brass thrice calcin’d.. will make a Sea-green, an Emerald.. with many other colours.

4. Printing. The name of the size of type larger than nonpareil and smaller than minion. 5. attrib. and Comb. a. Simple attrib. 1877 W. Jones Finger-ring L. 127 An emerald ring was thought to ensure purity.

b. quasi-flf/y. emerald.

Brilliantly

green

like

the

1598 Shaks. Merry W. v. v. 74 Hony Soit Qui Mal-yPence, write In Emrold-tuffes. I7aa Rogers Pleas. Mem. i. 145 The glow-worm loves her emerald-light to shed. 1813 Hogg Ktlmeny, The stillness that lay on the emerant lee. 185s Macaulay Hist. Eng. III. 158 That vast expanse of emerald meadow. i8ss Singleton Virgil I. 8 Thou mightest have reposed This night upon the emerald foliage.

c. Similative -green, -like.

in

adjs.,

as

emeraldrbrighty

1614 Earl Stirling Doomes-Day, Twelfth Houre (R.), Rivers.. emulate the emerauld-like grasse. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. iii. xxv. 177 A..flame of a circular figure and Emerald green colour, i860 Ruskin Mod. Paint. V. VI. ix. 84 The glades between emerald-bright. 1879 R. H. Elliot Written on Foreheads I. i The fields.. were emerald green.

d. Special combinations or phrases; f emerald copper {Min.) = dioptase; emerald cuckoo, an African cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus, with green and gold plumage; emerald green, a durable pigment of a vivid light-green colour, prepared from the arseniate of copper; Emerald Isle, a name given to Ireland, on account of its prevailing verdure; emerald moth (Entom.), a name applied to certain moths of the genera Hipparchus, Hemithea, and Cleora, distinguished by their bright green colour; emerald nickel {Min.), a native hydrocarbonate of nickel. 1815 Aikin Min. 91 ‘Emerald Copper.. occurs crystallized in lengthened dodecahedrons. 1870 H. Brooks Natal iv. 136 Amongst the climbers of the coast bush there is one bird known as the ‘emerald cuckoo. 1937 Nature 3 July 18/1 Among the birds [found in Arabia], three are new to science, namely, a race of the common magpie, a small Scops owl, and an emerald cuckoo. 1953 R. Campbell Mamba's Precipice xi. 115 The four-note whistle of an emerald cuckoo. 1964 A. L. Thomson New Diet. Birds 170/1 The Emerald Cuckoo Chrysococcyx cupreus has plumage of brilliant golden-green with bright yellow on the body. 1879 Rood Mod. Chromatics ix. 121 The pigment known as ‘emerald-green. 1795 Dr. W. Drennan Erin in Notes ^ Q. Ser. ii. IX. 199 The men of the ‘Emerald Isle [Drennan afterwards claimed to have invented the name.] 1842 Orderson Creol. v. 46 Our friend of the Emerald Isle. 1845 Westwood Brit. Moths II. 17 Hipparchuspapilionarius (the large ‘emerald). Hemithea vernaria (the small emerald). Hemithea smaragdaria (the Essex emerald). Cleora bajularia (the blotched emerald). 1848 Amer. Jrnl. Sc. Ser. ii. VI. 248 ‘Emerald Nickel from Texas.

emeraldine ('emaraldin, -ain), a. and sb.

[f.

EMERALD + -INE.]

A. adj. Like an emerald in colour; emeraldgreen. 1855 Chamb. Jrnl. III. 408 The moat..bears on its emeraldine breast parterres crowded with..lovely flowers. 1859 All Y. Round No. 19. 448 Emeraldine sea. 1863 Thobnbury True as Steel HI. 316 The larch puts forth its emeraldine tufts.

B. sb. A dye formed from aniline treated with hydrochloric acid and chlorate of potassium, or from a salt of aniline treated with sesquichloride of iron; aniline-green. 1864 Pop. Sc. Rev. HI. 437 A green aniline dye called emeraldine.

femeras. Obs. (See quot.) 1631 Weever Anc. Fun. Mon. 856 He lieth in complete Armour, on both his Emerases the Crosse of Saint George. 1847 Gloss. Brit. Heraldry, Emerasses or Ailettes, small escutcheons affixed to the shoulders of an armed knight: sometimes shield-shaped.. and sometimes circular.

emeraudes,

obs. f. emerod.

e'merge.sb. nonce-wd. [f. next.] A surface that has emerged. 1878 B. Taylor Deukalion iii. i. loi The slow ages on her bare emerge Gathered the dust for grass.

emerge (I'maids), v.

[ad. (directly or through Fr. emerger) L. emergere, f. e out -I- mergere to dip.]

t X.intr. To rise by virtue of buoyancy,/rom or out of a liquid. Obs. exc. as a contextual use of 2. 1667 Boyle Orig. Formes & Qual., Emerging to the top of a much heavier Liquor. 1721 Bailey, Emerge.. when a.. Body.. lighter than Water, being thrust down.. into it, rises again.. it is said to immerge [jic] out of the Water.

2. To come up out of a liquid in which (the subject) has been immersed. Also transf. to rise from (under the surface of) the earth. 1640 G. Watts Bacon’s Adv. Learn, ii. xiii. (R.) From whose [Medusa’s] blood gushing out, instantly emerged Pegasus the flying horse. 1684 T. Burnet The. Earth (J.), The mountains emerged, and became dry land again. 1692 Bentley Boyle Lect. v. 168 Great multitudes of Animals did fortuitously emerge out of the Soil. 1700 Dryden Homer Wks. 1821 XH. 377 Thetis.. emerging from the deep. 1765 CowPER Lett. 4 July, Just emerged from the Ouse, I sit down to thank you. 1856 Emerson Eng. Traits, Result Wks. (Bohn) II. 137 The Ocean out of which [Great Britain] emerged.

3. a. To come forth into view; to pass out, issue, from an enclosed space, area of obscuration, etc. 1700 Dryden Fables (J.), Darkness, we see, emerges into light. 1751 Johnson Rambl. No. 144 P 3 No sooner can any man emerge from the crowd. 1809-10 Coleridge Friend I. 5 He emerged from his place of shelter, i860 Tyndall Glac. I. §22. 157, I..saw the party..emerging from one of the hollows. 1878 Huxley Physiogr. 141 By the time the stream emerges [from the lake].

^ quasi-traws. (cf. depart this life, etc.) 1675 R. Burthogge Causa Dei 238 Here..as on a., tumultuous Sea, men are Uncapable of.. discerning God.. but hereafter, when they have emerged it, they shall, etc.

b. spec, in Optics of a ray of light after passing through a lens, prism, etc.; in Astron. of a heavenly body after occultation or eclipse. 1704 Newton Optics (T.) The rays emerge more obliquely out of the second refracting surface. 1833 Sir J. Herschel Astron. x. §541 (1858) 361/2 The satellite.. will emerge.. after.. occultation. 1839 G. Bird Elem. Nat. Phil. 379 If the glass parallelopiped be sufficiently long, the beam of light will emerge circularly polarized.

^•fig. a. To rise into notice, come forth from obscurity; also, to issue from a state of subjection, suffering, embarrassment, etc. Also said of the production of a type by such a process as evolution. 1664 H. More Myst. Iniq. 296 The Pope once emerged above the Emperor. 1665 Glanvill Seeps. Sci. 79 The Empire began to emerge from that black night of Ignorance. 1713 Bentley Phil. Lips. §40 (T.) Children, who must needs have emerged in a secular life. 1790 Burke Fr. Rev. 71 How very soon France..recovered and emerged from the., dreadful civil war. 1856 Froude Hist. Eng. (1858) II. vi. 13 He emerges into distinct notice.. ten years subsequent. 1876 Green Stray Stud. 185 Florence emerged into communal greatness. 1913 G. E. Smith in Rep. Brit. Assoc. igi2 582 When the true mammal emerged. 1915 [see emergence 2 a].

fb. Used (like L. evadere) for: To ‘turn out*, become. Obs. 1699 Evelyn AcetariaO'jT.q) 146 An accomplish’d SalletDresser.. to emerge an exact Critic.

5. Of a fact, principle, etc.: To come out as the result of an investigation or discussion. Of a state of things, a question or problem: To ‘crop up*, arise, present itself for solution {esp. suddenly or unexpectedly). 1563-87 Foxe a. ^ M. (1596) 86/2 All difficult questions in all prouinces whatsoeuer emerging. 1680 H. More Apocal. Apoc. 10 Hence emerges a difficulty. 1702 Evelyn in Pepys Diary VI. 254 Instructions naturally emerging from the subject. 1710 Prideaux Orig. Tithes ii. 52 So many reasons would continually emerge. 1791 Burke Thoughts Fr. Affairs Wks. VII. 51 The train of things as they successively emerge. 1861 Tulloch Eng. Purit. i. 30 The political difficulty.. did not emerge in Elizabeth’s reign. 1868 M. Pattison Academ. Org. 249 Here emerges the question as to compulsory attendance.

emerge, bad spelling of immerge v. 1644 Jus Populi 34 The right of Fathers.. is now emerged or made subordinate. 1743 Humours of Whist 45, I have been emerged in calculation ever since. 1824 Mechanic's Mag. No. 50. 351 Emerge it into a., cistern of cold water.

t e'mergement. Obs. rare. -ment.] = emergency 4.

[f. emerge v. -I-

a 1734 North Exam. ii. v. f 138 It being usually observed that such Emergements disperse in Rumor unaccountably.

emergence (I'msidsans). [ad. late L. emergentia, f. emergere to emerge.] 1. The rising (of a submerged body) out of the water. 1833 Lyell Princ. Geol. HI. 113 The waves..continue their denuding action during the emergence of these islands. i860 Tyndall Glac. ii. 400 A well-wetted oar.. on its first emergence from the water. 1875 Croll Climate & T. xxiii. 368 The.. emergence of the land during the glacial epoch.

2. a. The process of coming forth, issuing from concealment, obscurity, or confinement, lit. and fig. (Cf. EMERGE V. 3, 4.) Also said of the result of an evolutionary process: cf. emerge v. ^ a and EMERGENT B. 3. 1755 Brooke Univ. Beauty i. lo From the deep thy [Venus’] bright emergence sprung. 1779 Johnson Milton, L.P. 96 Physiological learning is of.. rare emergence. 1817 Coleridge Biog. Lit. (1817) 39 The emergence of an original poetic genius above the literary horizon. 1835-6 Todd Cycl. Anat. I. 68/1 The infant is prepared for a more independent existence by the emergence of teeth. 1853

Kane Grinnell Exp. xviii. (1856) 140 Its [a glacier’s] emergence from the valley. 1873 Symonds Grk. Poets i. i The emergence from primitive barbarism of the great races. 1884 Sat. Rev. 22 Nov. 657/2 That emergence of the adversary’s point at the back might trouble a Neapolitan fencer. 1911 Geddes & Thomson Evolution 102 It is undeniably difficult to discover the factors in his emergence and ascent. 1913 G. E. Smith in Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1912 577 The gradual emergence of human traits froni the uncouth simian features of our ancestors. 1915 Scientia XVIII. 255 The emergence of anything new in the world... If intrinsic structure and external conditions are.. strictly similar, nothing new emerges. But if with like intrinsic structure the conditions are different, or vice versa, something new may emerge. And if genuinely emergent (as contrasted with resultant in accordance with G. H. Lewes’s distinction) it may be unpredictable. 1920 S. Alexander Space, Time, ^ Deity II. iii. ii. 45 The emergence of anew quality from any level of existence means that at that level there comes into being a certain constellation or collocation of the motions belonging to that level, and possessing the quality appropriate to it, and this collocation possesses a new quality distinctive of the higher complex,

b. Astron. and Optics. (Cf. emerge v. 3 b.) 1704 Newton Optics (J.) Refracted light, at its very first emergence. 1833 Sir J. Herschel Astron. ix. 294 The satellite’s emergence. 1863 Tyndall Heat iv. 108 As a thermic agent, the beam .. is far more powerful than .. after its emergence. 1881 Ld. Rayleigh in Nature XXV. 64 Giving the light a more .. grazing emergence.

3. An unforeseen occurrence; a state of things unexpectedly arising, and demanding immedi¬ ate attention. Now replaced by emergency, which Ash in 177s notes as ‘less usual’. 1649 Bp. Guthrie Mem. (1702) 72 The Castle of Dunglass was blown up with Powder.. This tragical Emergence, etc. 1788 Priestley Lect. Hist. v. lii. 406 To raise the nominal value of money may serve a particular emergence. 1823 Scott Peveril vi, The best I can think of in this emergence is, etc. 1849 Mrs. Carlyle Lett. II. 69 Nothing came out on the present emergence to alter our opinion.

K Pressing need, urgent want: ‘a sense not proper’ (J.). 1781 CowPER Charity 188 Not he but his emergence forced the door. 1846 Thackeray Cornhill to Cairo ix. io6 They call in their emergence upon countless saints and virgins.

4. Bot. A term applied by Sachs to those outgrowths on leaves or stems which arise from the sub-epidermic tissue and not merely from the epidermis. 1882 tr. Sachs’s Text-bk. Botany (ed. 2) 161.

emergency (i'm3:d33nsi). [ad. late L. emergentia: see prec. and -ency.] 1. The rising of a submerged body above the surface of water; = emergence i. Now rare. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. iv. vi. 194 A Tyrant.. to prevent the emergencie of murdered bodies did use to cut off their lungs. 1693 Phil. Trans. XVII. 689 They [the Goodwin Sands].. may be of late Emergency. 1880 A. R. Wallace Isl. Life ix. 169 Repeated submergencies and emergencies of the land.

t2. a. The process of issuing from concealment, confinement, etc.; = emergence 2. Obs. c 1645 Howell Fam. Lett. (1650) II. 4 Congratulat his.. emergency from that course he was plunged in. 1656 H. More Antid. Ath. Pref. Gen. (1712) 14 The.. immediate emergency of Vitality from Spirit. 1663 Boyle Colours (J.), The emergency of colours, upon coalition of the particles of such bodies.. is very well worth our attentive observation.

fb. Astron. = emergence 2 b. Obs. rare. 1762 Dunn in Phil. Trans. LII. 579, I had compared it with the fixed stars, and the Moon, after emergency from the aforementioned clouds.

fS. The arising, sudden or unexpected occurrence (of a state of things, an event, etc.). Obs.

in which, going in first, he scored 192 not out. 1885 J. Lillywhite Cricketers^ Compan. 59 George Alexander.. only played as an emergency.

d. spec., as a political term, to describe a condition approximating to that of war; occas. as a synonym or euphemism for war; also state of emergency, wherein the normal constitution is suspended. 1893 C. G. Leland Memoirs 251 The rebels..had penetrated into Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia was threatened. "This period was called the ‘Emergency’. 1958 Spectator 17 Jan. 65/2 He has declared a state of emergency to suppress a strike of African railway workers. 1958 Oxf. Mag. 13 Mar. 374/2 The unmentionable word ‘war’ decently euphemised as ‘emergency’.

5. attrib. a. spec.y esp. in Emergency man: (in Ireland) an occasional bailiffs officer, recruited for special service, esp. in evictions. 1881 Let. 14 Dec. in Reid Life of W. E. Foriter (1888) II. viii. 377 The Emergency Committee.. was a purely Orange emanation. 1883 Ann. Reg. I. i Three Emergency men [were] attacked by an armed party.

b. In general adj. sense ‘used, issued, called upon, or arising in an emergency’. 1896 Daily Chron. 15 Aug. 11 /6 She had been asked by the medical officer to take charge of the emergency brandy. 1898 Daily News 13 May 5/2 The emergency ration is never served out for more than five days consecutively, i^wijrnl. Soc. Arts 21 Sept. 802/2 The fitting of emergency brakes. 1902 Young Engineer I. 47/2 Doors are provided both for regular use and as emergency exits. 1903 Westm. Gaz. ii Sept. 8/1 Directly the current between the Bank Station and the stations as far as the British Museum was cut off, an emergency current was turned on. 1904 F. F. Moore Original Woman xxiv. 265 He was a man who had always at hand an emergency exit opening outward by which he could escape from any situation that was getting too hot for him. 1915 Lit. Digest (N.Y.) 21 Aug. 348/1 All of the [beaver-]ponds are equipped with ‘emergency exits’ in the form of holes in the bank. 1920 Act 10 Geo. V c. 5 (title) An Act to continue temporarily certain emergency enactments. 1921 Diet. Occup. Terms (1927) §729 Emergency man..a tramway conductor.. who is held in readiness to replace anyone of depot cashier’s assistants who may be on leave or sick. 1925 W. Deeping Sorrell & Son xxx. 296 He asked you to do an emergency job for him in the [operating] theatre. 1925 A. S. M. Hutchinson One Increasing Purpose i. xx, ‘Have you a girl on your staff called Glade?’ ‘Not on my staff... Miss Glade is one of mv emergency-calls. I get her when I want her, if she is available.* 1929 Star 21 Aug. 12/1 Glamorgan’s emergency bowlers. I93S Archit. Rev. LXXVH. 206 (caption) Looking along the outside wall of the lecture hall, and at one of the lecture hall emergency exits. 1940 Ann. Reg. 1939 397 Many of whom [sc. lawyers] were chosen as chairmen of tribunals and committees under one or other of the Emergency Acts. 1944 Living off Land v. 102 Carry an emergency ration in the shape of a tobacco tin of salt and oatmeal, well mixed. 1944 A. Thirkell Headmistress iii. 64 An emergency card for her rations. 1956 A. H. Compton Atomic Quest 259 The fliers returned to an emergency landing at Okinawa. 1961 Lancet 12 Aug. 338/2 Data for the occurrence of disease were derived from the Emergency Bed Service (E.B.S.) of the King Edward Hospital Fund for London. 1970 Ibid. 19 Sept. 604/2 The past decade has seen the establishment of emergency call services to supplement practice rota systems.

emergent (I'mard^ant), a. and sb. [a. L. emergent-em: see emergence.] A, adj. 1. a. Rising out of a surrounding medium, e.g. water. 1627 May Lucan iv. 141 Emergent hills t’appeare began. 1682 Weekly Mem. Ingen. 355 One part is emergent above the water. 01774 Ferguson Month of April, Brittania.. Floating emergent on the frigid zone. 1851 Ruskin Stones Ven. II. vi. The great plain, broken by an emergent rock or clump of trees.

b.yig. with direct reference to lit. sense.

1665 Glanvill Seeps. Sci. xxi, Most of our Rarities have been found out by casual emergency. 1755 Magens Insurances II. 2 The Emergency of an unexpected Case. 1776 Gibbon Decl. Sf F. I. 383 The emergency of war very frequently required their presence on the frontiers.

1636 B. Jonson Discov. (1692) 693 The man that is once hated, both his good and his evil deeds oppress him. He is not easily emergent. 1647 May Hist. Pari. iii. vi. 102 Parliament was .. so .. sunke.. that nothing but an extraordinary providence could make it again emergent. 1763 Shenstone Elegies v. 27 Hope, still emergent, still contemns the wave. 01797 Walpole Mem. Geo. II. I. 376 The emergent humour of his people.

4. concr. a. (the ordinary mod. use): A juncture that arises or ‘turns up’; esp. a state of things unexpectedly arising, and urgently demanding immediate action.

1640 Shirley Opportunity Ded., This poem.. emergent from the press. 1728 Thomson Spring 263 This.. emergent from the gloomy wood, The glaring lion saw. 1838 J. Struthers Poetic Tales 38 The sun emergent smiled.

01631 Donne Select. (1840) 107 The Psalms minister instruction .. to every man, in every emergency. 1764 Burn Poor Laws 196 Relief on sudden emergencies. 1821 Byron Mar. Fal. v. i. 183 On great emergencies The law must be remodell’d or amended. 1856 Froude Hist. Eng. (1858) 1. iv. 342 The bishop, beautifully equal to the emergency, arose. 1867 Smiles Huguenots Eng. ii. (1880) 22 On an emergency he would even undertake to measure land.

% Hence sometimes used for: Urgency, pressing need. ‘A sense not proper’ (J.). 1716 Addison Freeholder (J.), In any case of emergency, he would employ the whole wealth of his empire. Mod. It is a case of great emergency.

fh.pl. Casual or contingent profits. Obs. 01662 Heylin Laud i. 151 Rents, Profits and Emergencies belonging to a Bishop of Bath and Wells.

c. Cricket^ etc. An emergency substitute. (No longer current.)

EMERGENT

176

EMERGENCY

man,

a

1851 Nottingham Rev. 5 Sept. 3/4 Emergency Williams, Esq., b. Goodrich. 1862 in W. G. Grace Cricketing Remin. (1899) i. 12 With this ball (presented by M.C.C. to E. M. Grace), he got every wicket in 2nd innings, in the match played at Canterbury, August 14, 15, 1862, Gentlemen of Kent V. M.C.C. for whom he played as an emergency, and

2. a. That is in process of issuing forth,

b. Spec, in Astron. (see quot.); in Optics said of a ray of light after passing through a refracting medium; so also of a ray of heat. 1676 Newton in Phil. Trans. XI. 558 The incident refractions were.. equal to the emergent. 1721 Bailey s.v., When a Star is getting out of the Sun Beams, and ready to become visible, it is said to be emergent. 1822 Imison Sc. & Art 1. 246 The emergent rays will be collected to a focus. 1863 Tyndall Heat ix. (1870) 287 Heat emergent from these respective plates.

c. Science. That emerges unpredictably as the result of an evolutionary process, spec, in emergent evolution. 1915 [see emergence 2]. 1923 C. L. Morgan (title) Emergent evolution. Ibid. i. i Under what I here call emergent evolution stress is laid on this incoming of the new. 1928 Observer i June 5/3 That growing body of thought called ‘Emergent Evolution’. 1932 Discovery Apr. 108/2 One of the salient features in recent aetiology (i.e. evolution lore) has been the recognition of the more or less open secret expressed in the term ‘emergent evolution’... It has become evident that the Ascent of Life has been a succession of ‘emergent’ steps, novelties that are creative rather than ‘additive’, such as birds from ancestral reptiles.

3. fig. a. That is in process of rising into notice. 1654 H. L’Estrange Chas. I. (165s) 8 The self same spirit of contest.. was emergent long before that marriage. 1837 Carlyle Fr. Rev. ii. vi. vi, Either emergent or else emerged and full-blown. 1851 J. H. Newman Cath. in Eng. 189 There are emergent parties in this country.

b. Of a nation: that is newly independent; of a people: that is conscious of its national identity. 1954 N. Y. Times Mag. 31 Oct. vi. 13 The ambitions and the unquenchable hope of emergent Africa. 1957 Thomas World's Game xv. 191 The chauvinistic young foreign ministers of emergent countries, i960 Dialy Tel. 13 Jan. 10/2 Each of the ‘emergent’ territories in Africa has dififerent problems, to which each must find its own best solution. 1963 Listener 7 Feb. 233/1 They [sc. the Fijians] just will not be emergent or emancipated.

4. fig. That arises from or out of something prior; consequent, derivative. C1619 R. Jones Serm. Resur. in Phenix II. 488 Declining all emergent controversys. 1650 Venner Via Recta Advt. 370 From whose [blood] losse or want so great hurts are emergent, a 1716 South (J.), A necessity emergent from and inherent in the things themselves. 1833 Sir J. Herschel Astron. xiii. §689 (1858) The changes of excentricity emergent.. from the action of the normal force.

5. Casually or unexpectedly specially provided for. arch.

arising;

not

1593 Bilson Govt. Christ’s Ch. 375 To amend all matters emergent. 1628 Digby Voy. Medit. (1868) 3 That the Admirall may giue directions vpon emergent occasions. 1653 H. COGAN Diod. Sic. 238 It is their custome after meate to fall into some emergent discourse. 1726 Ayliffe Parerg. 282 Allowances of Money paid to Persons for emergent Services. 1845-6 Trench Huls. Lect. Ser. i. ii. 33 Occasional documents called forth by emergent needs.

^Used for ‘urgent’, ‘pressing’. 1706 De Foe Jure Div. Pref. i To perswade their Princes to burst them in their most emergent Occasions. 1717 Lady M. W. Montague Lett. II. xlvii. 45 The most emergent necessity. 1878 Macm. Mag. Jan. 254/1 Certain petty and emergent repairs. 1881 Spectator 19 Feb. 245 The provocation was of the most emergent kind. 1882 Sir R. Temple Men & Events viii. 182-3 R ^ matter was politically emergent.. he cast away his over-caution. 6. Required for emergencies. 1800 Wellington Let. in Gurw. Disp. 1. 65 I have this day sent a supply of emergent ammunition.

fl. emergent year: transl. of med.L, annus emergens. Obs. The term was used by Gervase of Tilbury, who says that the Jews have three modes of reckoning their years: viz., annum usualem, which they employ in conformity with the practice of their Christian neighbours, beginning on i Jan.; annum legitimum, which begins in April; and annum emergentem, which is reckoned from their departure from Egypt. In this passage emergens has its usual med.L. sense ‘arising out of a particular circumstance’ (cf. 4, 5); but after the publication of Gervase in Leibnitz Script. Rer. Brunsv. (1707-10) the phrase annus emergens was taken to mean ‘the initial year of an era’ (a misconception to which the sentence, apart from its context, easily lends itself). Hence the modem equivalents of the L. phrase, with this incorrect explanation, found their way into i8th c. dictionaries of Fr., Sp., and Eng.; but we have failed to discover any evidence that they actually came into use in those langs. A passage from the same ultimate source as that in Gervase occurs in Higden (see quot. 1450). c 1450 tr. Higden's Polychron. (Harl. MS. 2261) I. 37 Also there is a yere emergente as anendes theyme begynnengs from May when thei wente from Egipte. 1736 Bailey, Emergent year [with erroneous explanation as above]. Hence in mod. Diets.

B. sb. Ohs.

1. fa- An outcome, incidental result.

1528 State Lett, in Burnet Hist. Ref. II. 89 In this cause of Matrimony with all the emergents and dependencies upon the same. ? 1656 Bramhall Replic. vi. 235 The consideration of one or two circumstances or emergents.

b. In wider use: something that emerges. 1920 Challenge 15 Oct. 337l2 The growing estrangement [between England and Ireland] which is the mildest emergent from the tragedy.

f2. An unforeseen occurrence, a contingency not specially provided for; = emergency 3 b. Obs. 1620 Brent tr. Sarpi’s Hist. Counc. Trent 658 To be able to giue a rule for all emergents as the times doe require. 1637-50 Row Hist. Kirk (1842) 47 Maters falling out, new incidents and emergents. 01714 Burnet Own Time 11 . 74 By an unlocked for emergent, the session was broke. 1720 WoDROw Corr. (1843) II. 491 My behaviour in this emergent.

3. Science. An effect produced by a combination of several causes, but not capable of being regarded as the sum of their individual effects. Opposed to resultant. 1874 Lewes Problems Life & Joad Future of Life vi. 105 The

Mind I. 98. 1928 C. E. M. mind is an ‘emergent’ upon the combination of two constituents—namely the body and what Professor Broad calls the ‘psychic factor’. 1936 Nature 28 Mar. 522/2 The system of thought which he [sc. C. Lloyd Morgan] ultimately propounded was what he called a philosophy of evolution, but evolution as meaning the coming into existence of something in some sense new; and this something new, in a specialised sense, he labelled, adopting G. H. Lewes’s term, ‘emergent’, as contrasted with resultant. 1959 Listener 8 Jan. 58/1 When Alexander speaks of ’emergents’ he sometimes means qualities which some psychologists nowadays would call the Gestalt properties of ordered systems.. but sometimes he means something more like the possibility of a new way of functioning released through a particular kind of ordered structure.

EMERGENTLY

177

emergently (I'maidssnth), adv. [f. prec. + -LY^.] In an emergent manner; fby way of incidental consequence {obs.). 1660 Jer. Taylor Duct. Dubit. in. iv. |f 5 § i Not primely necessary, but emergently and contingently, .useful.

t e'mergentness. Obs. rare—°. [f. emergent a. + -NESS.] The state of being emergent; ‘emergency, casualness’ (Bailey). 1736 in Bailey. 1775 in Ash.

emerging (i'm3:d3iB), vbl. sb. [f. emerge -ING^.] The action of the verb emerge.

v.

+

1813 Examiner to May 300/2 The most convenient grave for the emerging of the deceased. 1831 Howitt Seasons 262 Those sudden emergings from shadow and silence. 1837 Carlyle Fr. Rev. (1872) III. ii. vi. 79 We have got to another emerging of the Trial.

e'merging, ppl. a. [f. as prec. + -ing^.] That emerges, lit. a.nd fig. 1646 S. Bolton Arraignm. Err. 265 The power of redressing emerging enormities in a church. 1703 Pope Vertumnus 115 Thro’ clouds th’ emerging sun appears. 1710 Norris Chr. Prud. ii. loi They.. lay down old Principles.. when., any emerging Juncture shall make it for their advantage. 1822 Byron Heav. (S Earth iii. 40 To hiss and sting through some emerging world. 1856 Stanley Sinai & Pal. vi. 263 The waves., dash against the emerging rocks.

emersed, bad spelling of immersed. 1794 Sullivan Vieui Nature I. 91 Emersed under the waters of the ocean.

emersion (I'maijan). [as if ad. L. *emersion-em, n. of action f. emerge-re to emerge.] 1. The appearing (of what has been submerged) above the surface of the water. (Formerly sometimes in a narrower sense: see quot. 1731.) 1667 Phil. Trans. II. 440 The Immersion and Emersion of the Globe. 1693 Knatchbull Annot. 207 (T.) Their immersion into the water, and their emersion out of the same. 1731 Bailey, vol. II. Emersion^ the rising of any solid above the surface of a fluid specifically lighter than itself, into which it had been violently immersed. 1799 Kirwan Geol. Ess. 26 The creation of fish was.. subsequent to the emersion of the tracts just mentioned. 1875 Wonders Phys. World America, the emersion of which is comparatively recent. fig. 1760 Foote Minor ii. (1781) 58 Her emersion from the mercantile ruin. 1768-74 Tucker Lt. Nat. (1852) II. 350 This emersion.. of human nature from the floods of corruption.

2. The action of coming out or issuing (from concealment or confinement). Somewhat rare. 1763 C. Johnstone Reverie II. 42 My emersion from,. solitude in which I had buried myself. 1835 Kirby Hab. Anim. I. ii. 63 The animal’s emersion from its hiding place.

emerick, emeril(l, obs. forms of emery.

b. Astron. The reappearance of the sun or moon from shadow after eclipse, or of a star or planet after occultation.

t e'merit, a. Obs. rare. [ad. L. emerit-us: see EMERITUS.] Superannuated. In quots. used contemptuously. Also as quasi-s6. Cf. EMERITUS.

1633 H. Gellibrand in T. James Voy. Rb, The exact time of the Moones Emersion. 1759 Johnson Rasselas xl. (1787) 116 We were.. watching the emersion of a satellite of Jupiter. 1833 Sir J. Herschel Astron. ix. 294 An eclipse.. in which only the immersion, or only the emersion is seen.

1641 W. Cartwright Ordinary 1. v. (1651) 17 That old Emerit thing.. that rotten Antiquary, a 1643 - Birth P’cess Eliz. (R.), The emerit ancient warbling priests. 1710 Acc. Last Distemper of T. Whigg ii. 43 He scorn’d to..be thought an Emerite.

fS. A coming into notice; an issuing into being. Obs.

t e'merit, v. Obs. rare~^. [f. L. emerit- ppl. stem of emere-re, -ri, f. e out + merere, -ri to deserve, earn.] trans. To obtain by service, deserve. 1648 Fairfax, &:c. Remonstrance 51 7'he persons that., shall have emerited their pardons.

emerited (I'mentid), ppl. a. arch. [f. L. emerit¬ us (see next) + -ED.] Chiefly of soldiers and sailors: That has retired from active service, served out his time; hence^ skilled through long practice or experience. See emeritus. 1664 Evelyn Sylva (1776) 579 Emerited and well deserving Seamen and Mariners. 1681 -Diary (1827) III. 61 A Royal Hospital for emerited souldiers. 1859 Sala Tw. round Clock (1861) 294 The most emerited thieves. Ibid. 401 The abhorred ‘Palmerstoni’ whom papal gensd’arme imagine to be an emerited brigand.

II emeritus (I'meritas), a. and sb. [L. emeritus that has served his time (said of a soldier), pa. pple. of emereri (see emerit v.) to earn (one’s discharge) by service.] A. adj. Honourably discharged from service; chiefly in mod.L. phrase emeritus professor, the title given to a university professor who has retired from the office. 1794 U.S. Register (Philad.) 119 Emerituj professor of divinity. 1823 De Quincey Lett, on Educ. v. (i860) 102 An emeritus Professor of Moral Philosophy. 1870 Lowell Study Wind. (1886) 86 He would not claim to be meritus. 1874 Morley Compromise (1886) 140 When Reason may possibly have no more to discover for us in the region of morals.. and so will have become emeritus.

B. sb. One who has retired or been discharged from active service or occupation. In mod. Diets.

t'emerods, p/. Obs. Forms; 5-7 emeraudes, -odes, (5 emerawntys, -owdys, emoroyades), 7 emrods, emeroids, emerods. [ad. L. hsemorrhoides, a. Gr. alp.oppoi8es'. see HAEMORRHOIDS.] = H/EMORRHOIDS. (Still sometimes used in allusions to i Sam. v. 6, 7, in A.V.) a 1400 in Rel. Ant. I. 190 A man schal blede ther [in the arm] also, The emeraudis for to undo. ^1440 Promp. Parv. 139 Emerawntys, or emerowdys. 1530 Palsgr. 182 A disease called the emerodes. 1610 Barrough Meth. Physick 1. xxviii. (1639) 47 If the disease [melancholy] be caused through the stopping of Emerods. 1625 Hart Anat. Ur. ii. viii. 106 Such dust..is thought to signifie fluxe of the Emeraudes. 1631 Govge God's Arrows ni. 2^2He died of.. the Emeroids. 1770 Andrew Mitchell in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. II. IV. 527 He was seized.. with a fit of the gout and the emerods at the same time. 1855 Smedley Occult Sc. 335 The mice and emerods of gold.. were essentially charms.

emersed (I'maist), ppl. a. [f. L. emers-us, pa. pple. of emergere to emerge + -ed.] Standing out from a medium in which a thing has been plunged, lit. zndfig. 1686 Goad Celest. Bodies 1. xvi. 106 A perfect Trine emers’d above the Horizon. 1729 Savage Wanderer i. 105 My winding steps up a steep mountain strain! Emers’d atop, I mark the hills subside. 1870 Hooker Stud. Flora 368 Leaves floating or emersed.

1678 CuDWORTH Intell. Syst. 145 This Hylozoick Atheism hath been very obscure ever since its first Emersion. 1680 H. More Apocal. Apoc. 218 The emersion of the New Jerusalem into Being.

Emersonian (ema'saunisn), a. and sb. [f. the name of the American author Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82) + -ian.] A. adj. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Emerson or his writings. B. sb. An admirer or follower of Emerson. Hence Emer'sonianism. 1848 A. H. Clough Let. i6 July (1957) I. 216 He is much less Emersonian than his Essays. 1857 Kingsley Two Y. Ago III. i. 34, I almost think those Emersonians are right, when they crave the ‘life of plants, and stones, and rain’. 1870 Gentl. Mag. July 160 He ‘planted himself, in Emersonian language, ‘upon his instincts’. 1884 J. Hawthorne in N. Amer. Rev. Aug. 166 To be Emersonian is to be American. 1888 Athenaeum 24 Mar. 372/2 In later life he [rc. A. B. Alcott] went about the American cities as a peripatetic philosopher, displaying in ‘conversations’ the Emersonian jewels and Transcendental wares. 1902 W. James Var. Relig. Exper. ii. 31 Modem transcendental idealism, Emersonianism, for instance, also seems to let God evaporate into abstract Ideality. 1918 Hist. Amer. Lit. I. 352 The volatile and heady liquid known as Emersonianism. 1936 Times Lit. Suppl. 12 Dec. 1022/3 Allowing to the individual an Emersonian freedom to himself. 1965 M. Bradbury Stepping Westward vi. 291 There were extravagant Emersonians in white socks.

emery ('sman), sb. Also 6 emerye, (ymree), 7-8 emeril(l, 7 emerick. [a. F. emeri, emeril, OF. esmeril = Sp. esmeril, It. smeriglio:—late L. smericulum, f. Gr. ap.r)pis {apuptg, ap.vpi5) a powder used for polishing.] 1. a. A coarse variety of corundum, used for polishing metals, stones, and glass. 1481-90 Howard Househ. Bks. (1844) 379 My Lord toke to . .the armore to by with emeir xxd. 1505 Ld. Treas. Acc. Scotl. in Pitcairn Crim. Trials 1. *123 Dichting of their steil sadilles with ymree. 1577 Wills & Inv. N.C. (1835) 1. 415, Viij pounde emerye. 1610 Holland Camden's Brit. ii. 225 That most hard and sharpe stone Smyris (which we tearme Emerill). 1612 Drayton Poly-olb. i. 2 Jernsey.. whose.. ground The hardned Emerill hath. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. II. iii. 69 The Magnet attracteth . .the Smyris or Emery in powder. 1677 Moxon Mech. Exerc. (1703) 15 Make it..smoother with Emerick. 1759 Wilson in Phil. Trans. LI. 336,1 then, with a little emery, made that edge.. rough again. 1769 De Foe's Tour Gt. Brit. III. 349 The sharp and hard Stone Smyris or Emeril. 1816 J. Smith Panorama Sc. & Art I. 33 Emery is..employed as the cutting powder. 1858 Greener Gunnery 217 Polish the barrels with.. a little washed emery.

b. = emery bag. U.S. 1864 Hist. North-Western Soldiers' Fair 71, 2 soldiers’ reticules, 3 pin cushions, 5 emeries, i crochet tidy. 1900 M. E. Wilkins Love of Parson Lord 47 Her scissors, her emery, her thread, were on the ground. Ibid. 49 An emery of painted velvet in an ivory case.

2. (See quot.) 1789 Mills Strata Irel. in Phil. Trans. LXXX. 97 An irregular bed of iron ore, called emery by the inhabitants.

3. attrib. and Comb., as emery grinding^ shapingy -stone\ also emery bag, a case containing emery, used for keeping needles bright; emery board, an emery-coated nail file (see also quot. 1889); emery-cake (see quot. 1853); emery-cloth, -paper, cloth or paper covered with emery-powder, to be used for polishing or cleaning metals, etc.; emery cushion = emery bag\ emery-file (see quot.);

EMETIC emery-grinder, an emery-wheel mounted on a stand, to be used as a grind-stone; emery planer, a planer having an emery wheel as a cutter instead of a blade; emery-powder, ground emery, hence a vb.y to rub with emerypowder; emery-roller, a roller coated with emery; emery-stick (see quot.); emery-wheel, a wheel made of lead, or of wood covered with leather, coated with emery, and used for polishing. 1845 Lowell (Mass.) Offering V. 200 The strenuous application.. soon taught me the value of an *emery-bag. 1893 ‘ Mark Twain’ in Century Mag. Dec. 237/2 They [the slaves] would smouch provisions.. or a brass thimble,.. or an emery-bag. 1905 Daily Chron. 6 Apr. 4/7 A minority of Englishwomen who chafed against their educational inequalities, who loathed their emery-bag destiny. 1725 in N. & Q. (1942) CLXXXII. 76/2 (London shop-sign) Sieve & *emery board. Robert Bacon, wire sieve maker. 1889 Cent. Diet., Emery-board, cardboard-pulp mixed with emery-dust and cast in cakes. 1907 Yesterday^s Shopping (1969) 538/2 Emery Boards—pkt 0/6. 1938 D. Du Maurier Rebecca vi. 6^ He took an emery board out of his pocket and began filing his nails. 1968 P. Geddes High Game i. 12 She had taken an emery board from her handbag. 1853 Ure Diet. Arts (ed. 4) I. 644 *Emery-cake consists of emery mixed with a little beeswax. 1873 Young Englishwoman Feb. 94/1 This natty little ‘emery cushion is composed of grey leather.. filled with emery. 1937 A. Thirkell Summer Half ix. 241 Enchanting odds and ends, such as strawberry emery cushions and ivory stilettoes. 1884 F. Britten Watch & Clockm. loi ‘Emery File.. a solid stick of Emery used as a file, a 1884 Knight Diet. Mech. Suppl. 312/1 ‘Emery grinding machine. 1772 Phil. Trans. LXII. 360 The stem.. made very smooth with ‘Emery paper. 1812 Examiner 28 Dec. Blacking and emery-paper manufacturers. 18.. Oxford Bible Helps 126 The corundum.. which when ground is known to us as ‘emery powder. 1885 Mrs. Riddell Mitre Court I. iv. 86 She had scrubbed, blackleaded .. and ‘emery-powdered for that gentleman. 1879 Cassell's Techn. Educ. IV. 274/1 An ‘emery roller is geared upon the.. main cylinder. 1883 Encycl. Brit. XV. 157/1 Emery wheels are now mounted for use in a great many different ways,—either on slide-rests as turning tools, in emery planers and ‘emery shaping machines [etc.]. 1884 F. Britten Watch fef Clockm. loi ‘Emery stick.. a stick of wood round which Emery paper is glued. 1610 W. Folkingham Art of Survey i. iii. 5 ‘Emeril-stones. 1765 Bowles in Phil. Trans. LVI. 231 Great blocks of emerystone. 1864 Rawlinson Anc. Mon. II. vii. 187 The shamir, or emery-stone. 1873 J. Richards Wood-working Factories 58 Grindstones, ‘emery wheels, buffing wheels.

emery ('Eman), v. [f. prec. sb.] trans. To rub or polish with emery; to coat with emery. Hence 'emeried ppl. a. 1844 N. Brit. Rev. II. 192 An emeried wheel. 1865 Intell. Observ. No. 38. 123 An emeried glass-plate.

emerylite ('emanlait). Min. [f. emery sb. + -LITE.] A silicate of calcium and aluminium, occurring in trimetric hemihedral crystals, with a monoclinic aspect; = margarite. 1849 J. L. Smith in Amer. Jrrd. Sc. Ser. ii. VII. 285, I have decided to call it Emerylite.

II emesis (’emisis). Path. [Gr. Ifieaiy, f. ipce-eiv to vomit.] The action of vomiting. 1875 H. Wood Therap. (1879) 426 Emesis is the result of a very complicated series of actions.

t emethen, atfz’. Obs. rare. Also 4 emethend. [a. ON. a medan (d = on; medan ‘whilst^ related to mid).] In the mean time. a 1300 Cursor M. 5118 He.. leues me beniamyn emepen. Ibid. 26928 It es stikand cure emepend.

emetia(i'mi:ti3). Chem. [f. Gr. €ft€T-o? vomiting + -lA.] = EMETINE. 1830 Lindley Nat. Syst. Bot. 205 Emetia is found in Ipecacuanha. 1875 H. Wood Therap. (i879)432Thereisno proof that emetia ever causes vaso-motor spasm.

emetic (I'mstik), a. and sb. Also 7-8 emetick, (7 hemettick). [ad. Gr. ep.eTi.K-6s provoking vomiting, f. epie-eiv to vomit.] A. adj. 1. Having power to produce vomiting. Also fig. sickening, mawkish. 1670 W. Simpson Hydrol. Ess. 47 Why these should not be Emetick. 1770 R. Baker Remarks Eng. Lang. (1779) 8 Richardson, .in his emetic history of Pamela. 1796 Morse Amer. Geog. I. 460 The waters when drank, operate., as emetic. 1838 T. Thomson Chem. Org. Bodies 74 It possesses emetic qu^ities.

2. In phraseological combinations: emetic cup, goblet (cf. ANTiMONiAL a. i); emetic root. Euphorbia corollata-, emetic tartar, (now usually) tartar-emetic [mod.L. tartarus emeticus'], potassio-antimonious tartrate, C4H4(NH4)(Sb0)05-JH20; emetic weed. Lobelia inflata- emetic wine = antimonial wine. 1679 tr. Apol. Mdm. Manchini 14 The Hemettick Wine.. quickly brought her to her Grave. 1789 A. Crawford in Med. Commun. II. 305 A quarter of a grain of emetic tartar. 1720 Lond. Gaz. No. 5884/1 Emetick Wine. 1823 J. Badcock Dom. Amusem. 108 Emetic Tartar.. ought to be employed pure. 1877 Watts Diet. Chem. V. 685 A compound of tartar-emetic and cream of tartar.

B. sb. A medicine that excites vomiting. 1657 G. Starkey Helmont's Vind. 194 Vomitories.. they likewise call by a Greek name, Emeticks. 1788 Ld. Auckland Diary in Corr. (1861) II. 94 To take an emetic together. 1819 Byron Juflw ii. xxi, The sea acted as a strong

emetic. 1875 H. Wood Therap. (1879) 426 Emetics are., employed.. for the purpose of producing.. vomiting. transf. 1823 Byron Juan viii. xii, Three hundred cannon threw up their emetic.

emetical

EMIGRE

178

EMETICAL

(I'metiksl), a.

[f. prec. + -al*.]

=

EMETIC a. lit. and fig. 1669 Phil. Trans. IV. 1131 A greater proportion of Salt.. would make it.. Emetical. 1825 Ld. Cockburn Mem. i. 39 The emetical nature of the stuff that was swallowed. 1842 Blackw. Mag. LI. 22 It is nauseous and emetical to be told that our fellow-countrymen starve outside our gates.

emetically

(I'mstikali), adv. rare. [f. emetical a. + -LY.] In the manner of an emetic.

of his emication. 1656 in Blount Glossogr. 1721-1800 in Bailey.

1841 W. Spalding Italy & It. Isl. HI. 352 The mountaineers.. emigrate during the summer to the Tuscan coast.

emicatious

2. trans. To cause or assist to emigrate; to send out to settle in a foreign country.

(emi'keifas),

a.

nonce-iud.

[f.

EMICATI-ON + -ous.] That shines or glitters. 1819 H. Busk Vestriad v. 473 Wood.. Smooth, emicatious, free from knot or joint. [f 'emich, 'emych.

A misspelling of eunuch

(occurring several times in the work cited). 1491 Caxton Vitas Patr. (W. de Worde) i. clviii. (1495) 161 a/2 Emyches..men that lacke their membres of mankinde. Ibid. 163 a/i Emiches.] emiction (I'mikjan). Phys. [n. of action f. emict-

i860 Dickens Uncomm. Trav. xvii, Sneaking Calais, prone behind its bar, invites emetically to despair.

ppl. stem of late L. emingere, f. e out + mingere

emetine (’emitain). Chem. Also (pbs.) emetin,

1. The action of voiding the urine. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets. 2. concr. Urine; that which is voided by the

emetina. [f. Gr. l/xer-oj vomiting + -ine.] An alkaloid obtained from the root of Cephaelis ipecacuanha. 1819 Children Chem. Anal. 292 Emetin is obtained from ipecacuanha. 1838 T. Thomson Chem. Org. Bodies 262 Emetina..was detected, in 1817..in ipecacuanha. 1876 Harley Mat. Med. 721 It resembles.. emetine.

emeto-cathartic Med.

[f.

Gr.

emictory (I'miktan), a. and sb. Med. [f. as prec.;

1794 Hist, in Ann. Reg. 65 Their emigrated countrymen in the Spanish service. 1809 Pinkney Trav. France 57 The emigrated proprietor is not.. without a chance of restitution. 1863 Blyth Hist. Rec. Fincham r68 Our emigrated countrymen in the colonies.

emigrating ('emigreitii)), ppl. a. [f. as prec. -1-ING*®.] That emigrates. 1812 Examiner 9 Nov. 710/2 Many emigratiiig inhabitants. 1869 Daily News 12 June, What was best in your emigrating population. fb. = MIGRATORY. Obs. rare. 1792 A. Young Trav. France 289 The mountains.. are covered with good grass, that feeds a million of emigrating sheep.

see -ORY.] A. adj. That has diuretic properties.

KaBaprtKos

B. sb. A diuretic; a medicine that promotes the

emigration (emi'greijan). [ad. L. emigrdtidn-

discharge of urine. In mod. Diets.

em, n. of action f. emigrd-re to emigrate. (Of earlier occurrence than the vb.)] 1. gen. The action of migrating or departing out of a particular place or set of surroundings. In early examples often applied to the departure of the soul from the body, either lit. by death, or fig. with reference to ecstatic rapture.

I^ero-s

vomiting

+

A. adj. Having power to cause both purging and vomiting. B. sb. A substance having this power. 1879 Syd. Soc. Lex. s.v. Ailanthus, These preparations act as emetocathartics, as well as tseniaf^uges.

emetology (emi'toladsi). Med. [f. Gr. e/ieTo-s vomiting + -logy.] ‘The doctrine of, or a treatise of, vomiting and emetics’ (Syd. Soc. Lex.). 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

emeute (emot). [Fr.: f. emouvoir to agitate, set in motion.] A popular rising or disturbance. 1782 G. Selwyn Let. 1 Mar. in 15th Rep. Hist. MSS. Comm. App. VI. 586 He was so candid to me as to own that from the beginning of this emeute he could not perceive in me the least expression of fear. 1862 H. W. Bellew Mission Afghanistan 430 These feuds and emeutes are of daily occurrence. 1886 Manch. Exam. 7 Jan. 5/1 That movement might be supported by an emeute in the town. see emphyteutic.

tem'forth, adv. and prep. Ohs. Also 4 evene [f. em, even adv, + forth.] A. adv. Equally.

forth,

1377 Langl. P. pi. B. XIII. 142 Louye..j7ine enemye.. euene forth with )7i-seiue. 1430 Lydg. Chron. Troy iv. xxxv. Who shall emforth and more be suer.

B. prep. 1. According to; in proportion to. C1314 Guy Warw. (A.) 6093 Amis emforj? his mi3t Conmrt him boj? day and ni^t. c 1385 Chaucer L.G. W. 2128 Ariadne^ To save a gentyl man emforth hire myght. 1393 Langl. P. PI. C. xvii. 222 Beatus, seith seynt bemard qui scripturas legit.. emforth his power.

2. Equally with. CI400 Solomon's Bk. Wisdom 33 thyself )?ou mi3th telle pi )?ou3th.

trewe frende emfor]?

-emia, var. -jemia. emic ('i:mik), a. [f.

emid, obs. var. of amid.

[The e- may perh.

represent in rather than on.) a 1300 Cursor M. 4252 (Cott.) In all.. drightin was him emid. Ibid. 6612 J>ai fand bot wormes creuland emid. emidward, var. form of amidward, prep. Ohs. ^1300 Cursor M. 16404 Vp he ras and wess his hend emidward pat folk bliue. femigrane.

Obs.

[ad. med.L. emigrdneus, L.

AemicrdmMr(doIor); see MIGRAINE.] = migraine. 1483 Cath. Angl. 114 pe Emygrane, emigraneus.

obs. f. emu.

emfiteutic:

urinary passages. 1666 G. Harvey Morb. Angl. (J.), Gravel and stone.. effuse the blood apparent in a sanguine emiction. 1775 in Ash. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

'emigrated, ppl. a. [f. prec. -f -ed*.] That has left his native land to settle in another.

(Video) English Idioms 2

(.smitauka'Gaitik), sb. and a.

purgative.]

emeu,

to make water.]

1870 C. B. Clarke in Macm. Mag. Nov. 51/2 Pauper children.. I would emigrate. 1886 Miss Rye in Pall Mall G. 20 Apr. 2 It is now twenty-five years since I first began to emigrate women.

phon)emic a,]

(See quot.

1954.) Cf, ETic a. 1954 K. L. Pike Lang, in Rel. Human Behavior i. ii. 8/1 In contrast to the etic approach an emic one is in essence valid for only one language (or one culture) at a time..; it is an attempt to discover and to describe the pattern of that particular language or culture in reference to the way in which the various elements of that culture are related to each other in the functioning of that particular pattern, rather than an attempt to describe them in reference to a general classification derived in advance of the study of that particular culture. 1969 [see etic o.]. 1970 Language XLVI. 78 An underbar is sometimes used to point up the correspondences between emic and etic transcriptions.

t'emicant, a. Obs.rare~^. [ad. L. emiednt-em, pr. pple. of emied-re: see next.] That darts or flashes forth. 1712 Blackmore Creation 354 Thou almighty vigour.. Which emicant did this and that way dart.

t'emicate, v. Obs. rare. [f. L. emiedt- ppl. stem of emied-re to spring forth, flash out.] intr. spring forth, appear. Also fig.

To

1657 Tomlinson Renou's Disp. 306 In whose summity little purpureous flowers emicate. 1708 MOTTEUX Rabelais V. xxii, The studious Ci^idity, that so demonstratively emicates at your external Organs.

t emi'eation. Obs. rare. [ad. L. emiedtidn-em, n. of action f. as prec.] 1. ‘Sparkling; flying off in small particles, as sprightly liquors’ (J.). 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. ii. v, 90 Iron in Aqua fortis will fall into ebullition, with noise and emication. 1775 in Ash. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

2. The action of shining forth. In quot. fig. 1633 T. Adams Exp. 2 Pet. i. 19 Christ hath., divers names of light given him, according to the different degrees

emigrant

('emigrant),

emigrdnt-em,

pr.

sb.

pple.

and of

a.

[ad.

emigrd-re:

L. see

EMIGRATE.] A. sb. a. One who removes from his own land to settle (permanently) in another. Freq. attrib. in sense ‘of, pertaining to, or used by emigrants’, as emigrant car, road, ship, trail. 1754 {title)^ A Memorial of the Case of the German Emigrants settled in.. Pensilvania. 1774 Warton Hist. Eng. Poetry I. Introd. 27 In these expeditions the northern emigrants were.. attended by their poets. 1818 Cobbett Resid. U.S. (1822) 302, I greatly doubt of its being.. of any benefit to the emigrants themselves. 1839 Thirlwall Greece II. xii. 82 The emigrants were headed by chiefs who claimed descent from Agamemnon. 1856 Emerson Eng. Traits, Wks. (Bohn) II. 100 The noise of embarking emigrants. attrib. 1842 Amer. Almanac (Boston) 321 The emigrant ship called the Governor Fenner.. comes in collision with the Nottingham Steamer. 1843 Merchant's Mag. XVIII. 540, 20 eight-wheeled emigrant,.. and 4 eight-wheeled mail and baggage cars. 1845 J. C. Fremont 107 The usual emigrant road to the mountains. Ibid. 179,1 had determined to leave the emigrant trail. 1850 Dickens Dav. Copp. Iv. 556 The time drawing on rapidly for the sailing of the emigrantship, my good old nurse.. came up to London. 1855 Times 9 July 10/5 Wreck of the Emigrant ship Lochmaben Castle. 1858 Penn. Rail Road Annual Rep. 14 The rolling stock.. consisted.. of 31 Emigrant Cars. 1883 E. W. Nye Baled Hay 56 The tourists.. got them onto the emigrant train. 1895 Rat Portage [Kenora] News (Ont.) 5 Apr. 2/2 A special train of six emigrant cars passed through here about five o’clock this morning from the east. 1942 M. Sandoz Crazy Horse 13 Many.. left their bones for the wolves along the emigrant road, b. spec. One of the French Royalists who fled at the time of the Revolution; = emigre i. 1792 Gibbon Misc. Wks. (1814) I. 368 The deplorable state of the French emigrants. 1812 Amyot Windham's Life I. 39 An expedition, composed of Emigrants, proceeded against Quiberon. i860 L. Harcourt Diaries G. Rose I. 162 The Emperor had insisted that the Emigrants should make no attempt to disturb the public tranquillity. B. adj. That emigrates or leaves his own land for another. Also (of birds), migratory. 1794 Mathias Purs. Lit. (1798) 195 Emigrant Catholick priests. 1796 E. Darwin Zoon. I. 233 The same birds are emigrant from some countries and not so from others. fe'migrate, a.

[ad. L. emigrdtus, pa. pple. of

emigrdre-. see next and -ate.] That has migrated (from the body). 1654 Gayton Pleas. Notes 226 Let our souls emigrate meet. emigrate_('emi_greit), v._

[f.

stem of emigra-re, migrate.]

out

f.

e

L. +

emigrdt- ppl. migrd-re

to

1. intr. To remove out of a country for the purpose of settling in another. 1778 Conversation in Boswell Johnson Ixii. (1848) 574 They don’t emigrate, till they could earn their livelihood.. at home. 1782 Pownall Stud. Antiq. 60 (T.) The surplus parts of this plethorick [printed phletorick] body must emigrate. 1833 Wade Middle & Working Classes (1835) 342 It is only the.. redundant portion of the community that ought to emigrate. 1881 W. Bence Jones in Macm. Mag. XLIV. 137 In 1880,96,oo^ersons emigrated from Ireland. b. In wider sense; To remove from one place of abode to another, rare.

1650 Bp. Hall Balm Gil. (R.), A scorching triall (upon the emigration) in fiames little inferiour.. to those of hell. 1656 More Antid. Ath. iii. ix. (1712) 171 The Emigration of humane Souls from the bodies by Ecstasy. 1678 Jer. Taylor Fun. Serm. 250 Frequent Aspirations and Emigrations of his Soul after God. 1755 Phil. Trans. XLIX. 175 There is an emigration of a great number from hence to sea. 1794 G. Adams Nat. ^ Exp. Philos. IV. li. 414 Successive emigrations [of air-bubbles] towards the upper parts of the tube. 1796 H. Hunter tr. St. Pierre's Stud. Nat. (1799) II. Introd. 57 A new confirmation of the vegetable harmonies of Nature founded on the emigration of plants.

fb. transf. Ohs. 1649 Jer. Taylor Gt. Exemp. Exhort. §12 Jesus had some .. acts of emigration beyond the lines of his even and ordinary conversation.

2. esp. The departure of persons from one country, usually their native land, to settle permanently in another. Also attrih., as in emigration^ agent. 1677 Hale Prim. Orig. Man. 240 (R.) Plethory hath many times occasioned emigrations. 1768-71 A. Young Farmer's Lett, to People 198 It highly behoves us to stop immediately all further emigrations. 1791 Newte Tour Eng, & Scot. 125 Those melancholy emigrations..from the Islands..of Scotland. 1833 Wade Middle Working Classes (1835) 106 The practicability of emigration as a means of relief. 1867 Buckle Civilis. (1873) III. i. 9 An overflow which in civilised times is an emigration, is in barbarous times an invasion.

3. The whole body of persons who emigrate. 1863 Bright Sp. Amer. i6 June, Of all the emigration from this country.. a mere trifle went south.

emigrational (emi'greijanal), a. rare. [f. prec. -t- -al'.] Of or pertaining to emigration. 1885 Ld. Rosebery in Pall Mall G. 26 Mar. 6/2 Twentyfive emigrational agencies in London.

emigrationist (Emi'greijanist). [f. as prec. -1-IST.]

One who advocates emigration.

emigrator

('emigreit3(r)). rare. [a. L. *emigrdtor, agent-n. f. emigrd-re: see emigrate

ti.] = emigrant. 1837 Lytton Athens 1. 242 In the average equality of the emigrators were the seeds of a new constitution.

emigratory ('emigreitan), a.

[f. L. emigrdtppl. stem of emigrdre -t- -ory; see emigrate v. Cf. migratory.] 1. Of animals; = migratory, rare. 1839 Proc. Berw. Nat. Club I. vii. 189 The great body of this emigratory species.. moved southwards.

2. Occupied emigration.

in

emigrating;

pertaining

to

1854 H. Miller Footpr. Creat. xii. (1874) 222 Records of an emigratory process. 1865 W. G. Palgrave Arabia I. 288 A large emigratory detachment.

I|emigr6. Also emigre. [Fr.; pa. pple. of emigrer to EMIGRATE.] 1. A Frenchman who has left his country for another; esp. one of those Royalists who fled at the French Revolution. 1792 Gibbon Misc. Wks. (1814) 1. 363 The Geneva emigres..are hastening to their homes. 18.. T. Archer Sword & Shuttle i. Our emigres.. had settled in Spitalfields.

2. transf. An emigrant of any nationality, esp. a political exile. . >955 Times 3 May 5/5 Czechoslovakian emigres, who were disaffected towards the then regime in Czechoslovakia. 1965 New Statesman 30 Apr. 686/2 Dusty attics in Munich and Berlin inhabited in and around 1920 by displaced Balts and seedy Russian emigres.

3. attrib. and Comb., as emigre artist, -club, etc.

EMIKE

179

EMINENT

1954 Koestler Invisible Writing xxii. 247 They read their emigre papers, frequented their emigre-clubs and cafes. 1959 Ann Reg. 1955 237 To persuade emigre Poles to return. 1962 Times 12 Oct. 15/7 When they [sc. Australian painters] have become emigre artists. 1964 V. Nabokov Defence xiv. 222 Paying no attention to the speeches she heard at emigre political meetings.

headship]. 1870 Hawthorne Eng. Note-bks. (1879) II. 27 The poorer classes.. excel.. in the bad eminence of filth.

te'mike, v. Obs. rare~^. [ad. L, emic-dre: see

fd. spirit of eminence: pride, ambition. Obs. rare.

EMICATE V.] intr. To spring forth, appear. 1657 Tomlinson Renou's Disp. 349 Two lesser nerves emike in its leafes.

Emilian (I'milisn), a. and sb. Also 8-9 iEmilian. [f. Emilia (see below) + -an.] A. adj. Of or pertaining to Emilia, a district of northern Italy (now part of the region of Emilia-Romagna), its inhabitants, or their dialect. B. sb. 1. A native or inhabitant of Emilia. 2. The dialect of Italian spoken in Emilia. 1660 E. Warcupp tr. Schottus’ Italy i. 82 At Piacenza begins the Emilian Way. 1776 Gibbon Decl. & F.l. xiv. 424 From Milan to Rome, the .Mmilian and Flaminian highways opened an easy march of about four hundred miles. 1878 Encycl. Brit. VIII. 701/1 The dialects..of Upper Italy, including Genoese, Piedmontese, Venetian, j?imilian, and Lombard. 1880 Ibid. XIII. 435li The side of the Apennines, where the great Emilian Way.. preserves an unbroken straight line from Rimini to Piacenza. Ibid. 493/1 Characteristic of the Piedmontese, the Lombard, and the Emilian is the continual elision of the unaccented final vowels. Ibid.. Gallo-ltalian and more specially Emilian characteristics. 1893 G. A. Greene Ital. Lyrists p. xxx, The Tuscans, Emilians, and Romans must be classed together. 1904 E. G. Gardner Dukes ^ Poets in Ferrara i. lo Transfigured in the glow of an Emilian sunset. 1936 A. W. Clapham Romanesque Archit. iii. 41 It is..in the internal elevation that these Emilian churches differ most markedly from those of Lombardy. 1958 S. Runciman Sicilian Vespers vi. 88 He would have preferred to.. bring the army over the Ligurian Alps, avoiding the lands of the Lombard and Emilian cities. Ibid. xiv. 233 On i May [1282] Guy of Montefeltro with a number of Tuscan and Emilian Ghibellines had ambushed the papal governor of Romagna.

II eininc6 (emese). Alsoemince. [Fr.] (See quot. 1961.) 1907 G. A. Escoffier Guide to Mod. Cookery xv. 446 An unalterable principle governs the preparation of eminces and hashes, which is that the meats constituting these dishes should never boil if it be desired that they be not hard. 1947 L. P. De Gouy Gold Cookery Bk. viii. 515 {heading) Emince of Chicken Belmont. 1961 Larousse Gastronomique 399/2 ^mincCy a dish made with left-over roast or braised meat. The meat, thinly sliced, is put in an ovenware dish and covered with some sauce or other.

eminence ('eminans).

[ad. L. eminentia, f. eminent-em eminent.] I. In physical senses. I. fa. Height, altitude, degree of elevation (obs.). b. A lofty or elevated position. 1658 Evelyn Fr. Gard. (1675) 278 Upon this water.. pour sweet butter melted, to the eminence of two fingers. £■1800 K. White Poet. Wks. (1837) 136 Draw the fix’d stars from their eminence. 1822 Imison Sc. Art I. 222 If a lighted candle be set.. on an eminence.

t2. a. A prominence, protuberance. Chiefly in Anat. b. Bot. (See quot. 1688.) Obs. 1615 Crooke Body of Man 438 Wherein the eminence.. shooting from the vpper part of the forehead is wanting. 1667 Phil. Trans. II. 493 The same Author hath discovered in it [the Tongue] many little Eminences. 1688 R. Holme Armoury ii. 115/1 Eminence, or Woolly Eminence, is the outward skin or husk that covers round roots, as in Onions, Tulipa’s. 1743 tr. Heister^s Surg. 168 There is a certain Eminence in this Edge of the Acetabulum.

3. An elevation on the earth’s surface; a rising ground, hill. Also^g. 1670 Cotton Espernon in. xi. 567 He caus’d two good Forts to be trac’d out.. upon two Eminences. 1748 Anson Voy. III. V. (ed. 4) 452 There is a battery.. on an eminence. 1797 Bewick Brit. Birds (1847) I. 7 The other, perched on an eminence, watches the flight of the prey. 1814 Wordsw. Excursion ix. 53 We.. speak.. of Age As of a final Eminence. 1833 Sir J. Herschel Astron. i. §19 (1858) 17 If we ascend a high eminence on a plain. 1844 Lingard Anglo-Sax. Ch. (1858) I. i. 5 He was beheaded on a small eminence without the walls.

II. In non-material senses.

4. Distinguished superiority, elevated rank as compared with others. (Sometimes with fig. notion of i.) a. in social or official position, wealth, or power. 1603 Shaks. Meas.for M. i. ii. 168 Whether the Tirranny be in his Eminence that fills it vp. 1613-Hen. VIII, ii. iii. 29 A Womans heart, which euer yet affected Eminence, Wealth, Soueraignty. 01652 Brome Queene's Exchange i. i. (1657) 458 Your self A Queen of so great eminence. 1667 Milton P.L. ii. 6 Satan by merit rais’d to that bad eminence. I’jtT Lett. Junius wiii. 105 The eminence of your station gave you a commanding prospect of your duty. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. I. 165 No man could hope to rise to eminence and command but by their favour.

b. in reputation, intellectual or moral attainment, or the possession of any quality, good or (sometimes) bad. 1647 Clarendon Hist. Reb. I. i. 36 His Son made a notable progress, by an early eminence in Practice and Learning. 1750 Johnson Rambler No. 157 f 4 A young man that gave.. hopes of future eminence. 1800 Med. Jrnl. IV. 406 Several surgeons of eminence. 1844 Emerson Nature, Young American Wks. (Bohn) II. 307 No man of letters, be his eminence what it may, is received into the best society. 1868 M. Pattison Academ. Org. 112 Eminence in science should be made the one statutable condition [for a

fc. Mastery, the ‘upper hand’. Phrase to have the eminence of : to have the advantage of. Obs. 1606 Shaks. Tr. ^ Cr. ii. iii. 266 You should not haue the eminence of him. 1613 Heywood Silver Age iii. i. Wks. (1874) 131 Long did we tugge For eminence.

1597 Daniel Civ. Wares vi. xxxiii. Devotion.. abates the spirit of eminence.

5. a. As a title of honour, now borne only by Cardinals. (See quot. 1836.) 1653 Cromwell to Cdl. Mazarin (Carlyle) V. App. No. 27 It’s surprise to me that your Eminence should take notice of a person so inconsiderable as myself. 1717 Berkeley Tour in Italy Wks. 1871 IV. 514 His eminence.. put on his cardinal’s square cap. 1836 Penny Cycl. VI. 291/1 Urban VIII, in 1630, gave to the cardinals the title of Eminence, which was shared with them by the grand master of the order of Malta, and the ecclesiastical electors of the German or Roman empire only. 1884 Weekly Reg. 11 Oct. 451/2 One word, his Eminence said he would add, concerning the Rosary.

b. Used occas. as a designation of an important person, an authority. Cf. next. 1935 A. Huxley Let. 5 June (1969) 396 Individual eminences are all right; but their importance, in this context, is greatly magnified if they represent professional organizations. 1966 M. R. D. Foot SOE in France ii. 34 The eminences of various kinds consigned to SOE as a travel agent.

t6. Acknowledgement homage.

of

superiority,

1605 Shaks. Macb. iii. ii. 31 Present him Eminence, both with Eye and Tongue.

t?. An eminent quality, distinction, honour. Obs.

an excellence;

a

1609 Man in A/oone (1849) 16 You assume it an eminence, to be rarely arrayed. 1655 Fuller Ch. Hist. ii. 128 His Eminences were Painting and Graving. Ibid. ix. loi So severall eminences met in this worthy man. 1659 Pearson Creed (1839) 31 There must be therefore some great eminence in the object worshipped.

18. a. Eminent degree or measure. Obs. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. i. x. 41 Naturall Power, is the eminence of the Faculties of Body, or Mind. 1710 Steele Tatler No. 206 IP 2 Men of our Acquaintance, who had no one Quality in any Eminence.

b. Gram. (See quot.) 1824 L. Murray Eng. Gram. i. 91 [The superlative formed with very) is called.. the superlative of eminence, to distinguish it from the other superlative.

c. Phrase, by {way of) eminence: in an eminent or especial sense, par excellence. (In early examples sometimes in sense 7: by way of distinction.) rare in mod. use. 1621-31 Laud Sev. Serm. (1847) 66 Now Jerusalem is by way of singular eminence called here ‘a city compacted together’. 1765 Blackstone Comm. I. 229 The principal council.. is generally called, by way of eminence, the council. 1829 I. Taylor Enthus. ix. 253 This by eminence is the bright omen of the times. 1883 F. A. Walker Pol. Econ. 399 One kind of money.. may be called by eminence political money.

9. The highest development, the ‘flower’. 1857 H. Reed Lect. Eng. Poets i. The portion of literature.. which may be regarded as its eminence,—its Poetry.

II Eminence grise (eminds griz). [F., = grey eminence: see eminence 5.] A term originally applied to Pere Joseph (1577-1638), the confidential agent of Cardinal Richelieu; now extended to describe one who wields real though not titular control. 1838 Westm. Rev. XXXI. 16 The attendants.. left Richelieu alone with his celebrated secret agent, known by the soubriquet of VEminence Father Joseph, the capuchin friar. 1937 Times 8 Apr. 18/2 {headline) Eminence grise. 1955 Times 2 May ii/i Many Americans will no doubt find it strange that Mr. Menon,.. whom they have come to regard as a sinister eminence grise standing between two countries, should choose to act as their ambassador. 1958 A. Hocking Epitaph for Nurse i. 20 She was going to be the Eminence Grise, the power behind the throne.

'eminency.

Also 7 emminency. [ad. L. eminentia: see eminence and -ency.] I. In physical senses. II. Height; prominence, elevation above surrounding objects. Obs. rare. 1635 N. Carpenter Geog. Del. ii. vii. 105 The ordinary Eminency of the hight of the Earth aboue the Waters. 1657 Austen Fruit Trees ii. 137 Mighty hils and Mountaines in eminency. 1663 Charleton Chorea Gigant. 48 One.. stone exceeding the rest in eminency.

t2. concr. A projection or prominence; a protuberance. Obs. 1668 Culpepper & Cole Barthol. Anat. m. ix. 148 Towards the Temples there grows a certain eminency. 1677 Moxon Mech. Exerc. (1703) 15 You do off the Eminencies or Risings. 1718 J. Chamberlayne Re/ig. Philos. (1730) 1. x. §9 The Muscle.. runs about the Eminency, like a Rope in a Pulley.

13. An elevation on the earth’s surface; a rising ground, hill. Also an elevated object. Obs. 1662 Gerbier Princ. to A Church or Steeple, or some other Eminency. 1703 Maundrell Journ. Jerus. (1721) 68 Mount Calvary.. is a small Eminency or Hill. 1737 Whiston7ose/)Auj Wars vii. viii. §5 A certain eminency of the rock. 1748 Anson Voy. ii. xii. (ed. 4) 354 On the tops of some small eminencies there are several look-out towers.

II. In non-material senses. t4. Distinguished superiority, elevation above the common standard in social position, wealth, power, reputation, or attainment, or in the possession of any special quality; = eminence 4. Obs. 1628 Earle Microcosm. Ixi. 166 Men of parts and eminency. 1642 C. H. in Ellis Orig. Lett. ii. 282 HI. 302 We have lost.. few of eminency. 2698 Sidney Disc. Govt. iii. § 28 (1704) 351 Commoners, who in antiquity and eminency are no way inferior to the chief of the titular Nobility. 1727 De Foe Hist. Appar. v. 48 This woman was a witch of some eminency.

fb. Of things, Importance. Obs.

of

places,

towns,

etc.:

1622 Misselden Free Trade 6 To finde out a fit remedy is of high eminency. 1640 Wilkins New Planet vii. (1707) 217 There are but two places of any eminency, the Circumference and the Centre. 1651 tr. Don Fenise 296 We arrived at the doore of an house of eminency. 1673 Vain Insolency Rome 6 The first greatness of Rome was founded in the eminency of the City.

t5. As a title of honour, borne esp. cardinals; = eminence 5. Obs.

by

1655 Milton Lett. State (1851) 331, I intreat your Eminency to give him entire Credit. 1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals l. ill. 72 Their Eminencies were all astonished at the Election.

t6. Acknowledgement of superiority, homage, deference; = eminence 6. Obs. 1647 Ward Simp. Cobler (1843) 50 Equity is a due to People, as Eminency to Princes.

17. That in which a person (or thing) excels or is remarkable; esp. in good sense, an excellence, special talent, honourable distinction. Obs. 1602 Fulbecke Pandectes 62 He hath beene accompted ignoble, who hath not beene.. noted for some eminency. 1607 Topsell Serpents 595 Therefore it followeth unavoidably, that the eminency of their [serpents’] temperament is cold in the highest degree, a 1617 Bayne On Eph. (1658) 51 This Adoption is called by the name of a dignity or eminency. 01677 Barrow iSerm. Wks. 1716I.298 Reason and discretion are the singular eminencies of men.

fS. Superiority in degree or measure; intensive magnitude, by {voay of) eminency: see eminence 8 c. Obs. 1608 S. Hieron Defence III. 159 Some eminency of greatnes, power, or goodnes. 1622-62 Heylin Cosmogr. in. (1682) 51 Not only for distinctions sake, but in way of eminency. 1643 Burroughes Exp. Hosea ix. (1652) 307 The Sabbath is called an everlasting Covenant by way of eminency. 1651 Abel Rediv. Luther (1867) I. 38 The eminency of his good parts did more and more show themselves. 1703 Maundrell Jerwj. (1721) 24 The People of the Country call it.. the Plain.. by way of Eminency.

9. Prominence, mental view.

or relative importance, in

1841-4 Emerson Ess. Art Wks. (Bohn) I. 147 This rhetoric, or power to fix the momentary eminency of an object. 1873 M. Arnold Lit. & Dogma 367 Christian Churches do recommend the.. secret of Jesus, though not.. in the right eminency.

H 10. Confused with imminency. Cf. eminent 6. 1680 Life Edw. II in Select.fr. Harl. Misc. (1793) 37 The Spencers.. saw the eminency of their own dangers.

eminent ('eminsnt), a. [f. L. eminent-em, pr. pple. of emine-re to project.] I. In physical (and obvious metaphorical) senses. 1. High, towering above surrounding objects. Also^g. Now poet, or arch. 1588 Allen Admon. 22 Nero.. deuised an eminent pillar. 1611 Bible Ezek. xvii. 22 Upon an high mountain and eminent. 1667 Milton P.L. i. 587 He above the rest In shape and gesture proudly eminent Stood like a Towr. 1674 Brevint Saul at Endor 363 Images.. seated on the Eminentest Places of the Church. 1772-84 Cook Voy. (1790) IV. 1446 The eminent part, .is the S.E. point. 1814 Southey Roderick xiv, Upon a stately war-horse eminent. fig. 2830 Tennyson Love ^ Death, In the light of great eternity Life eminent creates the shade of death. 2852 Mrs. Browning Casa Guidi Windows 87 The patriot’s oath.. stands Among the oaths of perjurers, eminent.

b. In weaker sense: Projecting, prominent, protruding. Also^g. 2542 R. Copland Guydon^s Quest. Chirurg., A party of the orbytall, or emynent pomall. 2607 Topsell Four~f. Beasts (1673) 155 Females [elephants] carry..their Calves upon their snowts and long eminent teeth. 2644 Bulwer Chiron. 67 The.. Fingers.. presented in an eminent posture. 2744 Akenside Pleas. Imag. iii. 407 The fairer [parts], eminent in light, advance. 2843 Carlyle Past & Pr. (1858) 124 A very eminent nose. fig. 2870 Lowell Among my Bks. Ser. ii. (1873) 289 Some eminent verse lifts its long ridge above its tamer peers.

II. In non-material senses. (Formerly often with some notion of i.) 2. Of persons: a. Exalted, dignified in rank or station. 1603 Shaks. Meas. for M. iv. iv. 25 A deflowred maid. And by an eminent body. 1691 Hartcliffe Virtues 141 We may not lawfully be angry.. with those in eminent Place. 1761 Hume Hist. Eng. HI. liv. 175 The king was too eminent a magistrate to be trusted with discretionary power. 1786 Burke Art. W. Hastings Wks. 1842 II. 140 A certain native person of distinction or eminent rajah.

b. Distinguished in character or attainments, or by success in any walk of life. (The use in bad sense is now ironical.)

1611 Bible Job xxii. 8 The honourable man \marg. eminent or accepted for countenance]. 1643 Prynne Sov. Power Pari. iii. 66 These two eminentest Prophets.. resist the Captaines, Souldiers, and unjust Executioners of their Princes. 1728 Newton Chronol. Amended i. 60 Eminent Musicians and Poets flourished in Greece. 1805 Med.Jrnl. XIV. 407 An eminent practitioner.. entertains a different opinion. 1837 Ht. Martineau Soc. Amer. III. 5 Eminent cooks are paid 1200/. a-year. 1847 Grote Greece ii. xlvii. (1862) IV. 157 Thucydides, .was eminent as a speaker.

c. Eminent Persons Groups a group of Commonwealth politicians who visited South Africa in 1986 in order to investigate ways of ending the country’s political unrest. Abbrev. EPG s.v. E. III. 1986 Guardian 5 Feb. 7/1 Sir Geoffrey won the support for the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group of the EEC-Frontline States meeting. 1986 Financial Times 13 May 19/1 Pretoria sees the Eminent Persons Group as a useful channel of communication with the ANC and the international community. 1986 Times 20 May 1/7 The Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group (EPG), which is trying to mediate between Pretoria and the ANC, had left Lusaka.. for Cape Town. 1987 Financial Times 10 June 10 The remark could equally have applied to.. his contribution to the report of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons’ Group on South Africa.

fS. Of things or places: Chief, principal, important; especially valuable. Obs. 1612 T. Taylor Comm. Titus i. 15 Their cheife and eminent inward parts are defiled. 1650 Fuller Pisgah ii. v. 128 An eminent country in Idumea. 1676 Allen Addr. Nonconf. 176 Prayer, .is an eminent part of Gods worship. 1677 Moxon Mech. Exerc. (1703) 130 If your Shop stands in an eminent Street. 1683 Salmon Doron Med. iii. 644 It gives present ease, and is eminent against all.. pains. 1748 Hartley Observ. Man i. ii. 218 These Muscles.. drawing the Eye out on eminent Ocasions.

4. Of qualities: Remarkable in degree; fconspicuously displayed. Of actions, facts, phenomena: Signal, noteworthy (now chiefly in good sense). c 1420 Pallad. on Husb. l. 90 The cok confesseth emynent cupide. 1454 in Ellis Orig. Lett. 11. 38 I. 120 The emynent myscheve and ffynall destruccionne of the said Counte. 1594 Hooker Eccl. Pol. i. xi. (1611) 34 After an eminent sort. 1655-60 Stanley Hist. Philos. (1701) 5/2 There is an eminent place in Eusebius to prove this. 1657 G. Starkey Helmonfs Vind. 267 An eminent fright will take away.. Agues. 1677 Feltham Resolves i. xlv. Wks. (ed. 10) 72 His valor.. is.. eminent in his killing of the Bear and Lion. 1691 Ray Creation (1714) 159 A peculiar sort of voice..is., eminent in Quails. 01704 T. Brown Praise Drunkenn. Poems (1730) I. 31 The god of wine..whose eminent perfection Drunkenness I intend to make the subject of.. discourse. 1709 Steele Tatler No. 34 If i Mountebanks.. do their most eminent Operations in Sight of the People. 1826 Disraeli Viv. Grey iii. i. 89 His success was eminent. 1862 Ld. Brougham Brit. Const. App. 453 The reputation justly acquired by his eminent services. 1869 Gladstone Juv. Mundi ii. 65 Their opponents.. were.. not Achaian in the same eminent sense.

b. Crystallography. (See quot.) 1831 Brewster Optics xxiii. 204 The plane of most eminent cleavage, i860 Tyndall Glac. i. § i. 3 One cleavage is much more perfect, or more eminent as it is sometimes called, than the rest.

5. Law. right of eminent domain’, see quots. 1738 Hist. Crt. Excheq. vi. iii The King who had the eminent Dominion. 1853 Wharton Pa. Digest 673 §3 The right of eminent domain, or inherent sovereign power gives the Legislature the control of private property for public use. 1880 Brown Law Diet, s.v., Eminent domain is the ownership or dominium (domain) of an independent sovereign over the territories of his sovereignty, by virtue of which no other sovereign can exercise any jurisdiction therein. 1886 Pall Mall G. 14 July 5/1 The State exercising its right of eminent domain.

H 6. Confused with imminent (so freq. eminens in med.L. for imminens). Obs. 1600 Hakluyt Voy. (1810) III. 377 The eminent dangers which euery houre we saw before our Eyes. 1612 Woodall Surg. Mate Wks. (1653) 156 Let..your Patient be., informed of the eminent danger of death. 1616 Brent tr. SarpVs Hist. Council of Trent (1676) 269 The actual and eminent departure of many Fathers. 1722 De Foe Plague (1884) 94 The eminent Danger I had been in.

t emi'nential, a. Math. Obs. rare. [f. eminent a. + -lAL.] (See quot. 1796.) 1736 in Bailey. 1751 in Chambers. 1775 in Ash. 1796 Hutton Math. Diet., Eminential equation, a term used by some algebraists, in the investigation of the areas of curvilineal figures, for a kind of assumed equation that contains another equation eminently, the latter being a particular case of the former. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

Hence f emi'nentially, eminently 4.

EMISSION

i8o

EMINENTIAL

Obs,

rare;

~

1656 tr. Th. White's Peripatetical Institutions 328 This action, therefore, actuates the Creature with a certain indivisibility that eminentially contains divisibility.

eminently (’sminantli), adv. [f. eminent a. + -LY^.] In an eminent manner. 11. On high; in a lofty or elevated position. 1620 Venner Via Recta Introd. 5 Those houses.. are somewhat eminently situated. 1675 Ogilby Brit. 10 A Bush .. eminently situate.

12. Conspicuously, so as to attract the eye. Obs. 1610 Guillim Heraldry iii. xii. (1660) 157 Their commander being so eminently clad. 1667 E. Chamberlayne St. Gt. Brit. i. iii. viii. (1743) 191 In the middle of the Church is he or she eminently placed in the sight of all the people. 1677 Hale Prim. Orig. Man. i. iii. 89

The great Rocks in the Sea are.. eminently visible to this day. 1774 Johnson in Boswell (1831) III. 147 The moon shone eminently bright.

3. In an eminent or especial degree; signally, notably. 1641 Bp. J. Hall Serm. in Rem. Wks. (1660) ii. 59 That all Nations should agree upon an universal! cessation of armes .. it must needs be the Lords doing so much more eminently. 1746 M. Tomlinson Prot. Birthr. 3 Nothing.. more Eminently distinguishes Man from the Brute Creation. 1817 W. Boswell in Pari. Deb. 805 Gentlemen who had eminently served their country. 1833 Ht. Martineau Three Ages iii. 105 Nowhere does virtue more eminently fail of its earthly recompense than in the church. 1851 Carlyle Sterling ii. iv. (1872) 118 A painter’s eye. .he .. eminently had.

4. Philos, and Theol. See quot. 1751. In scholastic theology God is said to possess the excellences of human character not formally (i.e. according to their definition, which implies creature limitation) but eminently (L. eminenter), i.e. in a higher sense. In wider use, the word is nearly equivalent to virtually. 1640 VviAJEfi. Joseph's Coat (1867) 58 But, virtually and eminently.. all his bones were broken, that is, contrited and grinded with grief and sorrow, a 1665 J. Goodwin Filled w. the Spirit (1867) 211 The apostle.. may be said eminently, though not formally, to have declared him [the Holy Ghost] to be God. 1691-8 Norris Pract. Disc. (i7ii)III. 15 Fire is Eminently and Potentially, though not Formally hot. 1751 Chambers Cycl., Eminently.. in the schools, is used in contradistinction to formally.. to denote that a thing possesses, or contains any other in a more perfect or higher manner than is required to a formal possesion thereof. 1845 J. H. Newman Ess. Developm. 323 A.. university of sciences, containing all sciences either ‘formally’ or ‘eminently’.

fb. Math. One equation is said to contain another eminently, when the latter is a particular case of the former. Obs. 1798 [see eminential].

^ 15. Of peril, danger: Imminently, urgently. 1646 H. Lawrence Comm. Angells Ep. Ded. 1 b, This warre.. to which my leisure more eminently exposed me. 1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals ii. i. 114 Their mine.. I see most eminently.. at hand.

t'eminentness.

Obs.-^

[f.

eminent

a.

+

-NESS.] The state of being eminent. 1731-1800 in Bailey.

1657 Tomlinson Renou's Disp. 303 Which [thistle down] eminously represents a running hare.

emir (e'mi3(r), 'i:m3(r)). Forms: 7 emer, amir, 7-9 emeer, 7- emir. [a. Arab, amfr, commander. See ameer, admiral.] 1. A Saracen or Arab prince, or governor of a province; a military commander, 1632 Lithgow Trav. (1682) pt. v. 195 An Emeer, or hereditary Prince. 1632-Totall Discourse 373 Having an Emeere of their owne, being subiect to none, but to his owne passions. 1686 Lottd. Gaz. No. 2177/1 An Emir or Prince of the Arabs..has taken the Field with some Troops. 1781 Gibbon Decl. & F. III. Ixiv. 616 The humble title of emir was no longer suitable to the Ottoman greatness. 1852 Miss Yonge Cameos (1877) I. xxiv. 185 Saladin.. sent an emir to the camp with presents. 1848 Lane Arab. Nts. I. 87 The Emeers and Wezeers.

2. A title of honour borne by the descendants of Mohammed. 1625 Purchas Pilgrimes ii. 1295 Mahomet’s.. kinsmen in greene Shashes, who are called Emers. 1688 Lond. Gaz. No. 2322/3, 56 Emirs.. with green Shashes. 1708 Kersey Emir (among the Turks) a Lord, especially any one descended from the false prophet Mahomet. 1721-1800 in Bailey. 181^ Byron Giaour xii, The foremost of the band is seen An Emir by his garb of green. (I'miarat, 'emiret).

[f. emir

f

b. = SPY. 1676 in Bullokar. 1721-1800 in Bailey.

fc. attrib. quasi-ai^'. Obs. a 1637 B. JoNSON Lyrick Pieces 8 (R.) Nor forth your window peepe. With your emissarie eye.

B. adj. That is sent forth. 11. a. Emitted as an emanation, b. Sent forth on a mission (cf. A), c. In transl. L. emissarius caper, Levit. xvi. 8. = scape-goat. Obs. rare. 1659 H. More Immort. Soul (1662) 121 Emissary atoms. 1688 - Para. Proph. 399 Emissary Agents from the Roman See. 1688-An Illustration 311 The Rivers must be Emissary Powers of the said Kingdom. 1833 Rock Hierurg. (1851) 55 The High-Priest.. offered the emissary goat.

2. Phys. Of small vessels: Sent branching out from a main trunk. 1831 R. Knox Cloquet’s Anat. 741 The communicate.. by a multitude of emissary twigs.

+

-ate.]

The jurisdiction or government of an emir. 1863 J. C. Morison St. Bernard iv. i. 406 The Emirate of Mossul should be in the hands of a man of energy. 1883 American VI. 374 Whose adherence gave Abd-ur-RahmanKhan the emirate.

fe'miss, a. Obs. rare~^. In 7 emisse. [ad. L. emiss-us, pa. pple. of emitte-re to send forth, EMIT.] Emitted. 1647 H. More Song of Soul iii. iii. xxx, Rayes emisse From centrall Night.

emissary ('emissn), sb.^ and a. [ad. L. emissdrius adj., that is sent, also absol. an emissary, spy, f. emiss- ppl. stem of emittere to send out (see emit) + -drius, -ARYh] A. sb. a. A person sent on a mission to gain information, or to gain adherents to, or promote the interests of a cause. (Until recently used almost exclusively in bad sense, implying something odious in the object of the mission, or something underhand in its manner.) Also Now freq. used without implication of odiousness or underhandedness. In B. Jonson’s Staple of News (see quot. 1625) the word is used app. as a novelty, and recurs constantly through the play as the official title of the agents employed by the imaginary ‘office for the collection of news.’ 1625 B. JoNSON Staple of N. i. ii. (1631) 9 What are Emissaries? Men imploy’d outward, that are sent abroad To fetch in the commodity [news]. 1637-50 Row Hist. Kirk (1842) 465 The Bishops purseivants, and others their emissaries. C1650 Denham Progr. Learn. 126 Lucifer’s..

forth, veins.,

emissary ('emisan), [ad. L. emissdrium an outlet, f. emiss- (see prec.) -f -drium: see -ary^.] An outlet, channel, duct: chiefly of a lake or reservoir. Also fig. Obs. exc. in Rom. Antiq. 1601 Holland Pliny II. 530 Without any emissaries, tunnels, or holes. 1727 Swift To a very young Lady Wks. 1755 II. II. 44 To be the common emissary of scandal. 1786 Phil. Trans. LXXVI. 368 The famous Emissair of the Emperor Claudius remains nearly entire. 1^59 Ld. Broughton Italy II. xvii. 121 The great emissaries of the Alban lake.

fb. Phys. out. Obs.

t'eminously, adv. Obs. rare~^. [f. L. eminus at a distance + -ous + -ly^.] Remotely, distantly.

emirate

faithful emissary, rose from hell To possess Peter’s chair. iWs Glanvill Seeps. Sci. iv. §3 The meatus, or passages, through which those subtill emissaries [the ‘Spirits’] are conveyed to the respective members. 1708 Bickerstaff detected in Swift’s Wks. II. i. 168 Culprit aforesaid is a popish emissary. 1756 Burke Subl. B. I. §7 (1808) 134 Pain.. is.. an emissary of this king of terrours. 1810 Wellington in Gurw. Disp. VII. 2, I am endeavouring to et this information by emissaries. 1841 D’Isr^li Amm. .it. (1867) 379 Burghley.. had.. emissaries to inform him of the ballads sung in the streets. 1876 Green Short Hist. vii. §6 (1882) 400 She viewed the Douay priests simply as political emissaries of the Papacy. 1968 J. A. W. Bennett Chaucer’s Book of Fame ii. 67 As Jove’s emissary the bird speaks as though he has divined these limitations,

A canal by which any fluid passes

1657 Tomlinson Renou’s Disp. i66 ‘The emissaryes of the l^ate from the brain. 1732 Arbuthnot Rules of Diet 355 The Obstruction of the Emissaries of the Saliva.

'emissary,ship. rare—', [f. emissary -I-SHIP.] The position or office of an emissary. 1625 B. JONSON Staple of N. I. i. Give your worship joy. Of your new place, your emissaryship In the News-office!

emissile (I'misil), a. [f. L. emiss- ppl. stem of emittere to send forth: see -ile, and cf. missile.] That is capable of being thrust out or protruded. 1732 in Bailey. 1775 in Ash. 1848 J. Wilkinson Swedenborg’s Anim. Kingd. I. i. 28 "The emissile and retractile cornua.. in snails. 1856-8 W. Clark Van der Hoeven's Zool. I. 191 Tubule of mouth emissile.

emission (I'mijan). [ad. L. emissidn-em, n. of action f. emittere to emit.] The action of the vb. emit. 11. The action of sending forth. Obs. in gen. sense. 16^ Topsell Four-f. Beasts (1673) 181 Emission or sending away. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. (L.), Populosity.. requireth.. emission of colonies. 1657 Hobbes Absurd Geom. Wks. 1845 VII. 398 The authority.. of the Apostles in the emission of preachers to the infidels. 1827 G. S. Faber Origin of Expiatory Sacrifice 197, note, Noah seems to have twice selected that holyday for the emission of the dove.

t2. The issuing, publication (of a book, a notice). 175* Johnson Rambl. No. 169 If 11 The tardy emission of Pope’s compositions. 1779 Johnson Life Pope Wks. IV. 40 The emission.. of the Proposals for the Iliad.

3. The issuing or setting in circulation (bills, notes, shares, etc.). Also cotter. *773 Gentl. Mag. XLIII. 295 All the emissions of their paper-currency.. are forged. 1790 Burke Fr. Rev. Wks. V. 415 Proposing the emission of assignats. 1865 H. Phillips Amer. Paper Curr. II. 36 A subsequent emission of bills of credit.

4. a. The action of giving off or sending out (chiefly what is subtle or imponderable, light, heat, gases, odours, sounds, etc.). fFormerly also the sending forth (of the soul) in death; the allowing ‘the animal spirits’ to escape; and fig. the ‘pouring out’, ‘breathing forth’ (of affection, etc.). U1619 Doting. Biathan. (1644) 190 This actuall emission of his Soule, which is death, a 1626 Bacon (L.), Tickling causeth laughter: the cause may be the emission of the ^irits. 1660 Jer. Taylor Duct. Dubit. i. iv. Wks. IX. 161 The voice was.. effective.. in the direct emission. 1693 South Serm. (L.), Affection flamed up in collateral emissions of charity to its neighbour. 1751 Johnson Rambl. No. 146 f 9 Growing fainter.. at a greater distance from the first emission. 1833 Sir J. Hehschel Astron. x. 311 The tail of the.. comet.. occupied only two days in its emission from the comet’s body. 1853-Pop. Lect. Sc. i. §35. (1873) 26 Puffs of smoke, at every moment of their emission from the crater. 1859 G. Wilson Gateways Knowl. (ed. 3) 77 The emission of fragrance. 1871 Blackie Four Phases i. 71 The emission of sparks of light.

EMISSITIOUS b. Optics, theory of ernission theory, sense 7 below.

i8i =

emission

1S31 Brewster Optics xv. §94. 134 The Newtonian theory of light, or the theory of emission.

The term is also used for the amount of heat emitted per second by unit area of the surface maintained at a temperature of one degree above its surroundings, but a better name.. is heat transfer coefficient.

c. Physics. The action of giving off radiation or particles; a flow of electrons from a cathode-ray tube or other source.

emissory (I'missn). [f, as emissive a. + -ory.] = EMISSARY sh.^

1900 Rutherford in Phil. Mag. XLIX. 12 The results seem to point to a uniform rate of emission of the emanation at all pressures. 1955 W. Heisenberg in W. Pauli Niels Bohr 25 Let a measuring apparatus be placed in the neighbourhood, which registers the emission of an electron. *955 Sci. Amer. June 40/3 It is from these bursts of emission that radio astronomers have obtained most of their new information about the Sun’s activities.

5. concr. That which is emitted; an emanation, effluvium. 1664 Power Exp. Philos, iii. 155 The Magnetical Emissions.. are., Corporeal Atoms. 1664 Evelyn Kal. Hort. (1729) 218 Warm and benign Emissions of the Sun. 1871 Tyndall Fragm. Sc. (ed. 6) I. ii. 43 We obtain the value of the purely luminous emission.

6. Phys. = L. emissio seminis. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. 371 There is no generation without ajoynt emission. 1665 Glanvill Seeps. Sci. The other Instances of.. Emissions. 1885 Law Reports Appeal Cases X. 176.

7. emission nebula Astr,f a nebula which shines with its own light, produced inside it; emission spectrum, a spectrum which shows the radiations from an emitting source; emission theory, any theory of light or other radiation according to which it consists of streams of particles rather than waves. [1954 Physics Abstr. LVII. 1018/2 Two fundamental types of nebulae follow from this discussion: (i) the emission-type nebulae, consisting of atomic and ionized H, without dust, and (2) dark nebulae, with dust, consisting mainly of H2.] 195^ Austral. Jrnl. Physics IX. 227 Ordinary •emission nebulae emit radio waves as the result of their high electron temperature by the process of free-free transitions. 1974 Sci. Amer. Oct. 34/3 These reflection nebulas are useful for studying the properties of the interstellar dust grains, but they are distinguished from the true emission nebulas, which shine as a result of the atomic processes going on within them. 1978 Pasachoff & Kutner University Astron. xxiii. 573 The Great Nebula of Orion.. is an emission nebula. 18^ Phil. Mag. 5th Ser. XXVI. 289 Angstrom thought it improbable that oxygen should have a spectrum of such a character, since he failed to obtain an •emission spectrum resembling it. 1930 G. Thomson Atom ii. 22 It is from the position of these black lines (Fraunhofer lines) that the nature of the substances present in the sun has been found. Such a black line spectrum is called an ‘absorption’ spectrum, in contrast to the bright line ‘emission’ spectrum. 1962 Listener 31 May 949/2 Surrounding the Sun is a layer made up of tenuous gas, which, if seen on its own, would produce an emission spectrum made up of isolated bright lines. 1880 Bastian Brain 62 An •emission theory..will not hold for the diffusion of light. 1926 R. W. Lawson tr. Hevesy & Paneth's Man. Radioactivity i. 5 Finally for cathode rays the emission theory, and for Rontgen rays the wave theory held the field.

t emi'ssitious, a. Obs. rare~^. [f. L. emissici-us sent out, f. emiss- ppl. stem of emittere + -ous: see EMIT.] 1. fig. Prying, inquisitive, narrowly examining. 1620 Bp. Hall Hon. Mar. Clergy ii. viii. Cast backe those emissitious eyes. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

2. Cast out. *73*-36 in Bailey. 1775 in Ash.

emissive (I'misiv), a. [f. L. emiss- ppl. stem of emitte-re to send forth, emit + -ive.] 1. Having power to emit; radiating. 1870 T. L. Phipson tr. Guillemin's Sun 236 A homogeneous gaseous mass.. having a radiating or emissive power. 1881 Prof. Stokes in Nature No. 625. 596 The., body of the sun.. is comparatively feebly emissive of light.

b. etnissvve theory: = emission theory. 1837 Whewell Hist. Indust. Sc. (1857) I. 63 The emissive, and the undulatory theory of light. 1842 W. Grove Corr. Phys. Forces 64 The emissive or corpuscular theory.

■\2. That is emitted; that is sent or flows forth. Ohs. rare.

R. Loveday Letters (1663) 201 Thus their emissive venome.. will fatally recoyl upon themselves. 1746-7 Hervey Medit. (1818) 126 Freely..she distributes the bounty of her emissive sweets. 1737 H. Brooke Tasso i. (R.), Soon a beam, emissive from above. Shed mental day. 16..

emissivity (iimi'siviti). [f. emissive a. + -ity.] Emissive or radiating power of heat or light; spec, in Physics (see quot. 1958). 1880 Encycl. Brit. XL 577/2 We define thermal emissivity as the quantity of heat per unit of time. Ibid., The first thoroughly trustworthy e^eriments giving emissivities in absolute measure. 1884 P. G. Tait Light 248 We now define the emissivity of a body at a given temperature, for a particular radiation, as the ratio of its emission of that radiation to the emission of the same radiation by a black body at the same temperature. 1891 Proc. R. Soc. L. 166 {heading) The thermal emissivity of thin wires in air. 1902 Encycl. Brit. XXVII. 189/2 Fourier defined another constant expressing the rate of loss of heat at a bounding surface per degree of difference of temperature between the surface of the body and its surroundings. This he called External Conductivity, but the term Emissivity is more convenient. 1958 H,J. Gray Diet. Physics 174/1 Emissivity of a surface is the ratio of its emissive power to that of a black body for a given wavelength and at the same temperature.

1858 G. P. ScROPE Geol. & Extinct Volcanoes of Central France (ed. 2) 59 The emissory thus forcibly created.

emit (I'rrut), v. [ad. L. emitte-re to send forth, f. e out + mitte-re to send.] trans. To send forth: in certain special senses. (Not used with personal obj.) 1. To send forth as a stream or emanation. a. To send forth, discharge (as a liquid or plastic substance); to exude juices, etc.). 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. in. xiii. 137 [The liquid secreted by toads] is emitted aversely or backward. 1712 Pope Spect. No. 408 If3 So pure a Fountain emits no., troubled Waters. 1813 Sir H. DAVY^^grtc. Chem. (1814) 249 A tree which emits sap copiously from a wound. 1835-6 Todd Cycl. Anat. I. 209/1 The threads by which the spiders suspend themselves.. are emitted from the extremity of the abdomen. 1879 Sir J. Lubbock Sci. Lect. iii. 71 The aphis emits a drop of sweet fluid.

b. To give off, throw out (‘effluvia*, light, heat, gases, flames, sparks, etc.). 1626 Bacon Sylva §259 Both of them.. do not appear to emit any Corporal substance. 1692 Bentley Boyle Lect. 227 By effluvia and smrits that are emitted, i 756-7 tr. Keysler's Trav. IV. 452 The water..emits an ill smell. 1794 J. Hutton Philos. Light, etc. 206 Those bodies may be heated so as to emit light. 1848 Mrs. Jameson Sacr. Sf Leg. Art (1850) 64 The earth emits flames. 1869 E. A. Parkes Pract. Hygiene (ed. 3) 89 An adult man.. emits.. carbonic acid gas by the skin. fig. 1805 Foster Ess. i. ii. 27 Emitting sentiment at every pore.

If intr. 1886 Dflf/y News 16 Sept. 7/2 Summoned, .for., permitting.. smells to emit from his stable.

c. transf. 1754 Hume Hist. Eng. I. iii. 67 That multitude of nations which she had successively emitted.

t2. To throw out as an oflFshoot. Obs. 1660 Sharrock Vegetables 117 More fresh sprouts., are emitted. 1676 Worlidge Cyder (1691) 57 Before its wound be healed, and new fibres emitted. 1756 P. Browne 105 This plant.. emits a few.. stalks.

3. To give forth (sound). i8a6 Kirby & Sp. Entomol. III. xxxii. 339 They emit a grating noise, i860 Tyndall Glac. ii. § i. 224 A bell struck in a vacuum emits no sound. 1876 Smiles Sc. Natur. vii. (ed. 4) 107 It did not emit any cry, such as the hare does.

4. To Utter, give expression to (a statement, opinions, etc.), *753 Stewart's Trial App. 4 All these declarations were emitted by the.. persons.. mentioned. 1805 Foster Ess. iii. i. 5 Emit plenty of antipathy in a few syllables. 1818 Mill Brit. India II. iv. vii. 261 Complaints were.. emitted of the scarcity of money. 1831 Carlyle Sart. Res. (1858) 179 How could a man.. emit [thoughts] in a shape bordering so closely on the absurd?

t5. To issue, publish (books, documents, notices). Obs. Row Hist. Kirk (1842) 361 Papers and books emitted for cleareing the wickednes of the Prelatt’s apostasie. 1723 Wodrow Corr. (1843) III. 6 The public papers emitted that and next year. 1726 Ayliffe Parerg. 180 A Citation.. ought to be.. emitted by the Judges Authority. *779 Johnson Life Pope Wks. IV. 23 Pope having now emitted his proposals. 1847 Sir W. Hamilton Letter 37 But this declaration, now emitted, is contradicted by that very declaration, emitted in February. *637-50

6, To issue formally and by authority (edicts, proclamations; also, and now chiefly, paper currency, bills, etc.), 1649 Bp. Guthrie Mem. (1702) 103 A Declaration Emitted by the English Parliament. 1672 Clarendon Ess. in Tracts (1727) 265 Lewis.. condemned that excommunication and the pope that emitted it. 1761-2 Hume Hist. Eng. (1806) V. Ixxi. 279 The edicts emitted., still wanted much of the authority of laws. 1791 T. Jefferson Writ. (1859) III. 268 A dollar of silver disappears for every dollar of paper emitted. 1863 Dicey Federal St. I. 124 No State shall.. emit bills of credit.

EMMENAGOGOLOGY emitter (i'rmt3(r)). [f. emit v. + -er.] 1. That which emits. Const, of. 1883 Tyndall Radiation in Contemp. Rev., Grasses were powerful emitters of heat. 1926 Spectator 17 Apr. 696/1 Tungsten a powerful emitter of ultra-violet rays, when it is incandescent. 1927 A. Huxley Proper Studies 72 No emitter of singular opinions is ever reasonable in the eyes of the.. majority.

2. An electrode which emits current-carriers; an element in a transistor. Also attrib. and Comb., as emitter-base, -follower, -junction, -resistance. 1948 Physical Rev. LXXIV. 230/1 Two [electrodes], called the emitter and collector, are of the point-contact rectifier type. 1957 Electronic Engin. XXIX. 3 The emitter resistance is inversely proportional to the emitter current. 1958 Ibid. XXX. 200 The linear emitter-follower is characterized by a low impedance emitter output terminal, whose voltage approximates that of its base. 1962 Simpson & Richards Junction Transistors ii. 25 The material from which these injected carriers come.. is called the emitter and the junction between it and the base is called the emitter junction. Ibid. ix. 202 Because the emitter-base junction is a high-efficiency hole injector, very few electrons are removed via the emitter.

emitting (i'mitid), vbl. sb. [f. emit The action of the vb. emit,

v.

+ -ingL]

*693 Sir T. Blount Nat. Hist. 298 An alternate and successive retracting and emitting of the Sting.

e'mitting, ppl. a. [see -ing**.] That emits. 1667 Dr. E. King in Phil. Trans. II, 450,1 did often strike with my finger the upper part of the emitting Vein.

emma, used orig. in telephone communications and in the oral transliteration of code messages, hence colloq.y for m, as in ack emma, for a.m. (see ack); emma-emma-esses (see quot. 1919); emmo-g^ee, for m.g. — machine gun; pip emmUy for p.m. (see pip sb.*); toe emma, for t.m. (see toc emma). 1891 Man. Instructions Signalling 94 The reader may pronounce his letters in any distinctive method to distinguish those letters which resemble others in sound, e. g. B, V, D, E, or M, N, etc. may be called Beer, Vay, Do, E, and Emma and N, etc. 1898, etc. [see ack]. 1915 ‘Ian Hay’ First Hundred Thousand xix. 289 ‘Pip Emma’—as our friends the ‘buzzers’ call the afternoon. 1918 H. W. McBride Emma Gees i. 9 Emma Gee is signaler’s lingo for M.G., meaning machine gunner. 1919 Downing Digger Dialects 22 Emma-emma^esses, smoke-oh. (From the signal alphabet, MMS, Men may smoke.) 1926 E. Wallace Door with Seven Locks xiii. 125 Tell him I want to raid Gallows Cottage, Gallows Hill, at eleven-fifteen pip-emma. 1931 Morning Post 20 Aug. 8/5 He was the only infantry officer.. who had a good word for the Trench Mortar crowd. ‘Are you Toc Emmas? You’re just the men I want.’ 1969 WoDEHOUSE Pelican at Blandings vi. 83 We shall meet at twelve pip emma.

emmantle, var. of immantle. emmarble (£'ma:b(3)l), v. Also enmarble. [f. EN- + MARBLE jZ?.] trans. To convert into marble, to sculpture in marble; to adorn or inlay with marble. Hence emmarbled ppl. a. *596 Spenser Hymn to Love 140 Wks. (1862) 487 Thou doest emmarble the proud hart of her. 1850 Mrs. Browning Crowned & Buried Poems II. 223 Pictured or emmarbled dreams. 1864 Blackfriars I. 59 The richly enmarbled altar.

(e'moivil). Also enmarvel, em-, en- + marvel sb.^ or v.] trans. To fill with wonder. Hence emmarvelled a. emmarvel

enmarvaile. [f.

1740 Gray Let. in Mason Memoirs (1807) I. 257 We are all enraptured and enmarvailed. 1829 A. H. Hallam Remains 22 On that child’s emmarvailed view. 1834 Ld. Houghton Dream of Sappho, They heard emmarvelled.

emme, obs. form of am: see be

v.

emme, var. of eme, Obs., uncle.

17. To send forth, let fly, discharge (a missile). 1704 Swift Batt. Bks. (1711) 263 Having emitted his Launce against so great a Leader, c 1720 Prior 2nd Hymn of Callimachus to Apollo Poems 244 Lest.. the far-shooting God emit His fatal arrows.

t emi'trichie, e'mytrycke. Obs. rare. [ad. Med.L. {h)emitricius {morbus), {h)emitricia (febris), corruptly ad. Gr. lyfUTpiralos semi-tertian (fever).] A kind of fever. 1398 Trevisa Barth. De P.R. iv. viii. (1495) 92 Feuers that hi3t Emitrichie. [Ibid. vii. vii. 227 Some sykenes whyche is callyd Emitricius.] 1547 Boorde Bren. Health cxliv. 53 In Englyshe it is named the Emytrycke fever.

emitted (I'mitid), ppl. a. [f. emit v. + -ed^.] That is given off, thrown off. al^l^ Ken Edmund Poet. Wks. 1721 II. 258 Guilding each Motion by emitted Rays. 1837 Whewell Hist. Induct. Sc. (L.), An emitted fluid.

femittent, a. Obs. [ad. L. emittent-em, pr. pple. of emitte-re to send forth.] That emits. 1665-6 Phil. Trans. I. 357 The bloud of the Eminent Animal, may mix.. with that of the Recipient. 1692 Ray Dissol. World iv. (1732) 54 The emittent Body.

t'emmele. Mus. Ohs. rare-"^. [ad. Gr. ifMfxeXrjs, f. ht in + ficXos melody. (Boethius divides musical progressions into those which can form part of a melody, and those which cannot.)] A term applied in the old Theory of Harmony to the imperfect concords. 1609 Douland Ornith. Microl. 79 Emmeles are.. those which sound thirds, sixts, or other imperfect Concords.

emmenagogic (e.miina'godsik), a. Med. Also 7 emenagogic. [f. emmenagog-ue -I- -ic.] Having the property of, or related to, an emmenagogue. 1678 Salmon Lond. Disp. 45/2 Ground Pine..is.. Diuretick, and Emenagogick. 1757 Phil. Trans. L. 79 Emmenagogic pills. fb. afixo/. quasi-x6. = emmenagogue Obs. 1742-1800 in Bailey.

Hence e,mmena'gogical a. 1805 Edin. Rev. VII. 109 Sage is.. emmenagogical.

emmenagogology (E,mi;n3g3u'gDl3d3i). Med. [f. EMMENAGOG-UE -H -(o)logy.] ‘A treatise on emmenagogues’ {Syd. Soc. Lex. 1884).

EMOLUMENTAL

182

EMMENAGOGUE emmenagogue (e'munsgog), a. and sb. Med. Also 8 emenagogue, [f. Gr. ipLfx-qva the menses of women + dyojyoy drawing forth.] A. adj. Having power to excite the menstrual discharge; = emmenagogic. SirJ. Floyer in Phil. Trans. XXIIL 1168 All., are ..Emmenagogue. 1830 Lindley Nat. Syst. Bot. 135 Common Rue, and another species, are.. emmenagogue. i860 in Mayne Exp. Lex. 1861 R. Bentley Man. Bot. 625 Petiveria alliacea is reputed sudorific and emmenagogue. 1864 A. B. Garrod Mat. Med. (ed. 2) 182 Myrrh..is supposed to possess antispasmodic and emmenagogue properties. 1807 C. A. Moloney Sk. Forestry W. Afr. xx. 328 All parts of this plant are said to be emmenagogue. 170a

2. attrib., as emmet-swarm. Also emmetbatch, -but, -cast {dial.) = ant-hill; emmethunter {dial.), the Wryneck {Yunx torquilla). 1847-78 Halliwell ‘Emmet-batch, an ant-hill, Somerset. 1697 Dampier in Phil. Trans. XX. 49 ‘Emett Butts. Mod. Kent Dial. The field is so full of‘emmet-casts. 1837 Macgillivray Hist. Brit. Birds III. too Wryneck, [Provincial name], ‘Emmet-hunter. 1885 Academy 10 Oct. 235 The ‘emmet-swarm of popular scribblers.

femmetris. Obs. rare—^. A green-coloured gem, prob. a kind of emerald.

softening; the softened condition of a melting body before it fuses’ {Syd. Soc. Lex.). 1794 Kirwan Min. I. 43 The., lowest degree emollescence. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

emolliate

(I'molieit),

soften, f. e intensive

is

v. [f. L. emolli-re to ■+ molli-s soft -t- -ate.]

trans. To soften, render effeminate. 1802-17 Pinkerton Geog. (W.), Emolliated by four centuries of Roman domination. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

1621 Burton Anat. Mel. ii. iv. I. iv. (1651) 371 Which properties.. Cardan gives to that green coloured Emmetris.

f e'molliative, a. Obs. rare~^. [f. as prec. -h -ATIVE.] That tends to soften, assuage, relax.

B. sb. Agents which increase or renew the menstrual discharge.

emmetrope ('ematrsup). Phys. [f. Gr. e/^fterp-oy

1601 Holland Pliny II. 138 The meaIe..of the threemoneth corn is more moist and emolliative.

1731-1800 in Bailey. 173a Arbuthnot Rules of Diet 273 Emenagogues are such things as produce a Plethora or Fulness of the vessels. 1875 H. Wood Therap. (1879) 535 Emmenagogues are medicines.. employed to promote the menstrual flux.

+ am-: see emmetropic.

fe'mollid, a.

1875 H. Walton Dis. Eye 345 Emmetropes complain of fatigue only in using the eye for near objects.

emmene: see

emony, dial., anemone.

emmenological (e.mnnau'lndsiksl), a. Med. [f. + -ic + -AL^.] ‘Relating to menstruation’ (Syd. Soc. Lex. 1881). EMMENOLOGY

emmenology (emi'nDi3d3i).

Med. [f. Gr. stem of the menses + -logy.] A treatise on, or the doctrine of, menstruation. 1742 (title) Le Tellier’s Critical Reflections upon the Emmenology of Dr. Friend. 1847 in Craig; and in mod. Diets.

Emmental, Emmenthal ('Em^ntarl).

Also Emmentaler, -thaler (-ta:b(r)). [G. Emmentaler (formerly, -thaler)^ f. Emmental^ region in Switzerland.] In full Bmmen^a/(etc.) c/ieese. A Swiss cheese containing numerous holes. 1902 Encycl. Brit. XXVII. 355/2 Of the varieties of cheese made in Switzerland, the best known is the Emmenthaler. 1950 J. G. Davis Diet. Dairying 119 Emmenthal cheese^ the classical Swiss hard-pressed cheese. 1953 Sci. News XXIX. 60 Cheese was made in prehistoric times, and the craft has developed great heights of skill in the creation of such cheeses as English Stilton, Swiss Emmentaler and French Roquefort, 1955 Times 10 May 12/4 Switzerland still offers the world its Emmenthal—commonly called Gruyere. 1958 Catal. County Stores, Taunton June 8 .. Emmental (Gruyere)—8/-. 1959 Times 5 Oct. (Switzerland Suppl.) p. ix/2 Gruyere or Emmentaler cheese.

emmer ('em3(r)).

[Upper G. etnmer (OHG., MHG. amer).'] A species of wheat, Triticum dicoccum. Also attrib. 1908 P. T. Dondlingf.r Book of Wheat iii. 56 The introduction of spelt and emmer must also be mentioned. 1921 G. A. F. Knight Nile Sf Jordan iii. 32 One of the names of the primitive ‘emmer-corn’ in Babylonia was bututtu, which is akin to the Egyptian boti. 1924, 1965 [see einkorn], 1928 V. G. Childe MostAnc. East ii. 43 The wild ancestor of emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum with fourteen chromosomes) is alleged to grow native in Western Persia and Mesopotamia, in Syria and Palestine. 1965 R. F. Peterson Wheat v. 82 On the whole, wheats of the Einkorn group were more resistant than those of the Emmer group.

emmesh, variant of enmesh

v.

emmet (’Emit). Forms: i abmete, -mette, -mytte, emete, 3-4 emete, (5 ematte), 4-6 emet, (emot(e, 4 Sc. a nemot, i.e. an emot), 6 emmette, (emmont), 6-7 emmot(t(e, (9 Sc. emmock), 6emmet. (For forms with initial a, see ant.) [repr. OE. xmete wk. fern, (see ant). The OE. x in stressed initial syllables frequently underwent shortening in ME., and was in that case variously represented according to dialects by a or e. Hence the two forms amete and emete\ the former of which became contracted into amt, ANT, while the latter retained its middle vowel and survives as emmet.'] 1. a. A synonym of ANT. Chiefly dial., but often used poet, or arch, horse-emmet, the Wood Ant {Formica rufa). C850 Kentish Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 85 Formicas, emetan. cijoo Beket 2141 Paste hi schove and crope ek as emeten. y Cuppeborde with Siluer & gild fulle gay.

emperic, -al, emperice, emperil,

obs. ff. empiric, -al.

obs. form of empress.

obs. form of imperil.

t em'periment. Obs. rare—^. [a. OF. empirement deterioration, f. empirer to make worse; cf. empyre v. and -ment.] The action of getting worse, of ‘breaking up’ physically. 1674 Collect. Poems, To Flatman, The minds incurable disease, That (till the last Emperiment) expects no ease.

emperious, obs. var. of

imperious a.

fem'perish, v. Obs. rare. Also 6 emperysshe, emperyshe. [app. f. F. empirer, on the erroneous analogy of words like embellish', afterwards perh. associated with perish.] trans. To make worse, impair, enfeeble. Hence em'perishing ppl. a. 1530 Palsgr. 531 It is not utterly marred, but it is sore emperysshed. 1545 T. Raynold Womans Book Y5 The weedes .. wyll defourme and emperysshe the good grace of them. 1579 Spenser Sheph. Cal. Feb., I deeme thy braine emperished bee Through rustie elde. 1593 Nashe Christ's T. (1613) 68, Rather., then inward emperishing famine should too vntimely inage thee.

t em'perishment. Obs. Impairment, injury.

+

[f. prec.

1545 Raynold Womans Book emperisshement of theyr helth.

Y6

-ment.]

Without

t'emperize, u. Obs. rare. [f. empery

+

any

-ize.] a.

trans. To rule as an emperor; to lord it over. b. intr. Const, over. Hence 'emperizing ppl. a. 1598 Barckley Felic. Man (1631) 167 He thought it greater.. 'ore Kings to emperize. 1609 Heywood Brit. Troy Proem, The Apocalip Magog shall.. Emperise the world. 1601 Chester Love's Mart, cci, True loue is Troths sweete emperizing Queene.

t'emperly, a.

EMPERY

18s

Obs. rare—',

[f. emper-or

+

-LY.] = imperial. 1500-25 Virgilius in Thoms Prose Rom. (1858) II. 23 He saw his unkell.. in his emperly stole.

emperor ('emp3r3(r)). Forms: 3 emperere, 3-8 emperour(e, (3 amperur, aumperour, 4 emparour, -ur, empere, emperore, -ure, eemperour, 5 emperowre), 5-6 emproure, -ure, (6 emporour, empowr, empoure, -pre-, -prioure), (4 imparour, -ur, imperur, -owr, 4-6 imperour), 4, 6- emperor. [The ME. emperere, emperoure, are respectively ad. OF. emperere(s (nom. case) and empereor (oblique case):—L. impe'rator, impera'torem, agent-noun f. imperdre to command. The L. imperator, orig. denoting in general the holder of a chief military command, became in the period of the Roman republic a title of honour, bestowed on a victorious general by the acclamation of the army on the field of battle. This title was afterwards conferred by the senate on Julius Csesar and on Augustus, with reference to the milita^ powers with which the chief of the state was invested; and in accordance with this precedent it was adopted by all the subsequent rulers of the empire except Tiberius and Claudius. In post-classical Latin it became the chief official designation of the sovereign, being interpreted in the sense of ‘absolute ruler’ (in Greek avroKparoip). In this sense it continued to be applied to the rulers of the Western and Eastern Roman empires until they severally came to an end. In a.d. 800 when the Western empire was nominally revived, the Frankish king Charles the Great (Charlemagne) was crowned by the pope with the title of imperator, implying that he was invested with the same supremacy over European monarchs that the rulers of the earlier Roman empire had possessed. The title continued to be borne by his successors, the heads of the ‘Holy Roman Empire’ (popularly the ‘Empire of Germany’) down to its extinction in 1806. The Romanic (and hence the English) forms of the word were originally applied to the sovereigns of the Eastern

empire, to those of the Romano-Germanic empire, and historically to those of the earlier Roman empire. For subsequent extensions of meaning (common to English with the Romanic langs.), see below in sense 3.]

1. 1. The sovereign of the undivided Roman Empire, or of the Western or Eastern Empire. 01225 ^ncr. 01300 Cursor

R. 244 J>uruh Julianes heste J>e Amperur. M. 11277 (Cott.) In august time, J>e Imparour, Was vs bom vr sauueour. f 1300 St. Margarete 23 Li|>er was j?emperor Diocletian. 1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 4089 He sal be last emparour I>at )?are sal be. 1388 Wyclif Matt. xxii. 21 3elde 36 to the emperoure tho thingis that ben the emperouris. 1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. iv. (1520) 27b/2 He was commaunded by the letter of themperoure to come to Rome. 1549 Compl. Scot. 25 Marcus antonius vas venquest be the empriour agustus. 1603 Knolles Hist. Turks (1638) 36 Baldwin had before married Emanuel the Greek Emperors neece. 1790 Burke Fr. Rev. Wks. V. 431 Rome, under her emperours, united the evils of both systems. 1833 Cruse Eusebius iv. x. 137 This emperor [Adrian] having finished his mortal career.

2. The head of the Holy Roman Empire, also styled of Almaigne or Germany. In German documents Kaiser (the Teutonic form of the imperial name CiTSAR) was used in this sense, and is therefore regarded as the German equivalent of ‘emperor’. 1297 R. Glouc. (1724) 486 The aumperour Frederic, & the king Philip of France Alle hii wende to lerusalem. c 1450 Guy Wartv. (C.) 4205 Therfore y sey yow, syr emperere. 1529 Rastell Pastyme (1811)81 Philyppe Auguste.. wanne a great battell agaynst Otton the emperour. C1552 Bale K. Johan i My granfather was an empowr excelent. 1615 Stow Annales 661/1 His lordship.. taking leaue of the Emperour, departed from Vienna. 1735 Oldmixon Hist. Eng., Geo. /, vi. 763 The Treaty of Vienna between the Emperor and King of Spain. 1804 [see 3]. 1873 Bryce Holy Rom. Empire (ed. 4) xii. 186 No act of sovereignty is recorded to have been done by any of the Emperors in England.

3. a. In wider sense, as a title of sovereignty considered superior in dignity to that of ‘king’. In the Middle Ages, and subsequently, the title was often applied to extra-European monarchs ruling over wide territories. We still speak of the Emperors of China, Japan, Morocco, and historically of the Mogul Emperors of India and the Emperor of the Aztecs. Since the early part of the 16th c. the title has been used as the equivalent of the Russian tzar (or czar). The Sultans of Turkey (who assumed the style of Keisar-i-Rum, ‘Csesar of Rome’, as successors of the Byzantine emperors) were occasionally spoken of as emperors. Until the present century ‘the Emperor’ always, unless otherwise interpreted by the context, denoted the ‘emperor of Germany’. But in 1804 Napoleon I. assumed the title of ‘Emperor of the French’, and in the same year the emperor Francis II ‘of Germany’ added to his other titles that of ‘Emperor of Austria’, which he retained when in 1806 he put an end to the Holy Roman Empire by his abdication. Subsequently the style of emperor has been adopted in several other instances. ‘At present (1889) the only sovereigns so called are (apart from Asiatic and African potentates) those of Russia, Austria, Germany (since 1870), and Brazil (since 1822); and in 1876 the title of Empress of India was assumed by Queen Victoria.’ {N.E.D.) c 1400 Maundev. V. 42 The grete Cham.. is the gretteste Emperour.. of alle the parties be3onde. 1533-4 ^5 Hen. VIII, c. 22. §i The laufull kinges and emperours of this realme. 1560 Rolland Crt. Venus Prol. 122 As I have red of Kingis and Empreouris. 1611 Shaks. Winter's T. iii. ii. 120 The Emperor of Russia was my Father. 1655 M. Carter Hon. Rediv. (1660) 70 Yet our Kings have been styled Emperors, and this Realm of England called an Empire. 1772 Sir W. Jones Ess. i. (1777) 185 Being assisted by the emperours of India and China. 1804 tr. Proclam. Francis II, II Aug. in Ann. Reg. 695 Immediately after our title of elected emperor of the Romans shall be inserted that of hereditary emperor of Austria. 1836 Penny Cycl. V. 132 Napoleon, by the grace of God., emperor of the French. Ibid. VII. 77 The government of China.. depends on the will.. of the reigning emperor, a 1859 De Quincey Autobiog. Sk. Wks. 1858 I, 162 note. An emperor is a prince uniting in his own person the thrones of several distinct kingdoms. 1872 Freeman Gen. Sketch xvi. §3. (1874) 330 Since Buonaparte’s time the title of Emperor, which once meant so much, has ceased to have any particular meaning.

b. transf. and fig. Cursor M. 18179 J>ou ert. .sa hei wit-all, Bath als king and emparur. 1393 Langl. P. PI. C. xxii. 429 Ich wolde J>at.. peers.. [were] Emperour of alle the worlde. c 1400 Rom. Rose 7217 Of all this world is emperour Gyle my fadir. 1526 Pilgr. Per/. (W. de W. 1531) 7 b, In heuen, eue^ man .. shall be as an emperour. 1598 Shaks. Merry W. i. iii. 9 Thou’rt an Emperor (Cesar, Keiser and Pheazar). 1602 -Ham. IV. iii. 22 Your worm is your onely Emperor for diet. 1667 Milton P.L. ii. 510 Nor less Then Hells dread Emperour. 1697 Potter Antiq. Greece iii. xx. (1715) 149 Neptune the Great Emperor of the Sea. 01300

4. a. In the popular names of certain butterflies; purple emperor, f emperor of the woods, Apatura Iris\ f emperor of Morocco, a collector’s name, perh. = purple emperor. Eng. Moths ^ Butterfl. pi. 120 The Purple Highflier, or Emperor of the Woods. 1775 Harris Aurelian pi. 3 Purple Emperor. 1788 P. Pindar (J. Wolcott) title, Sir Joseph Banks and the Emperor of Morocco. 18.. Lytton Kenelm Chil. v. v, A rare butterfly, .called the Emperor of Morocco. 1773 Wilkes

b. ellipt. for emperor fish, emperor penguin. 1927 Times (weekly ed.) 3 Feb. 115/3 The King penguins .. are, next to the Emperors, the largest of the family. 1929 Times 2 Aug. 14/1 ‘Emperors’, beautiful fish of about 30 lb., and of a rich red colour all over. 1967 M. E. Gillham SubAntarctic Sanctuary xx. 173 The almost impossibly rigorous conditions of the emperors’ breeding colonies.

t II. 5. a. In the etymological sense = ‘commander’, b. Rom. Ant. As the rendering of L. imperator in its republican sense (now replaced by the Lat. word). Obs.

£1325 K. Alis. 1669 The messangers Buth y-come to heore emperis. 138. Wyclif Sel. Wks. HI. 290 Oure emperoure Crist Comaundip. c 1400 Destr. Troy 3670 )>ai.. ordant hym [Agamynon] Emperour by opyn assent. 1533 Bellenden Livy v. (1822) 439 [The] grete justice of thare emprioure Camillus. 1598 W. Phillips Linschoten’s Trav. in Arb. Garner HI. 23 The ships of an ancient custom, do use to choose an Emperor among themselves. 1598 Grenewey Tacitus' Ann. 1. iii. (1622) s [Augustus] had beene honored with the name of Emperour one and twenty times. 1606 Shaks. Ant. & Cl. iv. xiv. 90 My Captaine, and my Emperor. 1741 Middleton Cicero II. vii. (1742) 193 Upon this success, Cicero was saluted Emperor.

III. 6. attrib. and Comb., as emperor-king, -maker-, emperor-less, -like adjs. (and adv.); also t emperor-clerk, contemptuously for a lordspiritual; emperor fish, a brilliant-coloured food fish, Holacanthus imperator, emperor goose, a goose of Alaska, Philacte canagica, having handsomely variegated plumage; emperor-moth {Saturnia pavonia minor)-, emperor penguin, the largest of the penguin family, Aptenodytes forsteri. 138- Wyclif Sel. Wks. III. 437 Alle degrees of *emperor clerkis.-Wks. (1880) 447 Of popis, ne of oJ?ere emperour clerkis. 1889 Cent. Diet., Enmeror of Japan... Also *emperor-fish. 1896 Lydekker R. Nat. Hist. V. 344 The splendidly-coloured emperor-fish {H\placanthus] imperator) .. ranges from the east coast of Africa to the Indian and Malayan seas. 1949 Oxf. Jun. Encycl. II. 373/2 The bestknown [Butterfly-fish] is the Emperor Fish of Indian seas, a very gaudy fish, with its yellow stripes crossing a blue or brown body, and blue and white markings on head and fins. 1872 CouES Key N. Amer. Birds 283 Painted Goose. •Emperor Goose. Wavy bluish-gray, with lavender or lilac tinting. 1940 Gabrielson & Jewett Birds Oregon 129 The Emperor Geese usually arrive here as single birds mingling with other species or in small bands. 1841 W. Spalding Italy & It. fsl. III. 60 The •emperor-king passed through Piedmont in triumph. 1882 Athenceum 30 Dec. 879/2 The great-grand-nephew of the victor of Rossbach put an end.. to the •emperor-less perio^i. 1579 Tomson Calvin's Serm. Tim. 509/2 It is an •Emperour-like gouernance. 1601 Imp. Consid. Sec. Priests (1675) 54 Thus these great Emperourlike Jesuits do speak to her Majesty. ^1630 Drumm. of Hawth. Poems Wks. (1711) 6 And emperourlike decore With diadem of pearl thy temples fair. 1581 Savile Tacitus' Hist. I. XXX. (1591) 18 Prouide that the raskallest sort be no •Emperour-makers. 1868 Wood Homes without H. xiv. 279 The cocoon of the common •Emperor Moth. 1885 Encycl. Brit. XVIII. 492 ‘•Emperor’ and ‘King’ Penguins. 1895 Lydekker R. Nat. Hist. IV. 546 The king-penguin.. and the still larger emperor-penguin. 1905 R. F. Scott Voy. 'Discov.' I. iv. 148 A small colony of Emperor penguins in process of moulting exhibited the most dishevelled appearance. 1959 New Biology XXIX. 107 The truly Antarctic birds are the Emperor and Adelie penguins and the southern forms of Antarctic skua.

'emperor, v. nonce-wd. [f. prec. sb.] trans. To rule over as emperor or supreme head. 1855 Bailey Mystic 109 Seeking..Their own names, to the tribes each emperor’d. To magnify.

'emperor,ship. [f. emperor sb. -f- -ship.] The office or dignity of emperor; the reign of an emperor. 1575 T. Rogers Sec. Coming Christ 23/1 Which ambiciously sought the Emperourship of al Italy. 1805 Month. Mag. XX. 147 Between the battle of Actium and the acceptance of the emperorship. 1882 Athenseum 25 Feb. 247 The last dozen years of his emperorship.

fem'person, v. nonce-wd. In 6 enperson. [f. + PERSON.] personality. EN-

trans.

To unite with one’s

1548 Gest Pr. Masse 86 Christes body is not enpersoned in us, notwithstanding it is enbodied to us.

empe^ (’empan), sb.

Now only poet, or rhetorical. Forms: 3-7 emperie, -ye, (6 embery, empory), 7-9 empiry, -ie, (7 empyrie), 6- empery. Cf. IMPERY. [a. OF. emperie (Littre s.v. empire), ad. L. imperium empire.] 11. The status, dignity, or dominion of an emperor. Obs. 1297 R. Glouc. (1724) 85 He per forp com. And wende toward Rome to Wynne J>e emperie. 1563-87 Foxe A. & M. (1596) 8/2 The excellencie of the Romane emperie did advance the popedom of the Romane bishop aboue other churches. 1588 Shaks. Tit. A. i. i. 201 Thou shalt obtaine and aske the Emperie.

b. In wider sense: Absolute dominion. 1548 Udall, etc. Erasm. Par. Matt. i. 21 Ryches, honoure and emperye. 1591 Drayton in Farr S.P. Eliz. (1845) I. 132 The only God of emperie and of might. X599 Shaks. Hen. V, I. ii. 226 Ruling in large and ample Emperie, Ore France. 01631 Donne Paradoxes (1652) ii All Victories and Emperies gained by War. 1655 Jer. Taylor Guide Devot. (1719) 138 Sets us free From the ungodly Empirie Of Sin. 1812 Scott Trierm. iii. xxv, Coin’d badge of empery it [the gold] bare. 1831 J. Wilson Unimore vi. 291 Every Passion in its empery Doth laugh Remorse to scorn. 1882 G. Macdonald in Good Words 154 A wider love of empery.

t c. In the sense of L. imperium-. The authority with which an officer or magistrate has been lawfully invested; legitimate government. Obs. c 1374 Chaucer Boeth. 51 J>ilke dignitee J>at men clepil> X>t emperie of consulers. 1611 Speed Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. vi. (1632) 504 To introduce that free Empery. 1642 Bridge Wound. Consc. Cured §1. 10 If a Prince should.. change the form of the Common-weale from Empery to Tyranny.

2. a. The territory ruled by an emperor, b. In wider sense: The territory of an absolute or powerful ruler; also fig. 1550 Coke Eng. fef Fr. Herald (1877) §50 Constantyne.. conquered the whole empery. i^i R. Johnson Kingd. Commw. 33 A larger Empery hath not be fallen any Christian potentate. 1611 Speed Theai. Gt. Brit. xxix. (1614) 57/1 Alfred or before him Offa shared the open circuit of their emperie into Principalities. 1820 Keats Lamia ii. 36 A want Of something more, more than her empery Of joys. 1833 H. Coleridge Poems I. 62 ’Tis all thy own, ’tis all thy empery.

t'empery, t>. Obs.rare-^. [f. prec. sb.] intr. To exercise supreme power; to lord it. Const, upon. 1502 Arnolde Chron. (i8ii) i6o Alsoo emp’ryng vpon ful many cristen lordis.

empesche, -sshe, obs. ff. impeach to hinder. empest, impest (im'pest), v. [ad. F. empeste-r (Montaigne, i6th c.), f. em- = IM-^ + peste pest, plague: with substitution of L. im-.] trans. To infect with a plague or pestilence. Also fig. Hence impe'station, the action of impesting. a 1618 Sylvester Honour’s Fare-well 50 A Soule devested Of worldly Pomp (which hath the World impested). 1655 H. Lestrange K. Charles 7 London being.. empested with a.. furious contagion, a 1748 Chr. Pitt Epistles, Imit. Spenser (iSio), Ne bitter dole impest the passing gale. 1808 J. Barlow Columb. vi. 36 See the black Prison Ship’s expanding womb Impested thousands, quick and dead, entomb. 1844 B. G. Babington tr. Hecker's Epidemics Mid. Ages 233 The same attempt at impestation had been already often made in earlier times. 1884 Med. Times 19 July 99/2 Hospitalism spared the Calcutta Medical College Hospiital during Dr. Mouat’s incumbency and impested it in mine. 1923 A. Huxley Antic Hay v. 76 When two or three are gathered together.. they .. necessarily empest the air.

empester, entangle.

v.

Obs.

var.

of impester v.,

to

empetrous('Empitr3s), a. Zool. [f. Gr. l/iTrerp-os growing on rocks + -ous.] ‘A term applied to animals like the seal, which have such short members or limbs that they lie directly upon the ground’ (Syd. Soc. Lex.). empeyre, obs. f. impair v. t'emphanist. Obs. rare~^. [ad. Gr. ep^avioT-ijg informer.] An informer, professional spy. 01631 Donne Aristeas (1833) 105 You meane the Emphanists, where the Margin says.. false reporters or Spies,

llemphase (afaz), sb. rare. The Fr. form of (Defined by Littre ‘exaggeration in expression, tone, voice, or gesture’.)

EMPHASIS.

1882 Symonds in Macm. Mag. 323 We long,.for less emphase. Ibid. 327 The habitual emphase of his style,

fem'phase, v. Ohs. (? nonce-wd.) [f. emphas¬ is.] trans, ? To lay emphasis upon. 1631 B. JoNSON New Inn ii. i. (1692) 728,1.. bid you most welcome. Lady F. And I believe your most^ my pretty Boy, Being so emphased by you.

emphasis ('emfssis). PL emphases, [a. L, emphasis, a. Gr. (in senses i and 7 below), f. €fxa(v€iv, mid. voice ifK^alveadat, f. iv in + aiv~€tv to show, ou haue kyngdam and empyre. C1400 Three Kings Cologne i8 Octauianus.. in )?e 3eer of his Empire XLH. 1535 Coverdale 2 Chron. xxxvi. 20 They became his seruauntes.. tyll the Persians had the empyre. 1589 Puttenham Eng. Poesie i. xxiii. (Arb.) 60 Your Maiestie haue shewed yourselfe.. vertuous and worthy of Empire. 1681 Nevile Plato Rediv. Pref., Many Treatises.. alledged .. That Empire was founded in Property. 1711 Pope Temp. Fame 347 And swam to empire thro' the purple flood. 1821 Byron Sardan. i. i. (1868) 350 Thirteen hundred years Of empire ending like a shepherd’s tale. 1845 Stocqueler Handbk. Brit. India (1854) 7 From this hour (1757) the establishment of the British empire in India may be dated.

2. transf. and fig. Paramount influence, absolute sway, supreme command or control, C1325 E.E. Allit. P. A. 454 My lady, .haldez pe empyre ouer vus ful hy3e. 1579 Fulke Confut. Sanders 628 What Empyre hath Master Sander in Grammer. 1601 Shaks. All's Well I. i. 72 Thy blood and vertue Contend for Empire in thee. 1667 Milton P.L. i. i 14 To deifie his power Who from the terrour of this Arm so late Doubted his Empire. 1752 Hume Ess. & Treat. (1777) 1. 182 The empire of philosophy extends over a few. 1838 Lytton Alice 129 You know the strange empire you have obtained over me. 1886 Stevenson Treasure Isl. iii. xiv. 113 Silence had re¬ established its empire.

3. The dignity or position of an emperor; also, fthe reign of an emperor (obs.); = emperorship. 1606 G. WooDCOCKE tr. Hist. Ivstine Kk 3 b, He died.. in the fiftene year of his empire. 1844 Lingard Ch. (1858) I. i. 6 Elevation of Constantine to the Empire.

4. A government in which the sovereign has the title of emperor. 1834 [see employe]. 1850 Merivale (title) A History of the Romans under the Empire.

II. That which is subject to imperial rule. 5. a. An extensive territory {esp. an aggregate of many separate states) under the sway of an emperor or supreme ruler; also, an aggregate of subject territories ruled over by a sovereign state. 1297 R. Glouc. (1724) 733 All thys were of hys anpyre. C1330 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 6 Adelard of Westsex was kyng of pe Empire. 1393 Gower Conf. HI. 282 God hath beraft him.. his large empire. 1460 Lybeaus Disc. 843 A sercle.. Of stones and of golde. The best yn that enpyre. 1606 Shaks. Ant. & Cl. i. i. 34 Let the wide Arch of the raing’d Empire fall. 1735 Burke Sp. Cone. Amer. Wks. HI. 69 An empire is the aggregate of many states under one common head. 1848 Macaulay Hist. Eng. 1. 348 The position of London, relatively to the other towns of the empire. 1852 Tennyson Ode on Death Wellington i. 2 Bury the Great Duke with an empire’s lamentation. 1887 Whitaker’s Almanack 297 The approximate population of the British Empire is now 321,000,000.

b. the Empire: (a) before 1804 (and subsequently in Hist, use) often spec, the ‘Holy Roman’ or ‘Romano-Germanic’ empire. 1678 Wanley Wond. Lit. World v. i. §ioo. 468/2 Rodolphus the second.. was forced to.. content himself with.. the Empire. 1724 De Foe Mem. Cavalier (1840) 35 The general diet of the empire.

(Jb) Great Britain with its dominions, colonies, and dependencies; the British Empire; freq. the overseas dominions, etc., as opposed to Great Britain. Since the Statute of Westminster (1931), Commonwealth has become the more usual term. 1772 R. Cumberland Advt. to Fashionable Lover sig. A2'', Wherever.. I have made any attempts at novelty, I have found myself obliged.. to dive into the lower class of men, or betake myself to the outskirts of the empire. 1776 Adam Smith W.N. II. v. iii. 586 Countries which contribute neither revenue nor military force towards the support of the empire. 1847 in J. C. Byrne Twelve Years Wand. Brit. Colonies (1848) II. iii. 86 This gentleman asked whether the colony was to remain the sink-hole of the empire. 1862 Englishwoman's Dom. Mag. Jan. 136 ‘The Hope of the Empire’—the Prince of Wales. 1900 Daily News 25 Oct. 4/4

Was it too much to say that in this last twelve months the Empire had been bom anew? 1902 Times 18 July 8/2 Their fellow-subjects in other portions of the Empire. 1904 Daily Chron. 15 Nov. 6/7 Lord Rosebery, in his capacity of principal guest at a dinner of the Oxford Colonial Club last night, replied to the toast of the ‘Empire’. 1917 R. Muir Char. Brit. Empire 13 The British Navy has made the growth of the Empire possible. 1948 Times Lit. Suppl. g Oct., ‘Empire’, along with its adjective, has gone out of fashion, though it may still be used discreetly for the assemblage of the non-selfgoverning territories and the mother country.

(c) the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor of the French, 1804-15, or the period of this. 1810 L. Goldsmith Secret Hist. Cabinet Bonaparte (iSi i) {heading) The Government of France under the consulate and empire of Napoleon Bonaparte. 1830 Hazlitt Life Nap. Buonaparte III. xxxiv. 114 If the reign of terror excited their fears and horror, the establishment of the Empire under Buonaparte seemed an even greater affront. 1845 [see consulate 2]. 1866 Crowe Hist. France xliii. {title) The Consulate and the Empire. 1902 J. H. Rose Life Napoleon 11, xx. 470 At Metz, the troops and populace fretted against the Empire and its pretentious pomp. 1924 R. B. Mowat Diplom. Napoleon xiii. 132 Bonaparte had ushered in the Empire by proclaiming his contempt for the law of nations. 1967 J. Marshall-Cornwall Napoleon ii. 26 The French field-guns remained unchanged in range and calibre throughout the whole period of the Consulate and Empire. 112

{d) the rule of Napoleon III as Emperor of the French, 1852-70, or the period of this, usually as Second Empire. 1863 A. W. Kinglakeof Crimea II. hi. 67 He [sc. Napoleon III] was very willing to try to earn for the restored Empire that kind of station and title which the newest of dynasties may acquire by signal achievements in war. 1873 Young Englishwoman Feb. 77/1 The multifarious skirts and retroussis of the Second Empire regime. 1876 C. M. Yonge Womankind xv. 114 Are we not still suffering from the expensive style begun in the Second Empire? 1904 M. Beerbohm Around Theatres (1953) 332 My imagination roved back to lose itself in the golden haze of the Second Empire. 1961 M. Howard Franco-Prussian War i. 15 A regime so precarious as that of the Second Empire, bitterly opposed by an active and intelligent minority and resting on public apathy rather than popular consent.

6. transf. and fig. (Cf. realm.) C1440 York Myst. xlvi. 200 Farewele, nowe I passe to pe pereles empire. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 69 Called to be enherytours of the celestiall empyre. 1608 Shaks. Per. ii. i. 53 These fishers, .from their watery empire recollect All that may men approve or men detect! 1656 W. Montague Accompl. Worn. 124 Love is an Empire only of two Persons. 1709 Addison Tatler No. 154 If 2 ^Eneas is represented as descending into the Empire of Death. 1772 Mackenzie Man World i. i. (1823) 241 Liberal minds will delight in extending the empire of virtue. 1821 Shelley Prometh. Unb. 1. 15 Scorn and despair—these are mine empire.

7. A country of which the sovereign owes no allegiance to any foreign superior. 1532-3 Act 24 Hen. VIII, c. 12 This realme of England is an Impire. 1765 Blackstone Comm. I. 242 The legislature .. uses.. empire.. to assert that our king is.. sovereign and independent within these his dominions.

EMPIRICAL

i88

EMPIRE

as paper, varnished fabric, empire cloth and insulating tape. 1902 Times 18 July 8/1 Lord Meath.. wrote suggesting that May 24.. should be observed as an official holiday under the title of ‘Empire Day’. 1922 Chesterton Ballad St. Barbara 74 For the spots are all red and the rest is all grey, And that is the meaning of Empire Day. 1901 Empire Rev. I. 370 A concession in support of Empire-grown wine. 1903 Daily Chron. 5 Dec. 4/4 Whether we had ‘Empire-grown’ cotton, or depended chiefly on American supplies. 1899 Empiremaker [see bean-feast b]. 1903 Westm. Gaz. 1 June 12/3 Gazing out across the silent waters at the granite hills that have seen the passage of how many empire-makers. 1894 Daily News 29 Jan. 5/2 Mr. Rhodes is an Empire-making man. 1864 Pusey Led. Daniel ii. 66 The great empire-plan of Alexander. 1878 Morley Condorcet 52 Its desire to be an empire-race. 1834 Reg. Deb. Congress if.S. 506 We are told, sir, of.. the empire State of New York. 1835 Knickerbocker V. 51 Show him the public works of the Empire State, as well as those of Pennsylvania. 1841 J. Q. Adams in Congress. Globe Sept. App. 433 If there is an ‘Empire State’ in this Union, it is Delaware.. [but] if my forty friends from New York choose to call it the Empire State, I will not quarrel with them, i860 Leisure Hour 29 Nov. 765/2 Illinois, the ‘Empire State’ of the mighty West. 1889 Farmer Americanisms s.v., The term Empire State of the South has been applied to Georgia. 1903 N. Y. Even. Post, The saloon men of Tennessee have not, perhaps, the literary finish. . of their brethren in the Empire State. 1948 Arizona (Phoenix) Republican 27 Feb. 6/1 The Empire State is ‘in the bag’ for the GOP. 1851 Gentl. Mag. CXXI. ii. 54 God bless’d the empire-tree which thou didst plant.

b. Applied to styles of clothing (esp. a dress with a high waistline), furniture, etc., characteristic of the period of the French Empire (see 5 b (c) and {d)). 1869 Lady C. ScHREiBERym/. (1911) I. 29 Green cup and saucer, imitating ‘Empire’ Sevres. 1870 O. Logan Before Footlights 292 How do you manage to pay S60 for your new but ugly little Empire bonnet? 1879 Encycl. Brit. IX. 849/2 The ‘empire’ style, a stiff, affected classicalism, prevailed in France during the reign of Napoleon. 1887 Academy 18 June 440/1 She wore, of course, an Empire dress. 1888 Weldon's Illust. Dressmaker Dec., The Empire and Directoire styles are steadily increasing in popularity. 1889 R. Brook Elem. Style Furnit. 29 As in all other French styles, ‘Empire’ was closely imitated in this country. Ibid., It is impossible to have a better authority on ‘Empire’ Furniture, than the book of designs published in Paris, by the architects, Percier and Fontaine, in 1809. 1901 E. Singleton Furnit. of our Forefathers II. 573 Empire sofa owned by Mrs. William Young, Baltimore, Md. 1904 H. E. Binstead Furnit. Styles x. 116 It is never difficult to determine what is Empire. 1905 A. Hayden Chats on Old Furnit. 208 The wood used for.. Empire cabinets is rich mahogany. 01910 ‘O. Henry’ Sixes & Sevens (1916) xiii. 129 High-collared, baggy, empire-waisted, ample-skirted. 1958 Vogue Apr. 18 Choose this Empire-line charmer in swirling full length. 1967 E. Short Embroidery & Fabric Collage ii. 41 The same design would have been unthinkable on say an Empire dress of seventy years earlier. 1968 Harrods Xmas Catal. 15/2 An Empire line slip in nylon. 1970 Oxford Times 25 Sept. 11/5 She wore a full length white empire line dress with a guipure lace bodice and circular train trimmed with guipure lace.

c. Applied to wines and spirits grown in the British Empire (Commonwealth) and imported into Great Britain.

III. 8. a. attrib. and Comb., as empire-plan, -race, etc.; empire-grontin adj.; empire-maker, -making ppl. a.; empire-builder, a man who acquires additional territory for his state; also formerly applied loosely to British administrators abroad; transf., one who increases his authority or influence, or who expands unnecessarily the size of his offices, etc., or the number of his subordinates; so empire-building vbl. sb. and ppl. a.; Empire City U.S., a name for the City of New York; empire cloth, a cloth or sheet used as an electrical insulator; Empire Day, May 24, the birthday of Queen Victoria, formerly observed as a (school) holiday in the British Empire and instituted as a memorial of the assistance given by the colonies to the mother country in the South African war of 1899-1902 (now Commonwealth Day)-, Empire State U.S., a name for the State of New York; also applied to other American states.

1937 Auden in Auden & MacNeice Lett. f. Iceland v. 57 Someone may think that Empire wines are nice. 1954 P. Frankau Wreath for Enemy iii. v. 210 You would look like an advertisement for Empire Burgundy. 1965 R. Jeffries Dead against Lawyers ix. 94, 1 can offer you Empire sherry or a beer?

1894 Westm. Gaz. 30 June 6/1 A reference to Mr. Cecil Rhodes’s work as empire-builder, igog Ibid. 10 June 7/1 As if Shakespeare and Bums and Bunyan and Swift and all the rest of that superb gallery were not the greatest of British Empire-builders. 1927 V. Woolf in Forum May 709 Her dreams of living in India, married to.. some empire builder. 1959 Camb. Rev. 2 May 456/1 Running through the [Civil] service,.. the approach of the empire builder. 1970 D. Devine Illegal Tender ii. 20 Wainwright was solely to blame for the inter-departmental tension. He was said to be an empire-builder. 1898 Daily News 12 Aug. 6/1 His exploits in the Empire-building line. 1962 J. Braine Life at Top ii. 31,1 should have to continue as the despised administrator, the nasty unsympathetic accountant who kept his eye on office materials and methods and who .. firmly checked any attempts at empire-building. 1962 Times 9 Nov. 13/4 One hesitates.. to accuse the obstetricians of empire building. 1838 Bentley's Misc. IV. 48 The bustle and noise of the empire city. 1857 W. Chandless Visit Salt Lake II. v. 222 The mint julep, that in the Crescent City you may enjoy for ten cents, costs you twelve and half in the Empire city. 1944 Newsweek 24 July 82/3 The Empire City meeting is typical of wartime racing. 1913 Fleming & Johnson Insulation ^ Design of Electrical Windings iii. 107 Except in the case of Empire cloth no appreciable deterioration in the insulation was noted. 1945 Electronic Engin. XVII. 498 Among the insulating materials affected are.. all cellulose products such

empiric (em'pink), a. and sb.

t'empire, t). Obs. Also impire, em-, impyre. [f. prec. sb.] intr. To rule absolutely as an emperor. Const, above, of, on. 1556 Calvin's Com. Prayer Bk. in Phenix (1708) II. 217 Strangers again empire above us. 1594 Carew Tasso (1881) 75 At pleasure now on starres empyreth he. a 1605 Montgomerie Sonn. xxxi, Thy sprit.. spurris thee.. abone the planetis to impyre. 1599 Jas. I. BaatX. Awpov (1682) 71 Your wrath empyring over your owne passion. 1637 Heywood Dial. xiii. Wks. 1874 VI. 225, I empir’d o’re All Caria.

empire, var. of empyre a., empyrean, t'empiredom. Obs. rare—^. [f. empire sb. + -DOM.] = EMPIRE II. 1591 Horsey Trav. (1857) 158 He..assumed to himself two severall crowns and empirdoms.

Forms; 6-7 emperic, -ike, -ique, -yke, empirike, -ique, -yke, empyrick, -yke, 7-8 emperick(e, empirick(e, empric(k(e, 6- empiric; also 6 impericke. [ad. L. empiricus, Gr. ifirreipiK-os, f. ifi-neipia experience, f. IfiTTcipos skilled, f. iv in + nelpa trial, experiment. In 17th c. usually ('empink)] A. adj. = EMPIRICAL in various senses. (The use as sb. occurs earlier in Eng., and the adjectival senses are chiefly derived from it.) 1605 Bacon Adv. Learn, i. 8 It is accounted an errour, to commit a naturall bodie to Emperique Phisitions. 01649 Drumm. of Hawth. J05. V. Wks. (1711) 90 This empyrick balm could the French apply to cure the wounds of the Scottish common-wealth. 16^ Milton P.L. v. 440 By fire Of sooty coal the Empiric Alchimist Can turn.. Metals of drossiest Ore to perfet Gold. 01700 Dryden (L.), Bold counsels.. Like empirick remedies.. last are try’d. 1787 Phil. Trans. LXXVII. 43 They are only empiric, and not founded upon the theory and principles of gravitation. 1815 Scribbleomania 76 Empiric pigmies may prate about straws. 1877 E. Cairo Philos. Kant ii. v. 286 The combination of sensitive states by an empiric law of association.

B. sb.

1. A member of the sect among ancient physicians called Empirici {’EixrreipiKoC), who (in opposition to the Dogmatici and Methodici) drew their rules of practice entirely from experience, to the exclusion of philosophical theory. 1541 R. Copland Galyen’s Terap. 2 Gij, The whiche thynge the Emperykes vnderstande by onely experyence. i6oi Holland Pliny II. 344 Another faction and sect of Physitians, who.. called themselues Empiriques. 1605 Timme Quersit. Pref. 5 Among Physitians there are Empericks, Dogmaticks, Methodici, or Abbreuiators, and Paracelsians. 1738 J. Keill Anim. CEcon. Pref. 30 The Doctrine of the Empiricks, which despises all Reasoning. 1805 Med. Jrnl. XIV. 446 The ancient ernpirics were peculiarly eminent for their talent of observation.

b. One who, either in medicine or in other branches of science, relies solely upon observation and experiment. Also fig. 1578 Lyte Dodoens vi. vi. 665 Broomrape is counted of some empiriques (or practisioners).. for an excellent medicine. 1613 R. C. Table Alph. (ed. 3), Emperick, he that hath all his skill in phisicke by practise. 1858 Robertson Lect. i. 11 A mere empiric in political legislation. 1873 Hale In His Name viii. 65 The Florentine would be called only an empiric by the science of to-day. 1877 F. Caird Philos. Kant v. 100 TJie animals are pure empirics.

2. An untrained practitioner in physic or surgery; a quack. [1527 Andrew Brunswyke's Distyll. Waters Oj, Than came there an onlerned Empyricus.] 1562 Bulleyn BA. Simples 68 b, One called Edwardes, a doltish impericke. Shake. All's Well ii. i. 125 We must not corrupt our hope, To prostitute our past-cure malladie To empericks. 1621 Burton Anat. Mel. ii. i. iv. i. There be many mountebanks, quack-salvers, Empericks, in every street. 01764 Lloyd Ep. C. ChurchillVo^t Wks. 1774 I. 85 Quack and Critic differ but in name. Empirics frontless both, they mean the same. 1806 Med. Jrnl. XV. 369 Bone setters are another set of empirics. 1835 Browning Paracelsus 164 Tbey are hooting the empiric. The ignorant and incapable fool.

b. transf. A pretender, impostor, charlatan. 1640 Quarles Enchirid. iv. Ixxxix, Hee that beleeves with an implicite Faith, is a meere Empricke in Religion. 1670 Eachard Cont. Clergy 22 A disesteemed pettifogger, or empyrick in divinity. 1777 W. Dalrymple Trav. Sp. ^ Port, cxii, The Bishop, supreme empiric, heals the minds and cures the consciences.. by the same prescription. 1817 Coleridge Lay Serm. 386 Such are the political empirics, mischievous in proportion to their effrontery, and ignorant in proportion to their presumption.

3. Comb, empiric-like adj, and adv. 1620 Melton Astrolog. 9 He delivered this Emperike like Oration. 01700 Dryden (J.), The illiterate writer, emp’rick like applies To each disease.. chance remedies.

empirical

(em'pinksl), a. Forms: 6-7 empericall, 7-8 empyrical, 7- empirical, [f. prec. + -alL]

1. Med. a. Of a physician: That bases his methods of practice on the results of observation and experiment, not on scientific theory, b. Of a remedy, a rule of treatment, etc.: That is adopted because found (or believed) to have been successful in practice, the reason of its efficacy being unknown. fAlso as quasi-56. in pi. = ‘empirical remedies’. 15^ JSa[nford] Agrippa's Van. Artes 140b, Emperic^l, that is to saie, that consisteth in practise, of experimentes. 1612 Woodall Surg. Mate Wks. (1653), Medicine composed by a Chymicall, Methodicall, or Empericall Surgeon. 1656 Ridgley Pract. Physick 26 Empiricalls are: Earth-worms provided divers wayes. 1685 Evelyn Mem. (1857) II. 216 He had a laboratory, and knew of many empirical medicines. 1830 Mackintosh Eth. Philos. Wks. 1846 I. 136 Sextus, a physician of the empirical, i.e. anti-theoretical school. 1869 E. A. Parkes Pract. Hygiene (ed. 3) p. i, Empirical rules.. obsevations of what seemed good or bad for health.

2. That practises physic or surgery without scientific knowledge; that is guilty of quackery. Also of medicines: That is of the nature of a quack nostrum. Cf. empiric B. 2. a 1680 Butler Rem. (1759) II. 304 A Pedlar of Medicines ..and Tinker empirical to the Body of Man. 1839 James Louis XIV, IV. 45 Empirical drugs for the cure of various diseases. 1840 H. Ainsworth Tower Land. (1864) 66 When all the physicians of the royal household were dismissed, and the duke sent messengers for empirical aid.

3. In matters of art or practice; That is guided by mere experience, without scientific knowledge; also of methods, expedients, etc. Often in opprobrious sense transf. from 2: Ignorantly presumptuous, resembling, or characteristic of, a charlatan. 1751 Johnson Rambler No. 183 If 13, I have avoided., that.. empirical morality, which cures one vice by means of another. 1793 Holcroft Lavater's Physiog. xxix. 136 We are all more or less empirical physiognomists. 1825 McCulloch Pol. Econ. i. 42 Their arguments.. had somewhat of an empirical aspect. 1861 Goschen For. Exch. 84 The application of hasty and er^irical measures. 1872 Yeats Techn. Hist. Comm. 317 The great majority of accidents are. .the results of empirical management.

4. Pertaining to, or derived from, experience. empirical ego = empirical self-, empirical formula: in Mathematics, a formula arrived at inductively, and not verified by deductive proof; in Chemistry, a formula which merely enumerates the ultimate constituents of a

EMPIRICALLY

189

compound in any convenient order, without implying any theory of the mode in which they are grouped; empirical lavo: see quot. 1846; empirical philosophy = empiricism 2 b (cf. also PRAGMATISM 4); empirical psychologist, an exponent or adherent of empirical psychology; empirical psychology, the science of the mind developed by observation and experiment, rather than by deduction from general principles (opp. rational psychology)’, empirical sc//* (see quot. 1890). 1649 Jer. Taylor Gt. Exemp. Pref. IP46 The propositions of this philosophy being Empiricall and best found out by observation. 1798 Month. Rev. XXV. 585 His empirical acquaintance with the works of taste is not comprehensive. 1829 Nat. Philos. I. Mechanics iii. v. 18 (Usef. Know. Ser.) By an empirical formula is meant one that is conceived or invented without any analysis or demonstration. 1830 Sir J. Herschel Stud. Nat. Phil. 71 If the knowledge be merely accumulated experience, the art is empirical. 1834 Mrs. Somerville Connex. Phys. Sc, viii. (1849) 70 An empirical law observed by Baron Bode, in the mean distances of the planets. 1836-7 Sir W. Hamilton Lect. (1877) II. xxi. 26 Knowledge a posteriori is a synonym for knowledge empirical, or from experience. 1846 Mill Logic iii. xvi. §i. An empirical law then, is an observed uniformity, presumed to be resolvable into simpler laws, but not yet resolved into them. 1850 Daubeny Atom. Th. ix. (ed. 2) 297 S03+ KO is the rational formula of the salt called sulphate of potass: S, O^, K the empirical. 1851 H. L. Mansel Proleg. Logica ix. 275 Among modern philosophers, empirical psychology.. is frequently classified as metaphysical. 1869 Buckle Civilis. III. V. 385 The empirical corroboration of his doctrine by direct experiment. 1870 S. H. Hodgson Theory of Practice I. ii. 252 Every feeling and every object in the whole empirical ego stands in some relation to it [rc. the emotion of moral sense]. 1890 W. James Princ. Psychol. I. x. 291 The Empirical Self of each of us is all that he is tempted to call by the name of me. 1892-Coll. Ess. & Rev. (1920) 321 We certjunly need something more radical than the old division into ‘rational’ and ‘empirical’ psychology. 1901 -in Proc. Soc. Psychical Res. XLII. 21, I can therefore speak.. as a mere empirical psychologist, of Myers’s general evolutionary conception. 1902- Var. Relig. Exper. xiv. 374 According to the empirical philosophy, .all ideals are matters of relation. 1949 Mind LVIII. 124 The empirical psychologist is almost of necessity an epiphenomenalist in practice. 1963 R. P. Wolff Kant's Theory Mental Activ. i. ii. 144 Only the empirical self is knowable. 1967 S. J. Todes in R. P. Wolff Kant 164 The distinguishing feature of the empirical ego is that all empirical knowledge must be in terms of it.

em'pirically, adv.

[f. prec. + -ly^.] In an empirical manner. 1. After the manner of an empiric or quackdoctor. 1631 Brathwait Whimzies, Almanack-maker, He ha’s some small scruple of physician.. and can most empyrically discourse of the state of your body. 1643 Sir T. Browne Relig. Med. i. §31 His scholars: who., doe empirically practise without his advice. 1872 F. Thomas Dis. Women (ed. 3) 64 The advice is too often given empirically.

2. By means of observaton and experiment. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. vi. xii. 334 For wee shall emperically and sensibly discourse hereof. 1664 Power Exp. Philos. III. 192 Philosophy, .will Empirically and Sensibly canvass the Phaenomena of Nature. 1809-10 Coleridge Friend (1865) 23 A schoolmaster is under the necessity of teaching a certain rule in simple arithmetic empirically. 1879 tr. Du Moncel Telephone 52, I sought..to discover empirically the exact effect of each element.

em'piricalness. Obs. [f. as prec. + -ness.] The quality of being empirical. t

1654 W. DE Rand Short Meth. of Surg., Not being offended at the appearance of Empiricalness in the discourse.

empiricism (em'pinsiz(3)m).

[f. The method or practice of 1. Med. Practice founded upon and observation; ignorant and practice; quackery. Also transf. -ISM.]

empiric + an empiric. experiment unscientific

1657 G. Starkey Helmont's Vind. 245 The Chymistry of the Galenical Tribe is a ridiculous.. and.. dangerous Empericism. 1756 C. Lucas Ess. Waters II. 47 The art became debased with empiricism. 1791 Mackintosh Vind. Gall. Wks. 1846 III. 148 ‘The practical claim of impeachment’.. is the most sorry juggle of political empiricism. 1880 Sir J. Fayrer in Nature XXI. 231 The empiricism of to-day is more scientific than it was in former days.

2. a. The use of empirical methods in any art or science. b. Philos. The doctrine which regards experience as the only source of knowledge. 1796 F. A. Nitsch Kant's Princ. concerning Man 218 The comfortless attacks of Fatalism, Scepticism, and Empiricism. 1798 A. F. M. Willich Elem. Crit. Philos. 7 A slavish dependence upon the Empiricism of Locke. 1803 Edin. Rev. I. 257 Made acquainted with the division of empiricism and rationalism. 1817 Jas. Mill Brit. India I. n. ix. 399 Mere observation and empiricism, not even the commencement of science. 1872 Minto Eng. Lit. 11. viii. 547 The empiricism popularly associated with the name of Locke. 1881 Huxley in Nature No. 61 s. 343 All true science begins with empiricism.

empiricist (em’pinsist), sb. and adj. [f. as prec. -h -1ST.] A. sb. a. An upholder of philosophical empiricism. b. One who follows empirical methods. 1698-1712 Shaftesbury Phil. Regimen (1900) 207 The prescriptions of the vulgar-wise, like those of the Empiricists. They know only the symptom; apply only to the symptom. 1857 T. E. Webb Intell. Locke i. 17 Kant.. regarded Aristotle as the head of the Empiricists. 1875 N. Amer. Rev. CXX. 469 Berkeley..a consistent empiricist. 1876 tr. Wagner's Gen. Pathol. 5 Medical men have been designated as Empiricists and Rationalists in matters of pathology. 1955 Sci. Amer. Aug. 86/1 Now, through Bertrand Russell, almost all British and American empiricists are to some degree disciples of Hume.

B. adj. Of, or relating to, or characterized by, philosophical empiricism. 1871 H. SiDGWiCK in Academy 15 Nov. ^21/1 It is impossible to state more boldly the empiricist view of geometry. 1^0 W. James Princ. Psychol. I. vii. 195 Empiricist writers are very fond of emphasizing one great set of delusions which language inflicts on the mind. 1907 - Pragmatism ii. 51 Pragmatism represents a perfectly familiar attitude in philosophy, the empiricist attitude. 1953 H. H. Price Thinking Exper. viii. 252 In any Empiricist

theory of thinking.. there has to be a doctrine of cashability. 1965 N. Chomsky Aspects Theory Syntax 206 There is no justification for the common assumption that there is an asymmetry between rationalist and empiricist views.

empirico- (em’pirikau), taken as comb, form of EMPIRICAL a., EMPIRICISM, etc., usually in some such sense as ‘partly empirical and partly... Also em'pirio-. 1895 A. C. Armstrong tr Falckenberg's Hist. Mod. Philos. xvi. 622 The preponderance of natural science and the empirico-skeptical tendency of the philosophy of the day conditioned by it. 1897 C. H. Judd tr. Wundt's Outl. Psychol. V. 318 This general principle is known as the principle of psycho-physical parallelism. It has an empiricopsychological significance and is thus totally different from certain metaphysical principles. 1937 C. B. Weinberg {title) Mach’s empirio-pragmatism in physical science. 1938 Times Lit. Suppl. 22 Jan. 52/3 A distinction of prime importance between the ‘empirico-mathematical’ and the ‘empirico-schematic’ sciences. Ibid. 52/4 The empiriometric and empirio-schematic analysis of observable reals. 1942 Mind LI. 306 Intuitionism. .is particularly out of harmony with the more extreme types of empiricoformalism which are so influential at the moment. II.

empiri'cutic, a. nonce-wd. In 7 emperickqutique. [f. empiric; on analogy of pharma¬ ceutic.] Empirical. 1607 Shaks. Cor. II. i. 128 The most soueraigne Prescription in Galen, is but Emperick qutique; and to this Preseruatiue, of no better report then a Horse-drench.

t 'empiric. Obs. In 7 empyrie. [ad. Gr. ifi-neipia. Cf. EMPIRIC.] = EMPIRICISM I. 1651 WiTTiE tr. Primrose's Pop. Err. i. vi. 23 Even Physicians do not disdain Empyrie.

empirio-criticism (8m,pin3o'knGsiz(3)m). Philos, [tr. G. empiriokritizismus (R. Avenarius 1894, in Vierteljahrschr. f. Wiss. Philos. XVIII. 138), f. empirio- empirico- + kritizismus criticism.] The philosophy of Richard Avenarius (1843-96), a form of positivism consisting primarily in the rejection of the dualism of body and mind, and the restriction of knowledge to a basis in experience treated critically and so deprived of all metaphysical elements. 1897 Mind VI. 449 {title) Richard Avenarius and his General Theory of Knowledge, Empiriocriticism. Ibid. 451 ‘Critical empiricism’.. looks for the universal element in experience... Empiriocriticism, on the other hand, takes up the position that everything is experience when it has been stated as experienced by an individual—though it may be that.. it is 01^ experience for this one individual in question... T^his empiriocriticism also approaches experience critically, but it does not determine its concept of experience beforehand. 1933 Mind XLII. 379 All his [sc. Lenin’s] philosophical work, the greater part of which appears in the volume Materialism and Empirio-Criticism, reveals his partisanship. 1955 H. B. Acton Illusion of Epoch I. i. 19 Books by Ernst Mach and Richard Avenarius in which, under the name of ‘empirio-criticism’, a phenomenalist account of matter was advocated.

Hence em.pirio-’critical a., of, or relating to, or characterized by, empirio-criticism. 1909 in Cent. Diet. Suppl. 1925 F. Znaniecki Laws Soc. Psychol, i. I The arguments against the possibility of psychological laws may be reduced to three. The first has been put forward by the so-called empirio-critical school of German philosophers (Avenarius, Petzoldt, and others), and.. by the neo-criticists (Natorp, etc.). 1933 Mind XLII379 The Russian followers of the empirio-critical philosophy of Mach and Avenarius. 1949 I- Deutscher Stalin iv. 106 Neo-Kantian or empirio-critical philosophy.

empirism ('empinz(9)m). [f. Gr. efineip-os (see empiric) + -ISM.] = EMPIRICISM zb. 1716 M. Davies Dissert. Physick 37 in Ath. Brit. III. 1852 Sir W. Hamilton Discuss. 104 Empirism, Philosophy of Experience or of Observation. 1852 Morell tr. Tennemann's Hist. Phil. 67 Empirism.. would derive all our knowledge ultimately from experience.

3. concr. A conclusion arrived at on empirical grounds.

empiristic (empi'nstik), a. [f. as prec. + -ist + -ic.] Of or pertaining to empirism.

1846 Mill Logic iii. xiii. §5 The instances of new theories agreeing with.. old empiricisms, are innumerable.

1881 Le Conte Light 103 The one is called the nativistic, the other the empiristic theory.

EMPLASTER empiry,

var. empyre, obs., empyrean.

emplace (em'pleis), v.

[f. en- + place sb.\ (really back-formation from emplacement.)] trans. To put into a place or position, spec. To provide an emplacement for new guns. 1865 Rawlinson Anc. Mon. III. v. 385 The shrine.. was emplaced upon the topmost, or silver stage. 1900 Daily News 22 Jan. 3/2 This morning the Boers emplaced a fivepounder at the brick fields, and proceeded to drop shells into the market square. 1904 Daily Chron. 28 May 5/4 A series of batteries, strongly emplaced, crowded the crest of the hill. 1915 J. Buchan Nelson's Hist. War V. 26 They had an ordinary range of four to five miles, and this allowed them to be emplaced well to the rear out of any danger from the enemy. 1958 p. Kemp No Colours or Crest xii. 269 A detachment of our escort had emplaced itself behind a low bank.

emplacement (em'pleismsnt). Rarely im-. [a. Fr. emplacement-, see prec. and -ment.] 1. The action of placing in a certain position; the condition of being so placed. 1869 Rawlinson Anc. Hist. 64 The emplacement of each pyramid so as exactly to face the cardinal points.

2. a. Of a building, etc.; Situation, position, b. Site. rare. 1802 W. Taylor in Robberds Mem. I. 415 Buildings admired for their architecture, and well displayed by their emplacement. 1804 W. Taylor in Ann. Rev. II. 689 The station or implacement, would confer majesty even on an inferior edifice. 1837 Blackw. Mag. XLI. 362 The French might have found.. a more appropriate emplacement for the obelisk. 1862 Rawlinson Anc. Mon. I. v. 95 The exact emplacement of the second [story] on the first is also doubtful. 1880 Blackw. Mag. Jan. 115 The large amphitheatre, the emplacement of which can still be traced on the hill side.

3. Mil. A platform for guns, with epaulements for the defence of those serving them, i8n Wellington in Gurw. Disp. VII. 258 They ought to make an emplacement for their field pieces. 1862 Ansted Channel Isl. I. iii. (ed. 2) 42 Two..square emplacements, covering rocks, have been constructed. 1881 Daily News i Sept. 2/4 A model emplacement, constructed of concrete. 1809 Engineer 5 Apr. 281 We understand that the heavy steel guns are to be mounted in Moncrieff implacements.

emplaistre,

var. of emplaster, Obs.

emplane (em'plem), v. Also enplane, [f.

em- i a + PLANE sb.^] trans. and intr. To take or go on board an aeroplane.

1923 Westm. Gaz. 2 July 3/2 Two Vickers-Victoria machines arrived, and emplaned the distressed garrison. 1930 Air July 292 The Prime Minister and Miss Ishbel MacDonald emplaning for a week-end in Edinburgh. 1941 F. H. Joseph in M. Wheeler Britain at War 95 Group was first enplaned, then those passengers taken on. 1944 Cape Times 25 May, Men of the Fifth Indian Division had no idea where they were going when they emplaned. 1966 New Statesman 14 Jan. 58/3 A popular radio actress., is emplaned to Paris in the early Sixties. 1966 Catholic Standard 21 Oct. 4/6 He [rc. Krushchev] suddenly pulled up stakes and enplaned with all haste for Moscow. 1970 Daily Tel. 25 July 10 The usual Kennedy Airport congestion caused us to wait 2\ hours, after emplaning, for takeoff.

emplant,

obs. form of implant.

t em'plaster, rZ>. Obs. Forms; 4 enplaster,-tre, 5- 7 emplastre, -aister, -ayster, -aystre, (6 erron. emplasture); also 6-7 implaster, -aister. [a. OF. emplastre (F. emplatre), L. emplastrum, ad. Gr. ifjnrXaoTpov plaster or salve, f. e/xwAdcraetv, f. ^ in + nXdaaetv to mould.] 1. Med. or Surg. = plaster. 1382 Wyclif Isa. xxxviii. 21 Thei shulden taken an hep of fyges, and..make an enplastre vpon the wounde. 1430 Lydg. Chron. Troy i. vii, Lectuary, emplaystre, or pocyon. a 1500 Med. Receipts in Rel. Ant. I. 54 Tak everfeme.. and tak mynt, and mak ane emplaster. 1564 Becon Gov. Virtue (1566) 50 b, Neither hearbe nor emplasture hathe healed them. 1578 Lyte Dodoens i. xeix. 141 Oyntments, oyles, or emplaisters. i6oi Holland Pliny xx. ix. If the said implaister be made with bean-meale. ^1720 W. Gibson Farrier's Dispens. xvi. (1734) 302 The whole is brought to the consistence of an Emplaster. 1751 Chambers Cycl., Emplaster, popularly called Plaster. 1809 Parkins Culpepper's Eng. Physic. Enlarged 361 The Greek emplaisters consisted of these ingredients. fig. 138. Wyclif Sel. Wks. III. 166 Enplaster of cursing for heele of monnis soule. 1563-87 Foxe A. M. (1596) 256/2 Minister some spiritual! implaster. 01656 Bp. Hall Rem. Wks. (1660) 79 Lay on the soveraign emplaisters of the .. mercy of our Blessed Redeemer.

2.

Used

to

render

L.

emplastrum:

see

EMPLASTRATION I. 1601 Holland Pliny II. 518 The manner of grafting by way of emplaistre or scutcheon.

Hence f em'plasterwise, adv., in the form of a plaster, as a plaster is applied. 1551 Turner Herbal i. C iij b, It [amomum] helpeth them that are bytten of scorpiones laid to emplaisterwise with basin. 1562 Ibid. ii. 13 b, The sede [of sonne flower] layd to emplasterwise, dryeth away hanginge wanes.

t em'plaster, v. Obs. Forms; 4-6 emplastre, 6- 7 emplaster, -aistre, -ayster; also 7 implaistre. [a. OF. emplastre-r, ad. L. emplastrdre, f. emplastr-um: see prec.] 1. a. To cover with a plaster; to plaster over; also^g. b. To spread on as a plaster.

C1386 Chaucer Merck. T. 1053 Als fair as ye his [Solomon’s] name emplastre, He was a lecchour and an ydolastre. 1541 R. Copland Guydon's FormuL Yijb, To emplayster the place with diaculum. 1585 H. Lloyd Treas. Health. Dij, Galbanum emplastered to the hed is of great efficacye. 1601 Holland Pliny xx. ix, Colewort is soveraigne good to be implaistred upon those tumors. 1633 tr. Bacon's Life & Death (1651) 50 Let the body be Emplaistred with Mastick.

2. A rendering of L. emplastrare to bud trees (misinterpreted in quot. 1656); see emplastrATION I. ri420 Pallad. on Husb. vi. 86 The pechys in this moone Emplastred are. 1656 Dugard Gate Laf Uni. §324.91 He.. besmears them, being implanted (which is to emplaster).

Hence em'plastering vhl. sb. c 1420 Pallad. on Husb. in. 350 Oon in the stok, on graflfeth under rynde; Emplastering an other dothe in kynde. Ibid. VII. 92 Emplasturyng accordeth with the tree That hath a juce of fattenesse in the rynde. 1577 B. Googe Heresbach's Husb. (1586) 72 Emplastring or inoculation. 1633 tr. Bacon's Life & Death (1651) 50 Let this Bath with the Emplaistring .. be renewed every fifth day.

emplasteration, var. emplastration, Ohs.

1922 Ibid. 4 Jan. 4 This creed, adoption of which begets the insanity of empleomania.. has had a stranglehold upon the whole Ibero-American Continent.

tem'plesance. Sc. Obs. rare—', [as if OF. *emplaisance f. *emplaisir: see empless. Cf. pleasance.] Pleasure. 1469 Sc. Actsjas. ///(1814) 94 It salbe leful to the kingis hienes to tak pe desisioun of ony actioune that cummis before him at his emplesance.

fempleseur. Sc. Obs. rare—'. [f. OF. *emplaisir: see next. Cf. pleasure.] = prec. 1560 Letter in M579 Lyly Euphues (Arb.) 113 Employe thyselfe to marcial feates. 1764 Reid Inquiry i. §2. (1785) 12 Castlebuilders employ themselves.. in romance. 1856 R. Vaughan Mystics (i860) I. 4 More of genius than common was required to teach a man how to employ himself.

c. Said of the object to which attention is given. 1665 Boyle Occas. Reft. (1675) 25 Occasional Reflections .. need not employ our hands. 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. IV. 78 Their young Succession all their Cares employ. 1704 Pope Summer 47 Then might my voice thy list’ning ears employ. 1732 Berkeley ^/cipAr. vii. § 17. Wks. 1871 II. 317 Speculations to employ our curiosity. 1774 Goldsmith Grecian Hist. II. 170 Mithridates, who so long employed the Roman armies. 1833 Ht. Martineau Manch. Strike i. 13 A Pan’s pipe employed his mouth. 1854 Tennyson Poems, To Rev. F. D. Maurice i. Come, when no graver cares employ. Mod. He needs something to employ his mind.

fS. = IMPLY in various senses: a. To entwine, enclose, encircle, b. To involve, include, contain, c. To imply, signify. Obs. 1528 Fox in Pocock Rec, Ref, 1. liii. 143 The causes., imployed so manifest justness. 1529 More Comf. agst. Trib. I. Wks. (1557) 1146/2 We must expresse or imploy a condicion therin. 1579 Poore Knight’s Palace B b, Crabbed Care, imployd with streeke of red. 1581 J. Bell Haddon’s

EMPLOYABILITY

191

answ. Osor. 31 Which wordes do employ nothyng els, but that, etc. 1605 Chapman All Fooles Plays 1873 I. 134 Fortunio welcome, And in that welcome I imploy your wiues. 1606 Holland Sueton. 129 Passed a decree, that the day on which hee beganne his Empire should be called Palilia, imploying thereby.. a second foundation of the Cittie. 01626 Bacon Max. & Uses Com. Law 31 Which interest of marriage went still imployed.. in every tenure called knight’s service.

116. To supply. Obs. rare. 1668 Child Dire. Trade (1694) 172 It employs the Nation for Its Consumption, with Pepper, Indigo, Calicoes.

employability (empbia'bilm). [f.

employab(le

a. + -ILITY.] The character or quality of being employable. 1926 A. M. Carr-Saunders Eugenics vii. 157 Categories (a) and (b) of employability account for 89 4 per cent, of the men and 88 2 per cent, of the women. 1927 Daily Tel. 28 June 7/2 The scheme.. is for the purpose of so improving the general employability of young unskilled men. 1959 B. WooTTON Social Sci. Social Path. vii. 223 Even the test of employability or of working efficiency does not serve to distinguish the sick from the sound.

(em'pbi3b(3)l), a. [f. employ v. + -able] That can be employed. a 1691 Boyle (J.), The objections made.. seem employable against this hypothesis. 1768-74 Tucker Lt. Nat. (1852) II. 97 The materia medica of morality, that is, the conceptions.. employable therein. 1808 Bentham Sc. Reform 69 Evidence alternately employable. 1840 Mill Diss. ^ Disc. I. 389 Means employable for important social ends.

employable

houses of their employers. 1878 Jevons Prim. Pol. Econ. 64 Employers are regarded as tyrants.

employing (em’pbnt)), vbl. sb. [f. employ v. + -ING*.] a. The action of the verb employ, fb. Employment, occupation (obs.). 1607 Hieron Wks. I. 245 For the lawfull imploying himselfe in the same. oi66sJ. Goodwin Filled w. the Spirit (1867) 261 Such an employing of the Spirit as that we have described. 1707 J. Stevens tr. Quevedo's Com. Wks. (1709) Dog 222 Whose whole Employing is like the Frogs, drinking and prating.

em'ploying,/)/)/. a.

[f. as prec. + -ing'*.] That employs, rare. 1887 Pall Mall G. 8 Nov. 13/2 The main qualifications which the employing incumbents of England demand.

employment (em'pbimant).

Also 7 em-, imploiement, -ploiment. [f. employ v. + -ment.] 1. a. The action or process of employing; the state of being employed. Also in phrase, f (man, etc.) of rrvucht little^ etc. employment. 1598 Florio Diet. Ep. Ded. 2 Your able emploiment of such servitours. 1602 Shaks. Ham. v. i. 77 The hand oHittle Imployment hath the daintier sense. 1665 G. Havers P. della Valle's Trav. E. India 82 Bartolomeo Pontobuoni, a good Painter, and also a man of much Employment. 1665 Boyle Occas. Refl. v. i. (1675) 299 So meritorious an Imploiment of her Greatness shew’d her to be worthy of it. 1689 Howe Ho. Com. Deb. 29 Nov. in Cobbett Pari. Hist. Eng. (1809) V. 463 By the Employment of Mr. Shales. 1702 Eng. Theophrast. 136 It is good to compound employments of both [young and old]. 1871 B. Stewart Heat 26 The superior limit of its accurate employment.

fb. The service (of a person). Phrase, at your employment. (Obs.)

Ilemployd (aplwaje). [a. F. employe, pa. pple. of employer to employ.] One who is employed. (In Fr. use chiefly applied to clerks; in Eng. use gen. to the persons employed for wages or salary by a house of business, or by government.) Hence also employee, a female employe. 1834 O. P. Q. in Spectator 22 Nov. 1112/2 An old bankrupt employe of the Empire. 1848 Mill Pol. Econ. i. ix. §2.(1876) 87 Connecting.. the interest of the employes with the.. success of the concern, i860 Gen. P. Thompson Audi Alt. III. cii. 4 No representations against a Government employe shall be entertained. 1862 Macm. Mag. July 257 All these employees should be women of character. 1879 Harlan Eyesight v. 64 In Italy, ail railroad employes are subjected to rigorous examination.

employed (sm'pbid), ppl. a. [f.

employ v.

+

-ED.] That is in (another’s) employ. Also ahsol.

with pi. sense, the wage-earning class. 1625 Bacon Ess. Travel. (Arb.) 523 The Secretaries, and Employd Men of Ambassadours. 1670 R. Coke Disc. Trade 55 You must do it as the imployed English please. 1818 Canning in Pari. Deb. 964 An employed informer, and consequently a spy. i860 Gen. P. Thompson Audi Alt. III. exxiv. 76 Attachment to the class of the employed, rather than of the employers.

Hence f em'ployedness, the condition being seriously busy. Obs. rare—^.

of

£71691 Boyle Wks. VI. 48 (R.) Rhetoric and care of language [are not] consistent with.. employedness.

employee (empbi'i:, em'pbii:). orig. U.S. [f. EMPLOY + -EE.]

a. A person employed for wages; = employe, which it has now virtually superseded, b. {nonce-use.) Something that is employed. 1850 L. H. Garrard Wah-To-Yah xii. 172 Horses and mules..were here herded, by their employees. 1854 Thoreau Walden iv. (1886) 113 They take me for an employee. 1879 Tourgee Fool's Err. xxxv. 241 Their commands are..obeyed by the..employees. 1886 A. Morgan in Lit. World (Boston, U.S.) 15 May 172/1 The supines of Shakespeare outnumber the employees of most authors. 1891 Pall Mall Gaz. 23 Oct. 2/1 To arrange a fortyeight hour week for the few binders, while retaining the fifty-four hours for the bulk of the employees. 1906 Daily Chron. 9 May 5/5 ‘I don’t like this affectation of “employee”, ’ observed Judge Addison, in the Southwark County Court. ‘I prefer English words.’ 1909 Ibid. 15 Dec. 1/3 The employee shares in the company are 50,000 of each. 1928 Britain's Industr. Future {Lib. Ind. Inq.) iii. 141 The stimulation of employee-ownership under schemes of profit-sharing and investment by employees. 1954 J. A. C. Brown Soc. Psychol. Industry iii. 84 The supervisors of high production groups were those who were.. more employeecentred.

In U.S. often written employe. 1904 N.Y. Times 26 Mar. i Receiver Taft called the employes of the failed firm into his office. 1923 Childs & Cornell Office Administr. 258 The training of a new employe. 1930 Chicago Daily News 25 Aug., The first annual picnic of employes of The Daily News and their families.

employer (em'pbra(r)). [f.

employ

d.

+ -er.]

a. One who employs. Const, of. b. spec. One who employs servants, workmen, etc. for wages. Much Ado v. ii. 31 Troilous the first itnploier of pandars. x668 Child Disc. Trade (T.), Owner or employer of much shipping. 1742 RICHARDSON Pamela IV. 103 To present her Imployer with Bills for 500/. 1780 Burke Econ. Ref. Wks. III. 286 Making it the interest of the contractor to exert.. skill for.. his employers. 1856 Froude Hist. Eng. (1858) I. i. 21 Agricultural labourers lived.. in the 1599 Shaks.

159s Shaks. John i. i. 198 At your employment; at your seruice sir. 1603 Breton Poste w. Packet, Love L. & Answ., I have devoted myself to your Imploiment.

2. a. That on which (one) is employed; business; occupation; a special errand or commission. *597 Shaks. 2 Hen. IV, i. ii. 85 Is there not wars? is there not imployment? 1598-Merry IF. v. v. i35Howwitmay be made a lacke-a-Lent when ’tis vpon ill imployment. 1607 in Ellis Orig. Lett. i. 246. III. 87 His emploiments, he saith, have been five times to Venice, once into Persia. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. ii. xxx. 181 The excuse of not finding employment. 1738-41 Warburton Div. Legat. iv. vi. (R.), Had Jesus.. made use of the great and learned for this employment. 1742 Richardson Pamela HI. 345 Your Sunday Imployments charm us all. 1760 Goldsm. Cit. W. cxix, I.. went from town to town, working when I could get employment. 1837 Sir F. Palgrave Merch. & Friar (1844) Ded. 2 The character acquired for me by my employments.

fb. The use or purpose to which a thing is devoted. Obs. *593 Shaks. Rich. II, i. i. 90 Lendings he hath detain’d for lewd employments. 1658 Whole Duty Man viii. § 11. (1687) 71 Making it less fit for any imployment.

c. A person’s regular occupation or business; a trade or profession. 1648 Gage West Ind. xv. (1655) 102 In their imployments they are.. Grasiers. 1674 Brevint Saul at Endor 72 They subdivide their Emploiements. 1839 Alison Hist. Europe (1849-50) I. ii. §66. 185 They.. proposed.. to let every man exercise any profession.. or carry on any employment.

t3. An official position in the public service; a ‘place’. Obs. 1647 Clarendon Hist. Reb. (1702) II. vi. 93 Restored to their Offices, and Employments. 1708 Swift Sacram. Test II. I. 128 The gentlemen of employments here make a very considerable number in the house of commons. 1734 tr. Rollin's Anc. Hist. (1827) II. ii. 59 He was made prsetor which seems to have been a very considerable employment. ^4. — implement. Obs. rare~'. 1612 Chapman Widdowes T. Wks. 1873 III. 76 My stay hath been prolonged With hunting obscure nooks for these emploiments [a crowbar and a halter]. 5. attrib. (in sense 2 c) employment agency^

agent J bureau, exchange, etc., professional intermediaries between applicants for work and employers. 1886 J. A. Porter New Stand. Guide Washington 204 Dondore and Morse, Attorneys.. also Employment Bureau. 1888 J2th Rep. Ohio Bur. Labour Statistics 263 ‘Employment agencies’.. have very appropriately been characterized as ‘a class who trade on the needs of the inexperienced searcher for honest employment’. 1903 Westm. Gaz. 23 Dec. 5/2 All the corporations have resolved to support the bakers, with the object of obtaining the complete suppression of the employment agencies [in Paris]. 1909 Lancet ii Sept. 830/1 (heading) An employment exchange for university undergraduates. 1921 Diet. Occup. Terms (1927) 771 Employment agent; employment bureau manager. 1945 Archit. Rev. XCVIII. 115/1 Mushroom employment-agencies and dubious correspondence courses play on the soldier’s anxiety and issue him promissory notes which will never be honoured. 1961 Technology Feb. 45/2 Youth employment service. Ibid., The company contact the youth employment officer. Ibid., It is probably this kind of situation that evoked from Miss Avent the words ‘employment exchange’.

emplume (empl(j)u:m), v. Also 7 implume. [a. Fr. emplumer, f. en- (see EN-) -I- plume plume, feather; cf. Sp. emplumar. It. impiumare.) f 1. trans. ? To ‘tar and feather’ (or the like). [So Sp. emplumar.^ Obs. 1631 Celestina v. 33 That gadding to and fro Bawd, who for her villanies.. hath been several times implumed. 2. To furnish with a plume, adorn as with

plumes. Also in ppl. a. em'plumed.

EMPOISONED 1623 Mabbe tr. Guzman tTAlfarache ii. 21 They might very well have put the implumed Hat vpon my head. 18.. Mrs. Browning Song Ragged Sch., Angelhoods, emplumed In such ringlets of pure glory.

emplunge, var. of implunge, Obs. emply, obs. var. of imply empocket, v. one’s pocket.

v.

Var. impocket

v.,

to put into

empoison (em'poizan, z(9)n), v. Forms; a. 4-6 enpoysen, -on, -oun, 5-6 enpoisen, -on, -oun, 4-8 empoyson, (7 empoysn), 6- empoison. )3. 6-7 impoyson, 6- impoison. [a. F. empoisonne-r, f. en(see EN-) + poison poison.] 11. trans. To administer poison to (a person); esp. to kill by poison. Also absol. Obs. a. c *350 Will. Palerne 4650 pei him bi-hi3t.. pat pei priueli wold enpoysoun f>e king, c 1386 Chaucer Monk’s T. 582 Empoysoned of thyn owene folk thou weere. 1480 Caxton Citron. Eng. Iviii. 42 King vortimer was enpoisened and dyed at london. 1523 Ld. Berners Froiss. I. ceexvi. 486 In mynde to haue enpoysoned the frenche kynge. 1604 Supplic. Masse Priests ii. To murder and empoyson our late Queene. 1667 Lond. Gaz. No. 206/2 The Grand Visier was by.. practises on his person empoisoned. p. 1530 Palsgr. 590/1, I impoyson. 1580 Apol. Pr. Orange in Phoenix (1721) I. 464 The Cardinal of Grandvelle impoison’d the last Maximilian. 1599 Warn. Faire Worn. 1. 44 Some.. tyrant to obtain a crown Stabs, hangs, impoisons. 1649 Alcoran 406 He permitted one of his dearest friends to .. die impoysoned. 1670 Brooks Wks. (1867) VI. 227 How many thousand children and servants are there impoisoned! *795 Barruel Hist. Clergy during French Rev. 55 Impoisoned by these pestilent men.

fb. transf. and fig. To kill as if by poison; to affect as poison does. Also absol. Obs. 1607 Shaks. Cor. v. vi. ii A man by his owne Aimes impoyson’d. 1626 Bacon Sylva §546 The Surfeit of them [mushromes] may suffocate and empoyson. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. in. vii. 119 This way a Basilisk may empoyson.

2. a. To put poison into (food or drink); to taint, render poisonous; to vitiate as with poison (the blood, animal tissues, etc.); to envenom. Also, to dip (an arrow) in poison. Now somewhat rhetorical. a. 1634 T. Johnson tr. Parey’s Chirurg. ii. (1678) 274 Neither.. could it [gunpowder] empoyson the bodies of such as are wounded. 1683 Salmon Doron Med. i. 155 When the Blood is empoysoned. 1725 SixiKtiE Jamaica ii. 6 Bowmen with their arrows most villanously empoyson’d. *825 Scott Talism. xxviii, The simoon empoisons the atmosphere. 1602 Warner Alb. Eng. x. Ivi. (1612) 246. 1686 Goad Celest. Bodies iii. iii. 472 Our Two Superiours are more to be suspected in impoisoning the Fountains, and corrupting our Mass of Bloud. X733 Cheyne Eng. Malady i. vi. §2 (1734) 50 All which must necessarily.. impoison.. their natural Juices.

fb. intr. for refl. 1622 Peacham Compl. Gentl. xviii. (1634) 215 Yet much lyeth in our power to keepe that fount from empoysoning.

Saflg. a. To taint with sin or error; to corrupt, vitiate, spoil. a. 1325 E.E. Allit. P. B. 242 J>at en-poysened alle peplez pat parted fro hem bo>>e. 1401 Pol. Poems (1859) II. 73 Prechen what 50U list, and with 3our privy pestilence enpoisoun the peple. 1534 Ld. Berners Gold. Bk. M. Aurel. (1546) Syiij, Riches, youthe, solitarines, and libertee ben nil. pestilences, that enpoison the prynce. 1599 Sandys Europae Spec. (1632) 18 Proceed on to empoyson their country. 1633 Bp. Hall Hard Texts 144 Thou art., empoysoned with the most deadly venome of wickednesse. 1738 Warburton Div. Legat. I. 292 The Deists.. empoison everything they touch. 1882 T. A. Pope tr. Capecelatro's Philip Neri I. 48 An undisciplined will might.. destroy or empoison all vigour of thought. §• *557 North Gueuara's Diall Pr. A. Ded., Any newe thinge that mighte.. impoison with erronious doctrine the pnsciences. C1612 Beaum. & Fl. Thierry ii. 454 She hath impoyson’d Your good opinion of me. 1656 Trapp Comm. Eph. V. 3 Citizens’ wives.. were.. impoisoned at stageplays.

b. To render virulent, envenom (feelings); to ‘poison’, embitter (a person’s mind) against. Also, to embitter, destroy all pleasure in (a means of enjoyment). a. 1646 J. Hall Horae Vac. 136 Jests empoysoned with bitternesse. 1806 Ann. Rev. IV. 774 Our social tables, which they conspire to empoison. 1832 Blackw. Mag. XXXII. 225 This distraction .. will empoison all your joys. 1879 J. Hawthorne Laugh. M. 75 His soul had been empoisoned against them and all the world. 1599 Shaks. Much Ado in. i. 86 One does not know How much an ill word may impoison liking.

empoisoned (em'poizsnd, -z(s)nd), ppl. a. prec. + -ED*.] 11. Killed by poison; poisoned. Obs.

[f.

161S G. Sandys Trav. iv. 307 The death of her impoisoned husband. 1616 Overbury’s Vis. in Harl. Misc. (Malh.) HI. 347 The pains of my impoison’d ghost.

2. Steeped in, impregnated or tainted with, poison; poisonous, envenomed, lit. and fig. 1598 Chapman Iliad viii. 365 Impoison’d strokes His wounding thunder shall imprint. 1601 Holland Pliny I. 144 These Arabians.. shooting their empoysoned arrowes, practise pyracie. 1678 Wanley Wond. Lit. World v. i. §71. 465/2 A pair of empoysoned Gloves, .procured his death. 01711 Ken Hymnotheo Poet. Wks. 1721 HI. 318 On Earth uncurs’d no Plants empoyson’d grew. 1799 Corry Sat. London (1803) 162 Assassins, ready to lift their empoisoned

stillettos against your hearts. 1883 J. Parker Tyne Ch. 145 The serpent.. shows its empoisoned fang.

empoisoner (em'p3iz3n9(r)), Obs. or arch. [f. as prec. + -ER.] One who empoisons. C1386 Chaucer Pard. T. 566 Thus ended..the false empoysonere. a 1577 Sir T. Smith Commw. Eng. (1609) 96 Impoysoners.. shall bee boyled to the death. 1600 O. E. Repl. Libel i. v. 99 The father of all.. murderers, empoisoners, and enemies to this state. 1622 Bacon Hen. VII, 2 The Impoisoner of his wife. 1650 Weldon Crt. Jas. I (1651) 65 They preferred Empoysoners to be servants to Sir Gervase Elwayes. 1829 Landor Imag. Conv. (1846) II. 234 We live among.. empoisoners. fig- 1579 Tomson Calvin's Serm. Tim. 810/2 A. .wicked man that goeth about to sowe peruerse doctrine.. what is hee els, but an impoisoner? 1653 Gauden Hierasp. 412 The divels Empericks ^nd empoisoners.

t em'poisoness. Obs. rare. [f. empoison-er; cf. murderess.'^ A female empoisoner. 1628 tr. Matthieu's Powerfvll Favorite, Martina, that famous sorceresse and empoysonnesse.

em'poisoning, vbL sb. [f. as prec. + -ing^.] The action of the vb. empoison, C1374 Chaucer Boeth. i. iii. 206 J^e empoysenyng of Socrates. 1494 Fabyan Chron. I. clvii, By the impoysonynge of his own wyfe. ibid. vii. 322 He dyed at Swynyshede.. by the enpoysonynge of a munke of the same house. 1527 Andrew Brunstvyke's Distyll. Waters Aiijb, Columbyne water..is good for impoysyning. £21569 Kingesmyll Confl. Satan (1578) 7 The deedes of the flesh are.. impoisonings. 1678 Wanley Wond. Lit. World v. ii. §80. 472/2 He bribed the Bishop of Rome to the empoysoning of his brother Zemes. 1681 Roxb. Bal. (1883) IV. 655 From secret Impoysonings.. nos, Domine.

em'poisoning, ppl. a. [f. as prec. + -ing’“.] That empoisons, kills by poison, or renders poisonous. 1598 Ord.for Prayer in Liturg. Serv. Q. Eliz. (1847) 682 The sacred oil., is a sovereign Antidote.. against.. empoisoning confections. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. {1650) III. xxviii. 151 Nor are all Snakes of such empoisoning qualities. 1653 Urquhart Rabelais ii. xv. The smell..is so pestiferous and impoisoning. 1706 Watts Horse Lyr. III. 258 The impoisoning taint O’erspreads the building.

empoisonment (em'poizsnmsnt). Also 7-8 impoisonment. [f. as prec, + -ment.] 1. The administration of poison to a person; the fact of being poisoned, arch, or Obs. 1569 R. Androse tr. Alexis' Seer. iv. iii. 13 A more excellent remedie against empoysonments [printed empoysments]. 1600 O. E. Repl. Libel i. v. 104 The apostles neuer taught.. empoisonment of princes. 1653 A. Wilson jfas. I, 84, I have found in the Book of God, examples of all other offences, but not any one of an Impoysonment. 1727 Swift Further Acc. E. Curll III. i. 154 The manner of Mr. Curll’s impoisonment. 1815 Month. Mag. XXXIX. 309 Sudden death, so like an empoisonment. 1824 Landor Imag. Conv. Wks. 1846 I. xii. 49 You.. rarely find an empoisonment.. committed in England for policy.

2. The action of tainting or impregnating with poison. Alsoyig. 1626 Bacon Sylva §915 And these Empoisonments of air are the more dangerous in meetings of people. 1886 Farrar Westm. Serm. in Libr. Mag. (N.Y.) 16 Oct. 595 His bad example is a spiritual empoisonment.

empolder (em'psuldsr), v. [f. em- i b + polderL] trans. To make a polder of; to reclaim from the sea. Cf. impolder v. So em'poldered ppl. a. 1889 Cent. Diet., Empoldered, reclaimed and brought into the condition of a polder; brought under cultivation. 1922 Blaekw. Mag. July 14/2 A few acres have been cleared and empoldered with mud-dams. 1951 New Biol. XI. 77 By 1940 flood-fallowing experiments had been begun. An area of 100 acres..was empoldered (i.e. surrounded by earth walls).

emporetic (empD'retik), a. Antiq. [ad. L. emporeticus (emporetica charta Pliny H.N. xiii. xii), a. Gr. *€[ji7Top7jTiK6sj f. *ifi'iTop€etv to trade, f. tpTTopos merchant.] Pertaining to trade. emporetic paper: a coarse kind of papyrus used for wrapping up parcels. (Quincy Lex. Phys.Med. 1719 wrongly explains this as ‘paper made soft and porous, such as is used to filter with’.) [1662 Fuller Worthies i. 144 Imperial, Royal, Cardinal, and so downwards to that course Paper called Emporetica.] 1851 Aneient Fishing in Fraser's Mag. XLIII. 264 The Emporetic, or shop-paper.. serving for wrapping up groceries, fruit, etc.

Hence tempo'retical e hsfde ben Emperice. 1297 R. Glouc. (1725) 440 He louede hyr, vor heo was eyr & hey emperesse. Ibid. 474 The nexte 3er ther after the Amperesse Mold Wende out of this Hue. c 1350 Will. Palerne 5343 And Melion.. was crouned emperice. 1480 Caxton Chron. Eng. VII. (1520) 79 b/1 Wyllyam., helde warre agaynst Maude the empresse. 1559 Bp. Scot in Strype Ann. Ref. I. ii. App. vii. 417 The emperesse Theodora that then was. 1704 Addison Italy (1722) 236 Among the Emperesses. a 1745 Swift Wks. (1768) IV. 301 The earl of Chester, .commanded there for the empress. 1836 Penny Cycl. V. 132/2 Napoleon,, crowned his wife as empress. 1888 Times No. 32,573. 7/4 The Queen and the Empress Frederick were compelled to delay their departure from the Royal borough. Mod. In 1876 Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.

2. A female potentate exercising supreme or absolute power. Chiefly transf. and fig. £21300 Cursor M. 20801 Of heuen and erth..scho es quene, Bath imperice and heind leuedi. ri374 Chaucer Boeth. (1868) 109 For felonie is emperisse and flowrel? ful of rycchesse. c 1460 Towneley Myst. 171 Thi moder is of helle emprise. 1588 Shaks. Tit. A. n. iii. 40 Harke Tamora, the Empresse of my Soule. 1634 Habington Castara 30 The pale-faced Empresse of the night Lent in her chaste increase her borrowed light. 1682 Dryden Mac FI. 87 Now Empress Fame had publisht the renown Of Shadwells coronation. 1797 Mrs. Radcliffe Italian xii. Who..seemed the empress of the scene. 1832 Blaekw. Mag. Feb. 353/1 The British capital has been called.. the empress of all cities. 1844 Kinglake Ebthen v. (1878) 73 Yonder empress throned at the window of that humblest mud cottage.

3. Comb. a. appositive. u 1661 Holyday Juvenal 93 Before his bed she chose a mat that stunk. And wore a night-hood too, an empress-punk! 1705 in Land. Gaz. No. 4156/1 The Earl of Sunderland., had Audience.. of the Empress-Dowager. 1711 Ibid. 4875/2 His Excellency deliver’d her Majesty’s Credentials to the Empress-Regent.

b. empress-cloth: a woollen fabric differing from merino chiefly in not being twilled. (App. not known as a trade term in England.) 1884 in Knight Amer. Mech. Diet.: and in later Diets.

t'empress, sb.^ Obs. Forms: 6 emprese, 7 empresse, empressa. See also impress sb.^, IMPRESA. [A var. of impress sb.^, ad. It. impresa of same meaning. The form with em- may be ad. the equivalent Sp. empresa, and is therefore treated separately.]

EMPRESS

empting

193

A motto or significant device; see impress sb.'^ Also attrib. 1593 Nashe Christ’s T, 19 b, Let.. this for an Emprese be engrauen. 1603 Drayton Baron's Wars vi. 43 Emblems, Empressas, Hirogliphiques. i6io Holland Camden’s Brit. 1. 287 A blew garter, carrying this Empresse.. Hony soit qui Maly pense. 1688 R. Holme Armoury ui. 146/2 Emblem or Empress work is drawing Faces from the Life.

fem'press, v. Obs. Forms; 4 enprece, -presse, 4-5 empresse. See also impress v. [a. OF. empresse-r, emprecier, f. en- (see en-) + presser to PRESS.] trans. and absol. To subject to pressure, press, oppress. Also intr. to crowd, press eagerly into. c 1325 E.E. Allit. P. C. 43 And pere as pouert enpresses, paj mon pyne pynk. Ibid. 528 Pouerte me enprecea & paynez inno3e. C1386 Chaucer Chan. Yem. Prol. & T. 51S Such feendly thoughtes in his hert empresse. c 1400 Rom. Rose 3691 No man.. ne may.. of the reisins have the wyne Til grapes.. Be sore empressid. 1475 Bk. Noblesse 4 Every man in hym silf let the passions of dolours be .. empressid into vyfnes.

j|empresse (aprese), a. [Fr., pa. pple. of empressety f. em~ = en~ + presser press v.^] Eager, zealous. 1837 JCooper Recoil. Eur, II. ii. 42 All the French women were exceedingly empressees in their manner towards the Great Unknown. 1878 L. W. M. Lockhart Mine is Thine II. xvii. 23 Be low, be depressed, but, at the right moment, empresse and earnest. 1906 W. De Morgan Vance xxxiii. 325 ‘Was he very empresse in his manner?^ I asked. ‘Spooney, do you mean?’

Ilempressement (apresmd). [Fr.; f. empresser to urge, s'empresser to be eager.] Animated display of cordiality. 1749 Chesterf. Lett. No. 202 (1792) II. 262 You must do it..with alacrity and empressement. 1823 Byron xi. xlii, Juan was received with much ‘empressement’ [rimed with chessman]. 1866 Howells Venet. Life v. 73 She acknowledges the compliment with life-like empressement.

empressite ('empnsait). Min. [f. the name of the Josephine mine, where it was first found: see A telluride of silver, of disputed composition (see quots.).

C1340 Cursor M. 6528 )?ei dud a3eynes goddes emprise. 1393 Gower Conf. HI. 281 And eke I not for what emprise I shulde assote upon a nonne.

2. abstr. Chivalric enterprise, martial prowess. 01300 Cursor M. 8183 (Cott.) Knight he was o gret empris. 01400 Octouian 1060 Ley on strokes with good empryse. C1500 Lancelot 3455 The worschip of knychthed and empryss. 1667 Milton P.L. xi. 642 Giants of mightie Bone, and bould emprise. 1782 Han. More David i. 27 Let not thy youth be dazzled.. With deeds of bold emprise. 1812 Byron Ch. Har. ii. xxxviii, He.. whose.. foes Shrunk from his deeds of chivalrous emprize. 1863 Longf. Wayside Inn i. Interl. 37 The deeds of high emprise, I sing!

157s Turbervile Bk. Venerie 242 When he is hunted and doth first leave the herde we say that he is syngled or emprymed. 1656 in Blount. 1775 in Ash.

emprint, obs. form of

imprint sb. and v.

fc. Pre-occupation, absorption of thought. Obs.

emptier ('empm(r)).

c 1500 Lancelot 389 The v'anyteis of slep .. causith of sum maner influens, Empriss of thoght, ore superfleuytee.

1605 Timme Quersit. ii. vi. 129 In the nature of balsaniick salt thou hast..a purger, and an universal emptier. 1611 Bible Nahum ii. 2 The emptiers have emptied them out, and marred their vine branches. 1812 H. Macneill Poet. Wks. II. 77 Dear sober emptyers of the glass. 1879 BaringGould Germany II. 269 The..cesspool-emptiers are town officials.

t3. Renown, glory, distinction. Obs. ri43o Syr Gener. (Roxb.) 1937 This goode ladie of high emprise Did him kisse in herti wise, c 1500 Lancelot 269 He hath the worschip and emprise.

fb. Value, estimation. Obs. [? Influenced by PRICE.] 1375 Barbour Bruce x. 507 The Erll.. hye Enpriss Set ay apon Souerane bounte. 1393 Gower Conf. III. 147 But Manachaz saith other wise, That wine is of the more emprise.

t4. ? Spoil, prey. Obs. 01400 Octouian empryse.

769

FIorent..tok

of

foweles

greet

tem'prise, v, Obs. Also 5 en-, empryse.

a. 4-5 empryse, (4 emperise), 5 emprys, enprise, ymprise, enpriss, 7 empties, 4- emprise, -ize. 4 enpress, em-, imprese, 4-6 imprease. [a. OF. emprise, emprinse, com. Romanic = Pr. empreza, Sp. empresa, It. impresa:—late L. *imprensa, f. ppl. stem of *imprendere (in OF. emprendre) to take in hand, f. in- in + prehendere to take. The 17th c. forms em-, imprese appear to be influenced by Sp. or It.; cf. empress sb., impress sb.'^ which are ultimately the same word; the earlier enpress is difficult to explain. See also APRISE.]

1. An undertaking, enterprise; esp. one of an adventurous or chivalrous nature. a 1300 Cursor M. 9802 Man to dei, godd for to rise, Mo^t nan tak elles pis emprise. 1375 Barbour Bruce iii. 276 To bryng All thar enpress to gud ending. C1386 Chaucer Knight's T. 1682 The lord considered that it were destruccioun to gentil blood to fighten in this emprise. 1423 Jas. I. Kingis Quair ii. i. Nature first begyneth her enprise. 1600 Fairfax Tasso ii. Ixxvii, If you atchieue renowne by this empties. 1600 Holland Livy xxiii. xviii. 486 Annibal for very shame was faine to give over his imprease. 1725-6 Pope Udyss. iv. 602 Ambushed we lie, and wait the bold emprise. 1823 Scott Romance (1874) 86 The., most extravagant emprises of the heroes of romance. 1871 Browning Pr. Hohenst. 773 Dare first The great emprise.

fb. A purpose, intent. Obs.

[f. empty v. -f -erL] He

who or that which empties.

emptily ('smptili),

[f. empty a, + -ly^.] In

an empty manner. 1591 Percivall Sp. Diet., Vaziamente, emptily. 1611-84 Leighton in Spurgeon Treas. Dav. Ps. xxxix. 4 What we know emptily and barely, we may know spiritually and fruitfully. 1653 Manton Exp. James i. 19 We do not vainly and emptily talk of the things of God. 1871 R. Ellis Catullus Ixiv. 142 A light wind emptily fleeting.

[f. prec. sb.] trans. To undertake, take on oneself.

emptiness ('emptinis).

C1386 Chaucer Pers. T. If 329 Presumpcioun is whan a man undertakith and emprisith that him oughte not to do. 1485 Caxton Chas. Gt. Pref. 3, 1 haue enprysed.. to reduce this sayd book in to our englysshe. 1490-Eneydos 3, I knowleche my selfe ignorant of connynge to enpryse on me so hie and noble a werke. 1590 Three Lords Ladies Lond. in Hazl. Dodsley VI. 376 Each in honour of his mistress. Hath here empris’d the challenge of his right. 01608 Sackville Dk. Buckingham Iviii. (D.), Thereto trusting I emprised the same.

empty. 1. gen. The condition of being void of contents, of not being filled, furnished, or inhabited.

Hence em'prising adventurous.

ppl.

a.,

enterprising,

emprison, obs. form of imprison. emproper, appropriate.

var.

improper

v.

Obs.

to

empropriate, var. of impropriate. emprosthotonic (em,prt)s03u'tDnik), a. Path, rare. [ad. Gr. ifittpoadoToviK-o; suffering from tetanic procurvation.] Of or characterized by emprosthotonos. 1883 Lauder Brunton in Nature 15 Mar. 468 The convulsions change their character and become emprosthotonic. II emprosthotonos

(emprns'BotsnDs).

Path.

stretching.] ‘A condition in tetanus in which the body is drawn forwards by excessive action of the anterior muscles of the trunk’ (Syd. Soc.

Lex.). 1657 Phys. Diet., Emprostotonos, a kind of cramp. 1685 T. Cooke Marrow of Chirurg. (ed. 4) 498 When the Body, Head, and Neck is drawn forwards, called Emprosthotonos. 1775 Mackenzie, in Phil. Trans. LXVH. 7 A person in the emprosthotonos. 1871 Sir T. Watson Lect. Physic (ed. 5) I. 559 The only example of emprosthotonos which I ever saw.

emprove, -ment, obs. f. improve, -ment. fempse, a. Obs. rare~^. ? Desert, uninhabited.

emprise, emprize (sm’praiz), sb. arch. Forms;

'emptied,/>p/. a. [f.

1632 W. Lithgow Totall Discourse 226 Water to.. fill our emptied bottles. 1667 Boyle in Phil. Trans. II. 425 The.. emptied Receiver.

[mod.L., a. Gr. ifurpoadoTovos drawn forward and stiffened, f. epTrpoadev before + tovos a

separate a deer from the rest of the herd.

'emptening, vbl. sb. Obs.

= emptying vbl. sb. 1561 Hollybush Horn. Apoth. 20 b, Great voyding and emptening of the body is, etc. t

C1386 Chaucer Pers. T. If 617 Him thinkith it is so gret emprise for to undertake to doon werkes of goodnes. 1393 Gower Conf. III. 252 It is..of none emprise To speke a word.

fem'pride, v. Obs. rare. In 5 enpride, enpryde.

fem'prime, v. Obs. In 6 empryme. trans. To

1606 Warner Alb. Eng. xiv. To Rdr., Muse, that.. Emptedst poore wit poore winde to win. 1623 Cockeram, Extercorate, to empt, or carry out dung.

empty zj. + -ed.] That has been exhausted of its contents.

a 1844 Campbell Lines Departure Emigrants, Go forth and prosper then, emprising band.

e 2i3t>e of po greate blisse. 1603 Shaks. Meas. for M. ii. iv. 2 Heauen hath my empty words. 1667 Milton P.L. iii. 454 Find Fit retribution, emptie as thir deeds. 1674 Brevint Saul at Endor 230 It is but an emty Phantome. 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg, iv. 710 All his Hopes exhal’d in empty Smoke. 1711 Steele Spect. No. 79 f9 All these Acts are but empty Shows. 1718 Freethinker No. 60. 34 It is not an empty Title.. but a Right. 1728 Pope Dune. i. 54 Weighs.. solid pudding against empty praise, a 1764 Lloyd Whim Poet. Wks. 1774 II. 166 Wrangling wits.. quarrel for an empty name. 1813 Shelley Q. Mab iv, Words.. Empty and vain as his own coreless heart. 1837 Thirlwall Greece IV. xxxii. 229 Nor were these mere empty professions. 1884 Sat, Rev. 14 June 766/1 Frightened by the emptiest of bugbears.

B. sb. Comm. An empty truck or wagon; an empty box, cask, etc. which has contained goods; an empty cab or taxi; an empty house or premises; an empty bottle, container, etc. colloq. 1865 Morn. Star i Feb., I was ordered.. to.. send the empties off first. 1879 F. H. Grundy Pictures of Past vi. 166 ‘Well,’ says Leigh Hunt, ‘I found him [sc. a cabman] returning from Hammersmith, and he said as an empty he would take me for half-fare.’ 1881 Daily News 22. Aug. 3/2 George Whitehead, a dealer in empties at Mile-end New¬ town. 1884 Harper's Mag. May 874/2 They are.. made into a long train in exchange for ‘empties’. 190S Westm. Gaz. 23 Aug. 8/2 Property owners throughout the various suburbs of London are making loud complaint of the steady increase in the proportion of ‘empties’. 19^4 Evening Post (Wellington, N.Z.) 24 Feb. 4 Get as many ‘empties’ [ = bottles] as possible. 1924 Ladies’ Home Jrnl. June 100 He delivers it by the case and calls for the empties. 1938 G. Greene Brighton Rock vii. i. 277 A cupboard stood open full of empties. 1961 L. van der Post Heart of Hunter i. v. 82 Some fuel-drums lay in a neat line.. all empties.

C. attrih. and Comb, as (parasynthetic adjs.), empty-basketed, -bellied, -Jisted, -Headed, -hearted, -pannelled (in Falconry), -pated, -skulled, -stomached, -vaulted', also emptyhanded. empty-cell used attrib. (see esp. quot. 1946); empty nester chiefly U.S., either member of a couple whose children have grown up and left home (freq, in pl.)\ hence empty nest, a household in which only the parents now remain; also applied attrib., as empty-nest syndrome, to depression allegedly affecting women whose children have left home; empty word Linguistics, a word which has no meaning in itself but serves a grammatical function, e.g. at, but, for, etc. 1883 Harper's Mag. Apr. 702/2 Fisher people.. coming back •empty-basketed. 1836-48 B. D. Walsh Aristoph. Knights I. iii. You’ve cut •Empty-bellied to the Town-hall. 1917 A. J. Wallis-Tayler Preservation of Wood vii. 199 This process [5c. the Rueping or Riiping Process] is on what is known as the •empty cell treatment. 1946 Cartwright & Findlay Decay of Timber xiii. 260 It is usual to treat poles and timber for building use by the empty cell process, by means of which the walls of cells of the wood are left coated with a layer of preservative, but the cavities are empty. 1968 W. E. Willis Timber iv. 86 The two empty cell methods are known as the Rueping and Lawry processes. 1664 H. More Myst. Iniq. xv. 52 Fear of the Saints displeasure, if they approach •empty-fisted. 1650 B. Discollim. 17 •Emptyheaded, Fiddle-brain’d Men. 1873 Symonds Grk. Poets iii. 86 Trample on the empty-headed rabble. 1605 Shaks. Lear I. i. 155 Nor are those •empty-hearted, whose low sounds Reuerbe no hollownesse. 1842 Manning Serm. viii. (1848) I. 109 Empty-hearted followers of this vain-glorious world. 1962 Economist 15 Dec. 1131/2 Couples in the 45-65 age bracket—the so-called ‘•empty nesters’, whose children have grown up and who have become bored with their large houses. 1972 Ladies' Home Jrnl. Feb. 124/4 Even the ‘empty nest’ syndrome hasn’t seemed to hit her. She seems genuinely delighted by both of her daughters’ marriages. *973 R' Times 21 Jan. x. 24/5 Not all empty-nest women have high-salaried husbands, but all feel less ‘squoze’ once their sons and daughters have addresses of their own. 1976 Globe ^ Mail (Toronto) 27 Aug. 12/4 Therapists who deal with parents during this stage of life have come to view the trivial-sounding ‘empty nest’ as a family crisis potentially as profound as divorce. 1980 Sunday Times 30 Mar. 50 Builders.. have ignored an increasingly important category of housebuyer—the busy, well-off executive couple who either have no children or whose children have grown up and left. Americans call them ‘empty nesters*. 1575 Turberv. Falconrie 313 Let hir stande •emptiepanneld upon the same untill night. 1820 Scott Abbot xxxiii. There are •empty-pated coxcombs at each comer. 1863 Mrs. C. Clarke Shaks. Char. vi. 159 Quackery may, and does succeed for a season..with the •empty-skulled. 1527 Andrew Brunswyke's Distyll. Waters Aij, Them that be •empty-stomaked thrughe overmoche hete of the stomake. 1861 Du Chaillu Equat. Afr. vi. 58 The only emptystomached individual of the company. 1634 Milton Comus 249 They float.. through the •empty-vaulted night. 1892 H. Sweet New Eng. Gram. I. 22. §58 When a form-word is entirely devoid of meaning, we may call it an *empty word, as opposed to full words such as earth and round. 1953 W. J. Entwistle Aspects of Lang. x. 298 Chinese.. makes considerable use of ‘empty words’, that is of auxiliaries in the broad sense of the term, which includes prepositions as well as subordinate members of the verbal complex. 1968 P. Kratochvil Chinese Lang. Today iv. 117 Traditional Chinese linguists considered practically all minimal forms, beside what would be called nouns, as ‘empty words*.

empty (’empti), v. Forms: [i se-abmtisian], 6-7 emptie, 6- empty, [f. empty a.; the form with prefix ge- appears in OE.; subsequently the

EMPTY-HANDED word does not appear in our quots. before i6th c. Cf. EMPT.] 1. trans. To make empty; to pour out, draw off, or remove the contents of (anything); to clear (a house, etc.) of furniture or of inmates. [^1000 i^^LFRic Horn. (Xh.) I. 290 [Arius] w£es swa geaemtosod on his innoOe swa swa he waes aer on his seleafan.] X555 Eden Decades W. Ind. u. i. (Arb.) no They had emptied theyr quyuers. 1603 Carew Cornwall 20 b, An ill.. saved Harvest soon emptieth their old store. 1633 Conway in Ellis Orig. Lett. i. 292 III. 157 Bleeding, [I will] emptie my vaynes. 1667 Milton P.L. i. 633 These puissant Legions, whose exile Hath emptied Heav’n. 1697 Dryden Virg. Georg, iv. 493 Empty the woolly Rack, and fill the Reel. 1763 J. Brown Poetry Sf Mus. iii. 31 The Kettle is in Part empty’d in the Morning. 1791 Cowper Iliadxviii. 356 All our houses.. Stand emptied of their hidden treasures. 1798 Canning New Morality 40 in Anti-Jacobin 9 July (1852) 202 Empty all thy quiver on the foe.

195 2. concr. a. What is emptied out of any vessel; also fig. b. pi. Yeast {obs. exc. U.S. as an artificial spelling for emptins; see empting).

i684_tr. Bonet’s Merc. Compit. v. 141 This Sinus is especially considerable in tapping Empyick persons.

1650 B. Discollim. 23 A few Brewers emptyings. 1813 Nelson II. 36 Galley slaves, the emptying of the jails, and banditti, i860 Emerson Cond. Life, Power Wks. (Bohn) II. 333 If we will make bread, we must have.. yeast, emptyings.

-AL*.] = prec. 1758 J. S. Le Dran's Observ. Surg. 111 The weight of the Fluid in an empyecal [«c] Person.

Southey

empurple (em'p3;p(3)l), v. Also 7 enpurple, 6 inpurple, 7-8 impurple. [f. en- + purple.] trans. To make purple; to redden.

c. To drain away, pour oflF, clear out (the contents of anything). Also^g.

1590 Spenser F.Q. hi. vii. 17 Wildings., whose sides empurpled were with smyling red. 1633 Drumm. of Hawth. Cypress Grove Wks. (1711) 119 The violets.. impurple not the winter, c 1630-Poems Wks.fiyiijsO sacred blush, enpurpling cheeks pure skies With crimson wings. 1667 Milton P.L. iii. 364 The bright Pavement impurpl’d with Celestial Roses smil’d. 1755 Johnson, Empurple. 1773 Sir W. Jones Laura 62 The rising flowers impurpled every dale. 1804 J. Grahame Sabbath 489 That setting sun Is now empurpling Scotland’s mountain tops. 18.. Mrs. Browning Lam. for Adonis v. The blood ran away And empurpled the thigh. 1884 Hunter & Whyte My Ducats & Dau. i. (1885) 2 A dye-work.. daily empurpled the stream. b. To robe or clothe in purple, rare. 1598 Florio, Porporare, to impurple or inroabe with scarlet. 1868 Beecher Serm. Crowned Suffering, The ribald soldiery.. empurple him [Christ].

1578 T. N. tr. Conq. IV. India 31 That with two pumpes they might not emptie the water. 1823 Lamb Elia, Ser. ii. xxiii. (1865) 396 To perceive all goodness emptied out of him.

empurpled (em’p3:p(3)ld), ppl. a. [f. prec. -I-edL] That is made or turned purple; reddened.

b. To transfer the whole contents of (a vessel, etc.) to another receptacle. Const, ftn, into, upon. Also fig. 1598 Shaks. Merry W. iii. iii. 15 Empty it in the muddie ditch. 1833 Ht. Martineau Cinnamon & Pearls v. 90 Markets into which we can empty our warehouses. 1865 Dickens Mut. Fr. I. 122 Bob carried..one of those iron models of sugar-loaf hats.. into which he emptied the jug.

2. To unburden, discharge, clear of {with obs.) certain specified contents. Chiefly transf. and fig1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 103 Pryde.. fylleth a man or woman full of.. vaynglory.. but mekenes emptyeth them. 1555 Eden Decades W. Ind. Pref. (Arb.) 55 Whether the sandes of the ryuers.. bee so emptied with golde. 1593 Hooker Pol. iv. x. (1611) 147 Emptying the Church of euery such rite and ceremony, a 1628 Preston New Covt. (1634) 397 The spirit of bondage.. empties a man of all righteousness. 1667 Milton P.L. iii. 731 The neighbouring Moon With borrowd light her countenance triform Hence fills and empties. 1850 Tennyson In Mem. VIII. ii, And all The chambers emptied of delight. 1874 Morley Compromise (1886) 140 Formularies, which he has first to empty of all definite.. significance.

3. reft. Of persons; Chiefly said of Christ, after Gr. eKevcoae iainov (A. V. ‘made himself of no reputation’) Phil. ii. 7. Formerly also, to exhaust all one’s resources. 1579 Fulke Heskins' Pari. 114 He emptied himselfe.. taking the shape of a seruant. 1651 N. Bacon Hist. Disc. Ivii. 170 But emptied themselves to the utmost for his delivery, 1658 Whole Duty Man xvii, §11. 142 Christ emptied himself of all..glory and greatness, 1741 Watts Improv. Mind (1801) 355 Jesus the mediator emptied himself for our sakes. 1882 Farrar Early Chr. I. 380 He.. emptied Himself of His glory.. as the., co-equal Son.

4. refl. Of a river, etc.: To discharge itself into another river, the sea, etc; said also of a blood¬ vessel. 1555 Eden Decades W. Ind. (Arb.) 284 A branche of Nilus which emptieth it selfe in owre sea. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. ii. xxix. 173 The Veins,.empty themselves into the Heart, 1725 De Foe Voy. round World (1840) 306 A large river empties itself into this bay. i860 Tyndall Glac. i. 34 The river., empties itself into the lake.

b. intr. for refl. Now chiefly in U.S. is heven is cald heven empiry. 1520 Myrr, our Ladye 302 Heuen empyre. 1549 Comp!. Scot. 48 The hauyn empire. 1594 Dickenson Arishas (1878) 30 His heroique spirit.. hath ascended to the Empyre heaven.

empyreal (em'pinal, empi'riial), a.

Forms: 5 imperyal, 7 empyreall, emperial, imperial(l, 7-8 empyrial(l, 6- empyreal, [f. Med.L. empyreus, empyraeus, f. Gr. ejurrup-os fiery) -h -alL] 1. Of or pertaining to the empyrean or highest heaven. Also fig.

1481 Caxton Myrr. iii. xxxii. 184 And that is called the heuen Imperyal.

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